Journal Information
EISSN : 2807-2618
Published by: Narra T (10.52225)
Total articles ≅ 29
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, Hendra Wahyuni, , Aditya Wirawan, Mohammad N. Uddin, Mohamad Yusup
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
Indonesia is among the top three countries globally with the highest tuberculosis burden. During the past decades, Indonesian health authorities have struggled to improve tuberculosis care quality in health care facilities by optimizing the regulation and strengthening the private sector contributions. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hardly affected the Indonesian health care system, including the National Tuberculosis Control Program. While the end of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia is uncertain, the measure to control tuberculosis must not be weakened. Early identification and measurement of the problem size are essential to decide the most appropriate approach to maintain the sustainability of National Tuberculosis Control Program, particularly in health care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article points out the possible threats to the sustainability of TB care in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic, including some approaches to overcome those problems.
, , , Khan Sharun, Muhammad Iqhrammullah, Deepak Chandran, Sukamto S. Mamada, Dina E. Sallam, , , et al.
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
The emergence of acute, severe non hepA–E hepatitis of unknown etiology (ASHUE) has attracted global concern owing to the very young age of the patients and its unknown etiology. Although this condition has been linked to several possible causes, including viral infection, drugs and/or toxin exposure, the exact cause remains unknown; this makes treatment recommendation very difficult. In this review, we summarize recent updates on the clinical manifestations, complemented with laboratory results, case numbers with the global distribution and other epidemiological characteristics, and the possible etiologies. We also provide the proposed actions that could be undertaken to control and prevent further spread of this hepatitis. Since many etiological and pathological aspects of the acute non hepA–E hepatitis remain unclear, further research is needed to minimize the severe impact of this disease.
, Saiful Hadi, Fenny Harrika, Aamir Shehzad
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological tract between the bronchial tree and the pleural space, which can be life-threatening due to tension pneumothorax. It is a rare complication in tuberculosis cases with highly variable in clinical manifestations and persistent air leaks which might lead to complications such as empyema. Herein, we present a tuberculosis and diabetic patient complicated with giant bronchopleural fistula and empyema. A 48-year-old man presented with shortness of breath for two weeks and cough with phlegm for two months. The patient was a smoker with severe Brinkman Index and diabetes. Physical examination revealed hyper resonant percussion and vesicular diminished on the left hemithorax. Laboratory results indicated the patient had anemia, leukocytosis, and hypoalbuminemia. GeneXpert sputum confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and chest X-ray indicated a collapsed left lung. The patient was diagnosed with left secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, pulmonary tuberculosis, and diabetes. The patient was treated with chest tube drainage and anti-tuberculosis drugs. There was no improvement based on serial chest X-ray, and empyema appeared from the chest tube. CT-scan showed tuberculosis lesion, the collapsed of the left lung and fistula in segments 7-8 inferior lobe. Exploratory thoracostomy was performed, in which a giant bronchopleural fistula was detected and then repaired with BioGlue surgical adhesive. Unfortunately, the thoracostomy led to extensive subcutaneous emphysema and was treated by cervical mediastinotomy. The drainage was unable to be removed, and the patient was discharged with Heimlich-type drainage valves on day 28 of treatment. The empyema fluid was cultured and revealed Staphylococcus haemolyticus. This case highlights that tuberculosis could cause a bronchopleural fistula and empyema may occur secondary to late diagnosis that needs immediate surgery.
, , Arjina A. Ankhi, Sharmin Sultana,
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
Continuous monitoring of pharmaceutical products is vital because it matters to human health. Here we aimed to assess the quality parameters of commercially available vildagliptin tablets in Bangladesh. We tested the tablets for the content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, and potency. Then, we fitted the dissolution data with kinetic models to investigate the release pattern of the studied brands. Moreover, we applied a mathematical model-independent approach to compare the dissolution profiles of the brands. The interchangeability was determined using difference and similarity factors. Weight variation, friability, and hardness were between 150.35±1.26 to 230.8±1.98 mg, 0 to 0.88%, and 47.3±5.09 to 108.1±1.92 N, respectively. All tablets disintegrated within 0.54±2.85 to 7.69±2.14 min in distilled water. The potency of tablets in 0.1 N HCl and PBS (pH 6.8) were between 97.67±2.58 to 105±0.95% and 99±4.63 to 105±1.65%, respectively. The drug release (%) in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (pH 6.8) after 60 min were between 99.37±1.80 to 111.09±0.64% and 96.59±3.52 to 109.57±0.53%, respectively. All the brands complied with the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specification for physicochemical properties. Also, we observed the drug release patterns of vildagliptin tablets matched with different kinetic models. We found only one substitutable brand with the standard product regardless of the dissolution medium. In-vitro chemical equivalence is not always consistent with bioequivalence. Therefore, continuous evaluation of marketed products is essential to ensure the desired quality.
Muhammad A. Rayhan, , , Ichsan Ichsan, , , , , , Mohammed A. Mamun, et al.
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
Vaccines are urgently needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptance of and willingness to purchase a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in the general population of Aceh, a holistic Shariah law implementation province in Indonesia. An online cross-sectional study was conducted using a quota sampling technique between 1 to 24 September 2021. To determine hypothetical vaccine acceptance, respondents were asked if they were willing to accept vaccines with combinations of either 50% or 95% effectiveness and either 5% or 20% risk of adverse effects. Willingness to purchase was assessed by asking whether the participants would pay for such vaccines at certain price points. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associated determinants. Out of 377 respondents included in the final analysis, 86.5% were willing to accept a COVID-19 vaccine with 95% effectiveness and 5% adverse effects. The acceptance rate dropped to 45.1% if the risk of adverse effects was 20%. Vaccines with 50% effectiveness and 5% adverse effects were acceptable to 42.2% but the acceptance went down to 17.2% if the risk of adverse effects increased to 20%. Multivariate analysis found that men were twice as likely to accept a vaccine with 95% effectiveness and 5% adverse effects compared to females (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.05–3.86). We found that 156/377 (41.3%) of respondents were willing to purchase a COVID-19 vaccine and of these participants 71.1% were willing to pay between Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) 50,000–150,000 (US$ 3.33–10.00). In conclusion, the acceptance rate of a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine varied based on effectiveness and the risk of adverse effects.
, Hui Jin, , , , Muhammad Bilal, , , Jeehan H. Alestad, Hatem M. Alhani, et al.
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health problem and is responsible for both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Public health implications of HEV are derived from its transmission route, either water-borne or food-borne, and its zoonotic potential. Not only in developing countries, but HEV cases are also found in a high number in developed countries. The spread of HEV to the environment might pollute surface waters, which could act as the source of infection for both humans and animals. Identification of the virus in animal products suggests the circulation of HEV within water and food chains. High seroprevalence and circulation of HEV in livestock, in particular pigs, as well as in environmental samples warrants further investigation into pig markets. HEV virulence in different environments and meat supply chains could shed light on the possible sources of infection in humans and the degree of occupational risk. The purpose of this review is to discuss HEV infections with an emphasis on livestock- and environment-related risk factors, and food-borne, water-borne, and zoonotic transmissions.
Mohammed Sallam, Johan Snygg
Published: 1 August 2022
Abstract:
The human albumin solution (HAS) has limited but important indications in clinical practice. However, the inappropriate use of HAS can be costly. Thus, it is imperative to establish a practical protocol to use albumin products and rationalize its usage. The aim of this study was to identify albumin utilization patterns in a multi-specialty private hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), before and during the COVID-19 epidemic in the country. In addition, the objectives were to demonstrate the importance of reconsidering the prescribing strategies for albumin administration. All data on 20% HAS administration in Mediclinic Welcare Hospital were retrieved during January 2019–May 2021, including the total quantities administered and data on primary diagnosis. A total of 579 patient admissions with several diagnoses were included in the study. The percentage of clinically indicated 20% HAS administration decreased from 13.0% in the pre-COVID-19 phase to 1.5% in the COVID-19 phase (P<0.001). An increase in the administration of 20% HAS not backed by agreed clinical evidence followed the increase in new number of COVID-19 cases in the UAE. The current study showed a large proportion of administered HAS, that drastically increased during COVID-19 with lack of clear evidence of its benefit. This pilot study should be followed by refining of the institutional guidelines of HAS use, frequent audits and interactive educational interventions. In turn, the refinement of HAS administration guidelines can help to reduce the unjustified cost of inappropriate HAS use.
Setia Pramana, I Komang Y. Hardiyanta, Farhan Y. Hidayat, Siti Mariyah
Published: 1 April 2022
Abstract:
Next-generation sequencing or massively parallel sequencing have revolutionized genomic research. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) can profile the gene-expression used for molecular diagnosis, disease classification and providing potential markers of diseases. For classification of gene expressions, several methods that have been proposed are based on microarray data which is a continuous scale or require a normal distribution assumption. As the RNA-Seq data do not meet those requirements, these methods cannot be applied directly. In this study, we compare several classifiers including Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, Classification and Regression Trees and Random Forest. A simulation study with different parameters such as over dispersion, differential expression rate is conducted and the results are compared with two mRNA experimental datasets. To measure predictive accuracy six performance indicators are used: Percentage Correctly Classified, Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve, Kolmogorov Smirnov Statistics, Partial Gini Index, H-measure and Brier Score. The result shows that Random Forest outperforms the other classification algorithms.
, , , Daniel O. Esonu, Hassana I. Dunka, Williams A. Adanu, Friday A. Danjuma, David C. Abiayi, Victoria A. Adegoke, David O. Omoniwa, et al.
Published: 1 April 2022
Abstract:
Many researchers worldwide have focused on the health impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic without paying much emphasis to the environmental impacts associated with the pandemic. Evidence suggests that prior to the pandemic there was an alarming increase in environmental pollution due to rising industrialization, in particular in urban areas. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, satellite data over Asia and Europe showed a substantial decrease in air pollution, in particular nitrogen dioxide. However, the increase in industrial and household wastes may pose a significant challenge to environmental management. The improper management of these wastes poses an unforeseen “knock-on” effect on human health and the environment. It is imperative to establish an effective and safe procedure, for handling and disposing of the consequential wastes accumulating during the pandemic. The review aims to highlight both the beneficial and detrimental effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the natural environment and to discuss the possible strategies to improve the quality of the global environment during the period of the pandemic and beyond.
Dewa P. Surawan, Duwi Sumohadi, Anak Ag. Budhitresna, Putri P. Lestari, Kartika Dewi, Wasudewa Wikananda, Retenra P. Suwari, , Haypheng Te, , et al.
Published: 1 April 2022
Abstract:
In conjunction with other health promotion strategies, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a strategy to alleviate the burden of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibody response strength between individuals who received COVID-19 vaccination and those who had a natural infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A cross-sectional study was conducted among post-natural confirmed COVID-19 infection and immunized people in Bali, Indonesia. The vaccination was using Sinovac-CoronaVac with two-weeks interval between the two vaccine doses. To measure the level of anti-Spike receptor binding domain (SRBD) of SARS-CoV-2 antibody, we used Roche electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) platform. Blood samples were obtained before and 28 days after first immunization in the vaccinated group, as well as two weeks after hospital discharge in the confirmed COVID-19 patients based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 58 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 60 vaccinated individuals were included. On the 28th day after the initial vaccination, the seroconversion rate among vaccinated individuals was 91.67%. The mean titer of anti-SRBD SARS-CoV-2 antibody among vaccinated participants was 63.62±82.57 IU/mL (ranged between 0 IU/mL and 250 IU/mL). The mean titer among naturally infected group was 188.47±94.57 IU/mL (ranged between 4.25 IU/mL to 250 IU/mL) regardless the severity of COVID-19. Our data suggested that the titer of anti-SRBD SARS-CoV-2 antibody was significantly higher in naturally infected individuals compared to those who received COVID-19 vaccination (p<0.001). These data suggest that not all individuals vaccinated with Sinovac COVID-19 had protective level of anti-SRBD SARS-CoV-2 antibody and booster dose of heterologous vaccine maybe required.
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