Journal of Experimental Agriculture International

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EISSN : 2457-0591
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,126
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, C. C. Ogbonna, A. M. Omoare
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930733

Abstract:
Aims: Growth performance and gut morphological response of broiler chickens fed moist fermented diets with the inclusion of probiotics or/and organic acids were evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. Place and Duration of Study: Poultry unit of the Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2018 and April 2018 Methodology: Three hundred one-day old unsexed Abor Acre broilers were used for this study. They were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The experimental treatments were: Diet 1: Dry Unfermented Feed (DUF) - Probiotics (Pr) – Organic acids (Or), Diet 2: Moist Fermented Feed (MFF) – Pr – Or, Diet 3: MFF + Pr, Diet 4: MFF + Or, Diet 5: MFF + Pr + Or. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design. Results: The feed conversion ratio of broiler starters fed diet 5 (1.96) was significantly (P<.0001) better relative to those of birds fed other diets (2.27, 2.21, 2.14 and 2.13 respectively), while birds in treatment 1 (2.27) had significantly (P<.0001) poor feed conversion ratio. There were no significant (P>.05) differences in the feed conversion ratio of broiler finishers fed MFF with or without feed additives (2.68, 2.64, 2.55 and 2.55). However, the value of feed conversion ratio of birds fed DUF (3.04) was significantly (P=.05) the highest. The duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio of broiler starters fed MFF+ Pr + Or (7.11) was significantly (P=.05) higher than those of birds fed other diets (2.70, 3.35, 3.98, 4.73 respectively). Conclusion: Although, feed fermentation enhanced gut morphological parameters which correlates improved growth performance of broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics (1g/kg) and organic acids (1g/kg) in the fermentation process further improved the growth indicators of broiler chickens used in this study.
Zahida Rashid, , B. Sabiya, N. Sabina, N. S. Khuroo, M. Shabeena, A. Rakshanda, Raies A. Bhat, Faisul-Ur- Rasool, H. Shafeeq, et al.
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 18-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930732

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted at Dry land Agricultural Research Station, Rangreth, Srinagar, SKUAST-K in Kharif 2020 to study the effect of Plant Growth Regulators and micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of sorghum. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of Plant Growth Regulators and micronutrients on herbage yield and quality. The treatments included; T1: Tricontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T2: Salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T3: 5 kg Zn/ha soil application, T4: 2 kg B/ha soil application, T5: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application, T6: 5 kg Zn/ha (soil application ) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T7: 5 kg Zn/ha (soil application) + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T8: 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T9: 2 kg B/ha (soil application )+ salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T10: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T11: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) and T12: Water spray at the time of PGR application. Zn and B were applied at the time of sowing in the soil. The crop was raised with recommended package of practices. In treatments, where zinc was not a treatment, an amount of sulphur through gypsum equivalent to sulphate supplied with 5 kg ZnSO4 was applied to compensate. The crop was sown in 30.0 cm apart lines. The trial was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results indicated that all the treatments improved the green fodder yield over control. Among different treatments, T10: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS foliar spray and T11: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS foliar spray produced maximum GFY (493.6 and 490.5q/ha) on locational mean basis. It was significantly superior to other treatments. These treatments improved the green fodder yields by 35.0 % and 34.2 %, respectively, over control (spray of water). In terms of dry matter, similar trend was noted and the improvement with T10 and T11 was to the tune of 36.8 % and 41.0 % over control. Tricontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) (T1) improved the green fodder yield and dry fodder yield by 13.6% and 14.3 % respectively over T12Water spray at the time of Plant Growth Regulator application. Similarly spray of T2: Salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) improved the green fodder yield and dry fodder yield by 14.4% and 15.4% respectively over T12Water spray at the time of Plant Growth Regulator application. Similar trend was observed with respect to quality parameters (crude protein content and crude protein yield) of sorghum.
B. M. Delong, , J. W. Keeling, P. A. Dotray
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930731

Abstract:
Increasing populations of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats.] have increased weed management costs for Texas High Plains cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] producers. The introduction of dicamba-tolerant cotton varieties and registration of dicamba formulations for postemergence use, combined with residual herbicides, can effectively control Palmer amaranth. Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 near Lubbock, TX, USA to evaluate Palmer amaranth control and economics of weed management in dicamba-, glufosinate-, glyphosate-, and conventional cotton systems. The most consistent season-long Palmer amaranth control was achieved with the dicamba-tolerant system in both years. In 2018, greatest lint yields were achieved with dicamba-tolerant system when compared to the conventional and glufosinate-tolerant systems. In 2018, greatest gross margin above weed management costs were achieved with the dicamba-tolerant and glyphosate-tolerant systems. Greatest lint yield was achieved with the dicamba-tolerant and conventional systems in 2019 and greatest gross margins were achieved with the dicamba-tolerant system. Total variable costs were similar across all systems, with greater seed/technology and herbicide costs in dicamba-tolerant and glufosinate-tolerant systems, compared to higher tillage and hand hoeing costs in glyphosate-tolerant and conventional systems.
T. O. Ibrahim, A. O. Ogunsiji, O. A. Oni, B. F. Awotedu, O. I. Bolanle-Ojo, B. A. Ajani
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930730

Abstract:
Seeds are highly important part of living things, without which life would not exist. All of our daily necessities are totally dependent on seed and seed stock, like food and fruits, so also is many of the natural resources that we use as consumers such as, timber, cotton, paper, essential\edible oils, all which started their live as seeds. Basically, a seed consists of a tiny underdeveloped plant, the embryo, which is enclosed by a covering called the seed coat. Germination of seed occurs when the embryo grows into a functioning plant. It involves the rejuvenation of the metabolic pathways that lead to growth and the emergence of the radicle (root) and plumule (shoot). For germination to occur, three basic factors must exist, the seed must be viable, dormancy must be controlled and the proper environmental conditions for germination must be available. Dormancy simply means the inability of seeds to germinate even when the necessary environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, and light) are favorable for germination. Dormancy is a principal factor restricting the production of crops. Several physical and chemical pretreatments can be applied to the organic material (seeds) to control dormancy. This review discusses the conditions necessary for germination and the fundamental factors necessary for breaking dormancy.
, Koffi Ahébé Marie Hélène, Zadjei N’Goran Anderson, Akaffou Doffou Sélastique, Atta Taky Hortense Diallo
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830729

Abstract:
Aims: Research of alternative solutions to the use of synthetic pesticides. Study Design : Randomized block. Place and Duration of Study: Jean Lorougnon Guédé University (Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire), January to February 2020. Methodology: Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia, Tithonia diversifolia and Mezoneuron benthamianum were evaluated in vitro and in the nursery at 5 g/l, 15 g/l and 25 g/l. In vitro, the blotting paper method was used on tomato seed germination. In the nursery, the powdery extracts were added to the nursery soil bags with four treatments (5 g/l, 15 g/l, 25 g/l and control) and six bags per treatment with five tomato seeds per bag. Germination rate, number of leaves, height and the health status of the plants as well as the incidence and severity of root galls were evaluated. The results showed that in vitro the control had the highest average germination rate (98.5%) followed by T. diversifolia (43.03 to 98.5%), A. cordifolia (35.33 to 68.67%) and M. benthamianum (37.66 to 67.55%). However, in the nursery, T. diversifolial recorded the highest average treated seed germination (38 to 78.33%) and seedling emergence (12.78 to 38.33%) rates compared to the other treatments. Concerning growth parameters, the number of leaves (5.38 to 13.21) and height (5.71 to 15.64 cm) of tomato plants were influenced by the extracts type and concentration. The incidence of root galls was low for treated plants (0-60%) compared to controls (100%). The severity of the galls was significantly reduced by the extracts, however the extracts of T. diversifolia were the most effective. Extracts were more effective at low concentrations in improving agromorphological parameters of tomato, in contrast to the incidence and severity of galls which were reduced at high concentrations. Results suggest that these locally available plants could be used as biofertilizers and control method against root-knot nematodes.
Prakash Chandra Rath, , Nitiprasad Namdeorao Jambhulkar, Hata Nath Subudhi, Meera Kumari Kar
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 76-80; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830728

Abstract:
Pre-breeding includes basic research to achieve wide crosses and facilitate the use of exotic materials or wild relatives for both qualitative and quantitative traits. The main objective is to provide breeders with more ‘attractive’ PGR that are easier to use, i.e. resistance sources in acceptable genetic background; or inbreeding tolerant forms of out crossing species for hybrid breeding. Forty seven pre-breeding lines were evaluated against Brown Plant Hopper under glasshouse condition over a period of two years (2018 and 2019). Out of these, two pre-breeding lines were moderately resistant to BPH having score 3. Two pre-breeding lines were moderately susceptible to BPH having score 5, five lines were susceptible having score 7 and rest thirty nine pre-breeding lines were highly susceptible to BPH with a score of 9.
, Talissa Baroni, Juliana Marcia Rogalski
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 56-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830726

Abstract:
Aim: The climbing shrub Rubus erythroclados Mart. ex Hook. f. (amora-verde) has great food (fruits) and medicinal (leaves) potential. However, this species remains understudied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between cutting size and IBA concentration in the vegetative propagation of R. erythroclados by stem cuttings. Study Design: The experimental design used was completely randomized in a 3x5 factorial combination. The cutting size factor was represented by three levels (10, 15 and 20 cm) and IBA concentration factor by five levels (0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 mg L-1). Results: There was an interaction between the factors in 13 of the 19 variables analyzed, being: live cuttings at 30 and 60 days, live cuttings with callus formation, sprouted cuttings at 30, 60 and 90 days, rooted cuttings, shoot number, shoot diameter, root number, root length, length of the largest root and root diameter. Size increase of the R. erythroclados cuttings caused a decrease in the phytotoxic effect of IBA in the development of the aerial part. The effect of IBA in response to rooting induction, in the larger size of R. erythroclados cuttings, required an increase in IBA concentration compared to the cuttings of shorter size. Conclusion: Cuttings of 10 and 15 cm treated with 1,000 mg L-1 of IBA showed greater rooting (20.0%) compared to the other treatments, being, therefore, indicated for the vegetative propagation of R. erythroclados by stem cuttings.
Kouamé Koffi Gaston, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean-Martial, Kouamé Konan Didier, Yao Kouadio Jacques-Edouard, Fiéni Kouassi Kra Dimitri, Koné Daouda
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 46-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830725

Abstract:
Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the effect of potassium carbonate (58 p.c) on agronomic and phytosanitary parameters in tomato crops. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out from May to September 2020 at N'gattakro, a village near the international airport in the city of Yamoussoukro, center region of Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology: Five doses of potassium carbonate (PC:T1= 2 Kg/ha; T2 = 3 Kg/ha; T3 = 4 Kg/ha; T4 = 5 Kg/ha; T5 = 6 Kg/ha), a reference control (TR1= IVORY (mancozeb 80%) and an untreated control were tested in a Fisher's complete block design with 4 replicates in a commercial garden plot. Results: As results T4 and T5 potassium carbonate improved the tomato yield. These doses promoted the yield of 5.02±0.09 and 6.92±0.16 t/ha compared to the control (3.405±0.1 t/ha). Moreover, at these doses, there was a low manifestation of toxicity. In addition, 6kg/ha of PC showed a fusarium wilt infection rate of 1.38±0.71% compared to 3.62±0.90% for the control. Conclusion: Potassium carbonate (58%) at 6 kg/ha can be an alternative solution to chemical control of fungal diseases in tomato cropping.
, Maria Do Carmo Bassols Raseira, Rodrigo Cezar Franzon
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 67-75; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830727

Abstract:
As the climate change takes place, the cultivation of temperate climate crops in subtropical areas has become a challenge. The success of fruit crops, such as blackberry, in certain areas depends basically on its chilling requirement and the chilling accumulation in those areas. Usually the models used to predict those accumulations presents widely variable results being necessary to test the models in the location where the species is cultivated. The objective of this work was to estimate the chilling requirement for bud break of blackberry cultivars Caingangue, BRS Cainguá, Guarani, Tupy, BRS Xavante, BRS Xingu, Brazos, Cherokee and Choctaw, using the models of Utah, Positive Utah, Low Chill, Taiwan, Chilling Hours ≤7.2°C, Chilling Hours ≤11°C, and Dynamic and both temperature and phenological data from 2010 to 2019. The results showed a high variability in cold accumulation for all studied cultivars in all tested models. None of the models performed perfectly to estimate chilling requirement however, the Taiwan and the Utah Positive models can be used to provide a rough estimate of this requirement. On the other hand, Utah and Low Chill models are clearly not suitable for estimating blackberry chilling requirement. The estimated chilling requirement showed that all the studied cultivars are well adapted to the climatic conditions of the southern Rio Grande do Sul, which is emphasized by their good productivity in most of the years.
, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Vinícius Bueno Da Silva, Diego Sidney de Oliveira Nunes, Isabela Miranda Litaiff
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830724

Abstract:
Corn is one of the most cultivated cereals in the world and is used for various purposes and its production is linked to its economic importance, requiring the use of means and methods that enable the increase of its production, and one of them is fertilization with nitrogen. The objective of this work is to carry out a brief literature review on the importance of nitrogen for the corn crop, highlighting the benefits of its use and the need for its use in the crop. Plants need many nutrients for their development, and nitrogen is one of the main nutrients, being important for many chemical and physical functions in the plant. In addition, nitrogen is necessary in the corn crop, as it is a nutrient that is required in large amounts and has a great impact on crop production. Nitrogen has many benefits in the corn crop, as it is essential to the plant and to many crops, providing benefits throughout the plant, ensuring an increase in production components. However, the importance of nitrogen in the crop, refers to the plant, its use in the corn crop and the benefits provided, which generate positive results for its use, increasing various components of crop production, demonstrating that it is important for the crop, in its development and in the increase of maize productivity. Thus, it is noted that nitrogen is very important for the development of corn, composes several chemical and physical functions of the plant, it is necessary in the corn crop due to its requirement, provides many benefits to the crop, increasing production components and has many good results with its use in corn.
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