The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine

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EISSN : 2798-723X
Total articles ≅ 18
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Arriz Akbar Sukadi, Dewi Sumaryani Soemarko, Faisal Yunus
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 56-62; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.6.56-62

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma and its corelation with ammonia exposure among informal workers of poultry farmers.Method: This study design was a cross-sectional analytic to 69 respondents using questionnaires, field observation, physical examination, spirometry measurement, and peak flowmeter test to diagnose work-related asthma and measurement of ammonia level in air environment of farm. All variable were bivariate tested by using Chi-square test or Fischer test. The variables which have p value <0,25 were included into multivariate analysis by using binary logistic regression.Results: The prevalence of asthma in poultry farmers was 21,74%. In bivariate analysis, there was a significant corelation between working periode (p = 0,035 with OR = 7,00) and smoking habit (p = 0,018 with OR = 5,603) with asthma. There was no significant corelation between age, sex, nutritional status, work location, education level and marital status with asthma. The result of measurement of ammonia level in the poultry farm enclosure on average is 2,329 ppm. Multivariate analysis was performed on several risk factors that fulfilled the requirement p <0,25 ie working periode, smoking habit, nutritional status, and work location. From the results of mutivariate found that workers with a history of smoking habits have the strongest corelation p = 0,013 with OR 17,305.Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in poultry farmers was 21,74%. There was no significant corelation between ammonia exposure in the work environment with asthma. But there was a significant corelation between working periode and smoking habit with asthma.
Rita I Wijaya, Muhammad Ilyas
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 94-100; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.8.94-100

Abstract:
Background: One of the health problems that can be caused by glutaralaldehyde is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the causal relationship between glutaraldehyde and DKA is still unclear, so it is necessary to look for some evidence regarding this relationship. The search for evidence is also equipped with a seven-step assessment of occupational diseases therefore it can assist occupational medicine doctors who find patients with ACD and have a history of exposure to glutaraldehyde. Methods: Literature search using Pubmed, Scopus and JSTOR databases. The keywords used are ‘healthcare worker OR healthcare personnel’, ‘glutaraldehyde’ and ‘allergic contact dermatitis. Article selection was performed using the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Selected articles will be critically reviewed based on etiological studies from the Oxford Center of Evidence-Based Medicine. Result: It was in six selected articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main finding after a critical review was that glutaraldehyde may increase the risk of ACD. Conclusion: There is a relationship between 1% glutaraldehyde exposure and the incidence of ACD in health workers. To establish the diagnosis of occupational diseases in health workers who are exposed to glutaraldehyde, seven steps of diagnosis of occupational diseases are used.
Muhammad Ilyas, Andreas Kresna
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 101-6; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.9.101-6

Abstract:
Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a class of perfluorocarbons, are synthetic environmental contaminants. Their long biological half-lives and their poor ability to metabolize likely add to any chronic health effects they may pose, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The causal relationship between PFOA and CKD is still unclear, so it is necessary to look for some evidence regarding this relationship. The search for evidence is also complemented by a seven-step occupational disease assessment to establish occupational diseases. Aim: This study aims to justify chronic kidney disease of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid can be diagnosed as occupational diseases. Methods: Searching literature for the evidence-based has been conducted with a clinical question through “PICO” method. Then continued with literature searching using the electronic database “PubMed”, “JSTOR”, and “Scopus” search engine. The keyword is “PFOA” “perfluoroalkyl substances” “perfluorooctanoic acid” “chronic kidney” “chronic kidney disease” “CKD” and combined with MeSH terms and Boolean operation. The inclusion criteria are research on humans, English language, and the exclusion is retracted articles. Result: From the five literatures obtained, there are differences in results. A study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid in a DuPont chemical plant with chronic kidney disease was (Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.66, 5.32). Study in China found that perfluorooctanoic acid is not associated with renal function and higher risk of CKD (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95; p=0.019). Conclusion: There are insignificant associations between perfluorooctanoic acid and chronic kidney disease.
Muchtar, Ray Wagiu Basrowi
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 120-4; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.23.120-4

Abstract:
Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers have physical and psychosocial pressure in carrying out their work. The requirement for healthcare workers in dealing with the pandemic is so high, the identification process for the resilience of healthcare workers is not going well. The purpose of this article is to review about how to optimize the resilience of healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 outbreak working conditions. Methods: This literature review is conducted in October 2021. Research related to the resilience of healthcare workers during COVID-19 Pandemic by using valid keywords, including resilience, healthcare workers, COVID-19 through ProQuest, ScienceDirect and SpingerLink. Results: A total of 10 articles were selected for the literature review. The process of self-reflection is one of the important things for healthcare workers. Optimizing relisience of healthcare workers by carrying out an efficient division of tasks to reduce workloads, give more attention to their needs, provide training and knowledge about digital applications to increase capacity in carrying out their work, provide mental health support for healthcare workers and creating a safe and comfortable work environment for them. Conclusions: Maintaining health during the COVID-19 pandemic is an important thing that needs to be done by healthcare workers. Stress management is an important factor in dealing with a pandemic. Create an assessment of the resilience of healthcare workers by detecting gaps, determining priorities, developing plans to prevent psychosocial hazards at all levels both individual and organizational levels.
Mikhael Yosia, Ray Wagiu Basrowi
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 89-93; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.15.89-93

Abstract:
Nearing the end of the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, businesses and companies had decided to continue their operations and strive forwards, posing superfluous challenges to occupational health (OH) professionals in keeping workers safe against the continuous threat of infections. The novelty of COVID-19 results in a myriad of medical questions, all of which needs to be answered promptly and reliably through medical research followed by dissemination of answer through publications. Making the knowledge accessible through publications ensures that OH professionals and other relevant parties can collectively develop new policies, determine preventive action, the standard of procedures and care, and administer medical procedures – all of which eases the fight against pandemics in the workplace. Despite its complications and challenges, the author hoped that OH professionals realized the importance of research and publishing in the fight against this pandemic.
Ari Fahrial Syam
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 41-3; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.25.41-3

Abstract:
Burnout in health workers causes physical and emotional fatigue; it is a condition of a long-term affective state and is an outcome of cumulative and chronic exposure to stress, particularly work stress. Burnout was especially evident in hospitals with limited availability of medical staff. Mental burdens are higher because they face more patients infected by the coronavirus, followed by the trauma of witnessing deaths among patients. These conditions may weaken the immune system, increasing vulnerability to COVID-19 and higher risk of severe symptoms that can cause death. When talking out of context of the pandemic, burnout can also be associated with various other diseases, including IBS.4 Burnout was associated with a 2.41-fold elevated prevalence of IBS after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including job strain.
Dewi Sumaryani Soemarko, Aditya Agung Prasetyo
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 78-83; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.11.78-83

Abstract:
Background: Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases that characterized by the formation of regenerative nodules and fibrotic tissue. The etiology of liver cirrhosis are hepatitis C, hepatitis B, alcohol, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and can also be caused by chemicals in the workplace. The occupational diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis that exposed by vinyl chloride superimposed with hepatitis B infection with was performed by using The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, a method that issued by PERDOKI (Indonesian Occupational Medicine Association-IOMA). The aim of this case report is to determine whether liver cirrhosis in this patient is an occupational disease or not.Case Presentation: Fifty years old man came to Emergency Room with complaints of vomiting black blood since 4 hours. Vomiting blood as much as 5 times with a volume of about 200 cc each time. One day before, patient admitted that his defecation is black, watery, and smell bloody. Volume of defecation was unknown. Three months before, patient complainted that the stomach often felt bloated, enlarged, and got full quickly. There was no icteric in eyes and body.This complaints (vomiting black blood and black stools) were often occured since 2017. In 2017, 2018 and 2020, this patient was hospitalized once while in 2019, the patient was hospitalized twice for this complaint. In 2017, when the complaint first appeared, the patient was declared to have hepatitis B and in 2019, the patient underwent an endoscopy and was said to have enlarged blood vessels in the esophagus, and an abdominal ultrasound was performed and was said to be suspected of liver cirrhosis.This patient works as a family owned chemical industry. The chemical produced is called zamitex, a mixture for paints. These chemicals contain formaldehyde, Vinyl Chloride, and CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose). This patient had worked in this field for 21 years, and was exposed to these chemicals. In addition, there are also dangers of heat, awkward positions, and psychosocial.Conclusion: Based on The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be categorized as an occupational disease superimposed with hepatitis B infection. Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be caused by prolonged exposure to Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl Chloride is known to cause damage to the liver, especially to cause carcinoma of the liver. There is a synergistic effect between exposure to Vinyl Chloride and hepatitis B infection, exacerbating the condition of liver damage. However, because the exposure to Vinyl Chloride has been going on for a longer time, compared to hepatitis B infection, the condition of liver cirrhosis in this patient is still categorized as an occupational disease.
Tine Alliet, Thomas Gestels, Siel Daelemans, Levi Hoste
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 44-55; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.21.44-55

Abstract:
Background and objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has put strain on the activities and well-being of health care workers. We aimed to measure the direct and indirect impact on a personal and professional level for paediatric trainees in Flanders, Belgium.Study design: Junior representatives of the Flemish Society for Paediatrics (Jong VVK) conducted a longitudinal study among their fellow paediatric trainees. The impact of COVID-19 on daily tasks, education and emotional well-being for the first (March-April 2020) and second wave (October-November 2020) of the pandemic were studied.Results: One hundred and nineteen surveys were completed in the first wave, representing data of 51% (119/233) of the total number of paediatric trainees in Flanders. Eighty surveys were completed in the second wave. Educational program changes occurred in 25% (30/119) of trainees and more than half (61%; 72/119) described the pandemic as an impediment for their educational progress. The perception of impaired education persisted for 30% of the responders (24/80) during the second wave. One out of three (30%; 35/119) felt their job was more exhausting than usual and 38% (45/119) perceived more stress at work. These numbers were comparable at both time points. Increases in stress paralleled with increased irritability in daily life and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions: COVID-19 had an important impact on the daily tasks, education and emotional well-being of the paediatric trainees. Medical training centres should be aware that there is a perception of impediment on the educational program of the paediatric trainee.
Iwan Susilo Joko, Dewi S Soemarko, Nuri Purwito Adi
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 63-71; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.7.63-71

Abstract:
Background: One of the risk factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is chemical exposure at work. The aim is to determine the relationship between patient who work as a farmer and vegetable seller with the incidence of CLL.Case presentation: A-69-year-old man who has been working as a vegetable seller since 15 years and a chili farmer since 4 years ago. The patient was diagnosed with CLL. In his work as a vegetable seller and chili farmer, the patient gets five hazards ranging from physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards so it is necessary to analyze whether there is a relationship between the patient’s work and the current CLL disease.Discussion: There are seven steps needed in the enforcement of occupational diseases. In addition, additional examinations are needed to determine the biomarkers of pesticides that can cause disease. This requires control for farmers and vegetable sellers who may be exposed to pesticides found in vegetables and chilies. Conclusion: Vegetable seller and farmer have potential hazards, especially chemicals contained in pesticides which have a risk relationship with the incidence of CLL. However, to cause CLL, sufficient doses are required which are influenced by occupation, intensity of use and the type of specific chemical without the need for a long duration of exposure.
Vera, Muhammad Ilyas
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine, Volume 1, pp 114-9; https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.12.114-9

Abstract:
Background: Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) is one of the Perfluoroalkyl acids family that can affect human health. It can act as an endocrine disruptors which interfered the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis and targeted the biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, which can caused thyroid diseases. To determine the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid diseases, it is necessary to look for some evidence regarding this relationship. The search for evidence is also complemented by a seven-step occupational disease assessment to establish occupational diseases.Methods: The literature searching using the electronic database “PubMed”, “Cochrane”, and “Scopus” search engine. The keyword is “PFOA” “perfluoroalkyl substances” “perfluorooctanoic acid” “perfluorooctanoate” AND “thyroid disease” “thyroid function” “thyroid parameters” combined with MeSH and Title/Abstract terms. The inclusion criteria are research on humans, English language, free full article and the exclusion is duplicate articles.Result: From the five literature obtained, there are differences in results. Four articles stated that there are association between PFOA and thyroid diseases but one articles stated PFOA concentrations measured in this study were not associated with thyroid hormones.Conclusion: Althought most articles stated there are associations between PFOA and thyroid disease but it does not mean that PFOA can caused thyroid disease so it is still not clear the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid disease especially in occupational setting.
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