Journal of Experimental Agriculture International

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EISSN : 2457-0591
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,308
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Guntimadugu Sanhthosh Kumar Raju, Prudhvi Nawabpet, Arun Kumar
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 181-186; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112065

Abstract:
Panchagavya is an ancient traditional agricultural knowledge in Indian farming, where farmers were used in crops from decades, It is completely cow based products combination of five ingredients majorly Cow's dung, urine, milk, ghee and curd, instead of these other ingredients like jaggery, coconut water, ripped bananas were also used to boosting its role. In agriculture, Panchagavya acts as a soil health improver by providing nutrients to plants that it has the abundant quantity of growth promoting hormones, macro and micro nutrients, helpful microorganism that are mutually cooperated with the plant roots and soil in Rhizosphere zone that may helpful in conversion of organic form of nutrients to inorganic form where plants can easily uptake them and results better plants immune system and effective control of various diseases in plants.
Aneetta V. Antony, , Udita Choudhary, Biswajit Sen, Anil Kumar Dixit
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 175-180; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112064

Abstract:
Aim: The constraints involved in the adoption of clean and safe milk production practices were identified from a sample of 210 farmers covering three major districts of Kerala i.e. Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, and Palakkad randomly. Average adoption score of 65 out of 95 practices indicated the need to sensitize the farmers for adoption of clean and safe milk production practices. Methodology: The constraints faced by the farmers in adopting clean and safe milk production practices were identified and ranked using Garrett’s ranking technique. Kendall rank correlation was used to estimate the ordinal association of the ranks given to constraints by the farmers. Results: Inadequate information about clean and safe milk production practices was identified to be the major constraint faced by the farmers followed by high cost of inputs, lack of finance, lack of infrastructure and constraints on the availability of land. Lack of finance, high cost of inputs and constraints on the availability of land were found to be strongly correlated to each other, having a cumulative adverse effect on the adoption of clean and safe milking practices.
Yasser Hussain Lone, Tariq Sultan, A. A. Saad, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Zahoor Ahmad Baba, Mohammad Asif Sheikh, Mohammad Salim Mir, Sabiya Bashir, Faisul - Ur – Rasool, Shabeena Majid, et al.
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 169-174; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112063

Abstract:
A field experiment entitled “Performance of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) under different levels of phosphorus and potassium in combination with biofertilizers” was conducted at crop research farm of Division of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, during kharif 2018. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture, neutral in reaction (pH = 6.9), low in available nitrogen, low in available phosphorus, medium in available potassium and medium in organic carbon. The experiment was laid in RBD design having nine treatments and three replications. The observation revealed that grain yield (10.57 qha-1), straw yield (18.94 qha-1), yield attributes was high with the application of RDF (30N+60P2O5+30K2O) kg ha-1 + seed inoculation with PSB and KSB than other treatments. The RDF+ seed inoculation with PSB and KSB recorded 15.89% high grain yield than RDF (30N+60P2O5+30K2O) kg ha-1. B:C was also recorded more with application of RDF + seed inoculation with PSB and KSB (2.99) and was followed by RDF + seed inoculation with PSB (2.62) whereas lowest benefit cost ration was recorded with control treatment (2.24).
Nihar A. Patel, R. M. Mangroliya, J. J. Patel
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 159-168; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112062

Abstract:
Vegetables are potential source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers. Proper plant nutrition is essential for successful production of vegetable crops. Integrated supply of micronutrients with macronutrients in adequate amount is an important approach to sustain the soil health and crop productivity besides maintaining the nutritional quality of vegetables. Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, B, Cu, Mn, Cl, Mo, Ni) are required by plants in small or trace quantities. They are essentially as important as macronutrients for better growth, yield and quality of plants. Deficiencies of micronutrients may induce several physiological disorders in plants and drastically affect growth, metabolism and reproductive phase in plants. The successful tasks carried out by various micronutrients include plant metabolism, nutritional management, chlorophyll production, reproductive growth, flower retention, fruit and seed development, etc. Judicious use of micronutrients is essential for vegetable cultivation to get maximum yield of high quality produce. Foliar nutrition is the one of the most efficient method of applying micronutrients. Spraying of nutrient solutions on the foliage of growing plants is known as foliar nutrition.  Foliar nutrition of micronutrients at right concentration and at right growth stage is important for better results. Micronutrients applied by foliar application are more effective than those applied through soil application because soil application requires longer time for micronutrient absorption and assimilation. Foliar application of micronutrients plays a dynamic role and has been found beneficial for improving growth, yield and quality attributes of vegetable crops. In general, this review shows an immense potential of foliar nutrition of micronutrients in vegetable production. The main aim of this study is to know and explore the benefits of micronutrients through foliar nutrition for improving the production potential of different vegetable crops.
, S. K. Singh, M. Jayasudha, Akanksha Singh, Korada Mounika, Sonali Vijay Habde, Prasanta Kumar Manzhi, Arsode Pandurang Bhagvan, Saurav Singla
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112061

Abstract:
Aim: To study the divergence of forty rice genotypes for consumer-preferred eleven quality traits. Design, Place and Duration of the Study: The rice seeds were harvested from randomly selected plants grown in alpha lattice design with three replications during Kharif season (start in June and end in October) 2018 at Agricultural research farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi UP, India. Methodology: The data were analysed using biometrical tools - Mahalanobis D2 and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The studied traits include, - grain length, grain breadth, kernel length, length to breadth ratio, kernel breadth, kernel length after cooking, kernel breadth after cooking, elongation ratio, elongation index, amylose content and alkali digestion value. Results: Using Mahalanobis D2, all forty genotypes were distributed into six clusters. The maximum inter-cluster distance was recorded between Cluster II to cluster V (5.76), followed by cluster V and cluster III (5.71), and cluster II and cluster VI (5.57) which indicated the existence of high genetic diversity among genotypes in these clusters and, therefore, crosses between the genotypes of these clusters could yield desirable transgressive isolates for desirable quality traits and the importance of the genotypes present in these clusters for exploiting heterosis for the desirable traits of these clusters. The PCA indicates that the five principal components (PC) captured almost 90% of variability present among the 40 rice genotypes. Conclusion: The genotypes belonging to Cluster II to cluster V, followed by cluster V and cluster III, and cluster II and cluster VI, can be used for making crosses as they have higher mean values for quality traits and higher inter-cluster distance for greater diversity.
, Joshua A. McGinty
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 143-150; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112060

Abstract:
Aims: To determine weed efficacy when using adjuvants such as Grounded or Spectrum in combination with pendimethalin or S-metolachlor. Study Design: Randomized complete-block with 3 replications. Place and Duration of Study: Field studies were conducted during the 2021 growing season near Yoakum (29.2765o N, 97.1238o W) in south-central Texas and near Corpus Christi (27.7817o N, 97.5737o W) along the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Methodology: Herbicides were applied preemergence either alone or in combination with Grounded at 2.3 L ha-1 or Spectrum at 0.6 L ha-1 after corn (Zea mays L.) or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were planted at Yoakum and under a non-crop situation at Corpus Christi. Results: In corn when evaluated 7 weeks after treatment (WAT), the addition of Grounded to pendimethalin at 1.06 kg ha-1 reduced Palmer amaranth control when compared with pendimethalin alone at the same rate or with the addition of Spectrum. Smellmelon control with pendimethalin at 0.53 kg ha-1 improved with the addition of Grounded over pendimethalin alone. When evaluated 15 WAT, only Texas millet was present in consistent enough populations to evaluate and no differences in control were noted with/without an adjuvant with either pendimethalin or S-metolachlor. In peanut when evaluated 26 and 54 days after treatment (DAT), Texas millet or smellmelon control was not influenced with the use of either Grounded or Spectrum. In the non-cropland study, when evaluated 14 DAT, both Texas millet and Palmer amaranth control was > 97% with all combinations of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor with/without an adjuvant. At the 42 DAT evaluation, again no differences in weed control were noted between the herbicides without an adjuvant and with the addition of Grounded or Spectrum. Conclusion: In none of the trials did the addition of either Grounded or Spectrum to either pendimethalin or S-metolachlor consistently improve weed efficacy. Also the length of herbicide persistence was not increased with these adjuvants.
, Rajkumar Meena, P. N. Gajbhiye
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 131-142; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112059

Abstract:
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for optimum growth and yield of crop. In calcareous soils availability of Fe is low, to correct Fe deficient soil application of Chelated Fe-EDTA is often recommended to avoid the possible nutritional disorder due to antagonistic effect of Fe with other cationic micronutrients. The present study was initiated with an objective to evaluate response of soybean crop to soil and foliar application of iron. The experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Kasbe Digraj, Dist: Sangli (MS) during kharif 2018-19. The experimental soil was alkaline, calcareous, clay in texture, low in available nitrogen, phosphorus, very high in available potassium and deficient in iron. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised of common application of NPK fertilizers in conjunction with 10 t FYM ha-1, soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 and 20 kg ha-1 with and without 0.2 per cent spray of chelated Fe. The results revealed that the soil pH and electrical conductivity did not differ due to different treatments however, the organic carbon content was found to be slightly improved over control. The free calcium carbonate percentage in soil also found to be statistically non-significant although it revealed slight decline from the initial value due to different iron nutrition treatments. General recommended dose of fertilizers +Soil application of FeSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 + two foliar sprays of chelated Fe @ 0.2 per cent at 30 and 50 DAS (T8) recorded significantly higher available N, P and DTPA Fe over control treatment whereas, available K, DTPA Zn, Mn and Cu were found to be statistically non-significant due to different treatment of iron nutrition along with NPK fertilizers and organic manure. Significantly highest total uptake of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn by soybean was exhibited in T8 which was either equivalent or statistically at par to GRDF + soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 kg ha-1  + two foliar sprays of chelated Fe @ 0.2% at 30 and 50 DAS (T7). In general, all the treatments of iron nutrition were statistically at par in context of soil nutrient and nutrient uptake by soybean crop. Significantly higher grain yield (2493 kg ha-1 ), straw yield (3779 kg ha-1 ) of soybean was recorded by T8 which was closely followed by T7. All the treatments of iron nutrition irrespective of method of application recorded statistically at par grain yield of soybean nonetheless, soil application of FeSO4 was found to be beneficial in correcting the initial deficient iron and zinc status in the soil. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that soil application of FeSO4 @ 10 or 20 kg ha-1 is adequate for obtaining optimum soybean yield and sustaining soil fertility in an iron deficient, slightly calcareous Inceptisol soil.
Sulem-Yong Nina Nindum, Essoh Etouke Adrien, Mengue N. Yolande Sandrine, Dakwen Jeannette, Owona P. Emmanuel, Etchu A. Kingsley, Nola Moïse, Zebaze Togouet S. Hubert
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 108-118; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112057

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to determine the haematological and serum biochemical profiles of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed commercial and farm-made feeds and reared in intermediate bulk containers (IBC) tanks. Nine hundred juveniles (15.15±3.48g; 128.37± 9.67mm) were stocked in 09 IBC tanks (1m3) at a density of 100 fish/tank in triplicate and fed with imported extruded (Le), locally pelleted (Lpe) and locally extruded (Lex) feeds thrice a day to satiation for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from 10 fish/ dietary treatment to determine haematological and biochemical indices. Results revealed that Red Blood Cells Count, Packed Cell volume and Haemoglobin concentration were highest (p0.05) among the dietary treatments. As for serum biochemistry, Total Cholesterol and Glucose were highest (p<0.05) in fish fed with “Le” feed while Total Protein, Alanine Transaminase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alkaline Phosphatase were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed “Lpe” and “Lex” feeds. Conclusively, variation of dietary treatments was not detrimental to the health status of C. gariepinus reared in plastic IBC tanks.
I. A. Idun, M. Osei, P. K. Tandoh
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 119-130; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112058

Abstract:
Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is gaining increasing global appeal and has received massive marketing and distribution due to its significant nutritional benefits for human health. There is little or no history on how the fruit was introduced into the country. However, raising suitable planting materials continues to be a challenge. Thus, the study sought to identify suitable budwood sources through fruit quality assessments. Mature, bruised-free fruits were harvested from five different trees at New Koforidua in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The experimental design for this study was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five replicates. Twenty-five fruits were selected from each tree for data collection and fruit analysis. The parameters studied were the physical properties (fruit weight, fruit firmness, seed weight, pulp weight, peel weight, fruit length and fruit diameter) and chemical properties [chemical composition, pH, total titratable acids (TTA) and total soluble solids (TSS)]. A sensory analysis was also conducted. The statistics were subjected to the Statistix version 10 and the means were separated using the LSD at an alpha level of 0.01. Significant differences were found in the seed weight, pulp weight, fruit length and diameter respectively, at an alpha value (p≤0.01) with “tree F” showing the highest recordings (92.03±5.57) for seed weight, (267.84±569) for pulp weight, (13.90±0.32) for fruit length and (8.44±0.12) for diameter, respectively. There was a progressive reduction in the fruit weight and fruit firmness over a period of seven and five days, respectively. There was a significant difference in the TSS and TTA at an alpha value of 0.01 with treatment J and treatment H recording the highest values of (0.36±0.02) and (1.18±0.07), respectively. The study showed that fruits of treatment F possess superior qualities than the rest of the varieties and can be a suitable budwood source.
, K. Sravanthi, Ali Baba
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International pp 103-107; https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i112056

Abstract:
Aim: To analyze the price spread and marketing efficiency in marketing of fish in Nalgonda, Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts of Telangana state. Study Design: The study was conducted in Nalgonda, Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts of Telangana state during the year 2019-20. Nalgonda district was purposively selected as it has highest area under fish farming in Telangana. Suryapet and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts were part of undivided Nalgonda district before formation of new districts in Telangana in 2016. Hence, they were also included in the study. Methodology: A sample of 60 fish farmers and 30 market intermediaries were randomly selected for the study. Primary data was collected from respondents using pre-tested questionnaire by survey method. Price spread, producers share in consumer rupee and marketing efficiency of fish were computed. Results: Three marketing channels were found prominent for marketing of fish viz., Channel 1 (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Wholesaler at Hyderabad ⇨ Retailer at Hyderabad ⇨ Consumer), Channel 2 (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Wholesaler at Kolkata ⇨ Retailer at Kolkata ⇨ Consumer) and Channel 3 (Fish farmer ⇨ Commission Agent/Trader ⇨ Vendor ⇨ Consumer). Among the three channels, Channel 3 was found highly efficient with marketing efficiency of 2.04% followed by Channel 1 (1.80%) and least for Channel 2 (1.33%). Conclusion: Encouraging fish farmers to form into Co-operatives or Fish Farmer Producer Organization and bringing awareness in producers and consumers on daily prices of various fish species will help in developing the marketing of fish.
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