American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content

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ISSN / EISSN : 0002-9513 / 0002-9513
Published by: American Physiological Society (10.1152)
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R C Lennartz
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/advances.1999.277.6.s42

Abstract:
A laboratory exercise is described in which students in a neuroscience, psychobiology, or similar laboratory course record the electromyogram (EMG) from themselves, using surface electrodes (placed on the skin). This exercise is intended to give students a firsthand demonstration that electrical activity is produced within them and to allow the students to use this activity to study biological and psychological concepts. The students study the nature of the EMG (changes with tension and the temporal relationship with limb movement) and the concepts of flexion and extension, reaction time, and patellar ("knee jerk") reflex. In postlaboratory evaluations, undergraduate introductory neuroscience students indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to record electrical activity from their own bodies. The students found the exercise enjoyable, believed that they had learned from it, and indicated that it should be a regular part of the course. If electrophysiology in animal preparations is already part of the course, this exercise requires minimal additional equipment, some of which is easily constructed and the reminder of which is available inexpensively.
, G Aasen, H B Slotnick
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/advances.1999.277.6.s119

Abstract:
This study tested the hypothesis that measurable attributes in students' backgrounds are related to their successful completion of an undergraduate human physiology course. Demographic, general academic performance, and science achievement data were obtained from student records for students enrolled during the 1995-1996 academic year, and additional demographic data were obtained from students enrolled during the 1996-1998 academic years. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis explored the relationship fo these variables to the percentage of students passing the human physiology course. Predicted passing versus failing showed a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 69.7%. Two independent validations of the logistical regression equation correctly predicted the performance of subsequent groups of students 75.9% and 77.6% of the time.
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/advances.1999.277.6.s111

Abstract:
The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs.
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/advances.1999.277.6.s100

Abstract:
A service-learning component has been successfully incorporated into an introductory physiology course at Wheaton College. In addition to regular course work, each of the 24 students spent 12 hours shadowing and assisting staff at Sturdy Memorial Hospital, Attleboro, MA, with 4 hours in the emergency room and 8 hours in two other departments. Every student kept a log of his or her observations, reactions, and learning in the field and wrote a paper on a pathophysiological condition encountered in the hospital. To compare and contrast the real hospital experience with a fictional one, the students also studied patients from the television show ER. Each week in lab, two students showed a short videotape of one particular patient and discussed the diagnosis, symptoms, treatments, and surgical procedures involved. Questionnaire evaluations indicated that this program is effective in helping students learn more physiology and exposing them to community service. Health workers and patients also agreed that providing social support to patients while shadowing and assisting hospital staff was a valuable service.
S G Schultz
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/advances.1999.277.6.s1

Abstract:
Stanley G. Schultz received the seventh annual Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Teacher of the Year Award. The following is a speech he delivered as he was presented the award at Experimental Biology '99 in Washington, DC, in April 1999.
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.f899

Abstract:
Exogenous ATP markedly reduced 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP)-stimulated Ca2+ transport and cAMP accumulation in primary cultures of rabbit connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct cells. Similarly, ATP inhibited the stimulatory effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. At first sight, this is in agreement with the "classic" concept that dDAVP exerts its stimulatory effect via cAMP. However, dDAVP-stimulated Ca2+ transport was markedly reduced by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, reported previously to inhibit the cAMP-independent pathway responsible for parathyroid hormone-, [Arg8]vasopressin-, PGE2-, and adenosine-stimulated Ca2+ transport. Chelerythrine also inhibited the increase in Ca2+ transport evoked by the cAMP-independent A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Downregulation of phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoforms by chronic phorbol ester treatment has been shown before to be without effect on hormone-stimulated Ca2+ transport, indicating that the chelerythrine-inhibitable pathway consists of a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform. Here, this maneuver did not affect ATP inhibition of dDAVP-stimulated Ca2+ transport and cAMP formation, while abolishing ATP inhibition of CPA-stimulated Ca2+ transport. These findings show that ATP acts via 1) a phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoform to inhibit hormonal stimulation of Ca2+ transport at the level of the chelerythrine-inhibitable pathway involving a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform and 2) a phorbol ester-insensitive mechanism to inhibit V2 receptor-mediated concomitant activation of this pathway and adenylyl cyclase.
, John B. Pritchard
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.f890

Abstract:
The driving forces mediating tetraethylammonium (TEA) transport were systematically assessed in Xenopus oocytes and MDCK cells expressing organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 cloned from rat kidney (rOCT2). In rOCT2 cRNA-injected oocytes, uptake of [14C]TEA was saturable, with an estimated Michaelis constant ( K m) of 393 μM, and was specifically inhibited by organic cations. Furthermore, TEA uptake demonstrated two distinct components, one that was potential sensitive and one that was pH sensitive. When membrane potential was intact, TEA uptake was largely unaffected by changes in medium pH; when the oocyte membrane was depolarized (K+ in = out = 102.5 mM, plus valinomycin), decreasing external medium pH significantly reduced TEA uptake. Consistent with the potential sensitivity of uptake, electrophysiological analysis of rOCT2-injected oocytes demonstrated movement of positive charge into the oocyte upon TEA addition. To further evaluate the nature of the pH effect and assess the properties of rOCT2 in a renal epithelium, rOCT2 was introduced into MDCK cells. A stably transfected single cell clone (MDCK-rOCT2) showed mediated, potential-sensitive, pH-sensitive TEA uptake ( K m = 48 μM). TEA efflux from preloaded MDCK-rOCT2 cells was stimulated by externally applied ( trans) tetramethylammonium but was trans-inhibited by H+ (external pH 5.4). The effect of external H+ was to modulate rOCT2-mediated transport. Thus rOCT2 is a potential-driven transporter, not an organic cation/H+exchanger, consistent with a physiological role in the basolateral entry step in renal organic cation secretion.
Saskia Huber, Esther Asan, Thomas Jöns, Christiane Kerscher, Bernd Püschel, Detlev Drenckhahn
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.f841

Abstract:
By enzyme-linked in situ hybridization (ISH), direct evidence is provided that acid-secreting intercalated cells (type A IC) of both the cortical and medullary collecting ducts of the rat kidney selectively express the mRNA of the kidney splice variant of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) and no detectable levels of the erythrocyte AE1 (eAE1) mRNA. Using single-cell quantification by microphotometry of ISH enzyme reaction, medullary type A IC were found to contain twofold higher kAE1 mRNA levels compared with cortical type A IC. These differences correspond to the higher intensity of immunostaining in medullary versus cortical type A IC. Chronic changes of acid-base status induced by addition of NH(4)Cl (acidosis) or NaHCO3 (alkalosis) to the drinking water resulted in up to 35% changes of kAE1 mRNA levels in both cortical and medullary type A IC. These experiments provide direct evidence at the cellular level of kAE1 expression in type A IC and show moderate capacity of type A IC to respond to changes of acid-base status by modulation of kAE1 mRNA levels.
Michel Demeule, Mathieu Brossard, Richard Béliveau
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.f832

Abstract:
The expression of two members of the ATP-binding cassette family of transport proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or Mrp2), was evaluated in renal brush-border membranes (BBM) and various rat tissues after cisplatin treatment. One administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) increased P-gp expression by >200–300% in renal BBM and in crude membranes from liver and intestine. The increase in P-gp expression in the kidney was also detected in photolabeling experiments, suggesting the induction of functional P-gp. cMOAT expression was increased by >10-fold in renal BBM after cisplatin administration, although it had no effect on liver cMOAT expression. The increase in the levels of both proteins was maximal at 2 days after cisplatin treatment and lasted for at least 8 days. These results indicate that a single administration of cisplatin induces overexpression of P-gp and cMOAT in specific tissues. This may be of significant relevance to the design of clinical trials using cisplatin as a single chemotherapeutic agent or in combination with other drugs.
American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, Volume 277; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.1999.277.6.f826

Abstract:
The ROMK channel plays an important role in K recycling in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and K secretion in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). A large body of evidence indicates that the ROMK channel is a key component of the native K secretory channel identified in the apical membrane of the TAL and the CCD. Although the ROMK channel shares several key regulatory mechanisms with the native K secretory channel in a variety of respects, differences in the channel modulatory mechanism are clearly present between the ROMK channel and the native K secretory channel. Therefore, it is possible that additional associate proteins are required to interact with the ROMK channel to assemble the native K secretory channel. This notion is supported by recent reports showing that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAP) interact with the ROMK channels to restore the response to ATP sensitivity and protein kinase A stimulation. This review is an attempt to summarize the up-to-date progress regarding the interaction between the ROMK channel and the associate proteins in forming the native K secretory channel.
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