Medical Sciences Forum

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EISSN : 2673-9992
Published by: MDPI AG (10.3390)
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Published: 29 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005046

Abstract:
Intestinal failure is the reduction in gut function below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients and/or water electrolytes. The based treatment for type II and III intestinal failure patients is home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and hydration (HPH). This is a case-series study of HPN/HPH patients of the Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal, where thirteen patients present different underlying disorders and various IVS needs of nutrition and/or hydration. Most presented type III failure and most of them survived a long period under HPN and/or HNH.
Published: 28 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005045

Abstract:
Polymethylmethacrylate is the material of choice for prosthetic bases. Depending on the type of polymerization, acrylic resins may present some mechanical weaknesses that may lead to the failure of a prosthesis. The microhardness and flexural strength of a dental material determine its applicability. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vitro Knoop microhardness and flexural strength of a thermopolymerizable (Probase Hot) and an autopolymerizable (Probase Cold) resin, according to ISO 20759-1: 2013.
Published: 27 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005044

Abstract:
Coffee is a socially rooted drink with pharmacological properties. It is embedded in different everyday rituals, including ‘coffee breaks’ during working hours. This paper analyzes the role of coffee at workplace. Focusing on three professional areas associated with high pressure and responsive demands, we explore the social expression of coffee use at work, and how it is mobilized as a tool for managing sleepiness, fatigue, stress, and concentration problems, amongst other work-related issues.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005034

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA are important clinical pathogens representing a serious public health problem. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among dental students, identify the factors that influence this carriage, and characterize MRSA. A prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage of 25.2% and 0.86% was estimated, respectively, and SCCmec Type VI, was identified in all isolated MRSA. The low MRSA colonization rate can reflect good infection control practices followed by students.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005038

Abstract:
At the end of September 2020, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 occurred at a university student’s residence. A rapid response, with massive testing, using both RT-PCR and antigen rapid testing, helped to control the spread of the virus, showing the importance of tracking the infection. Testing for antibodies one month after the outbreak showed that the permanence of students with no infection in the same building was not a preponderant factor to develop an immune response.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005036

Abstract:
A 44-year-old male patient was referred to the Egas Moniz Dental Clinic, with a previous history of failed bone regeneration, resulting in a reduced buccal-palatal bone thickness and aesthetic compromise of the gingival margin of the anterior maxilla. Since the use of autologous bone is considered the “gold-standard” in guided bone regeneration, the treatment plan consisted of an autologous mental graft into the maxilla, with a simultaneous guided bone regeneration with a xenograft and absorbable membrane. This allowed a predictable volumetric bone regeneration with low patient morbidity and posterior fixed rehabilitation.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 2; doi:10.3390/msf2021002025

Abstract:
This research aimed to assess the impact of an aqueous extract from the cocoa shell and its major phytochemicals on preventing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes using an in vitro model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The phytochemicals from cocoa shell were extracted using water and characterized by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. HepG2 cells were cotreated with either the aqueous extract from cocoa shell (CAE, 20–100 µg mL−1) or 10–50 µmol L−1 of pure theobromine, protocatechuic acid, procyanidin B2, epicatechin, and catechin in the presence or absence of palmitic acid (PA, 500 µmol L−1) to mimic NAFLD conditions in vitro. Biomarkers of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were evaluated 24 h after the cotreatment in cell supernatants and lysates using chemical, biochemical, and immunochemical techniques. CAE and the phytochemicals therein significantly (p< 0.05) protected mitochondrial content (15–100%) and preserved mitochondrial function, promoting O2 consumption (1.2- to 1.8-fold) and ATP production (1.3- to 2.1-fold). Phytochemicals from cocoa shell significantly (p< 0.05) decreased PA-triggered oxidative stress. The mitochondrial membrane potential was maintained (62–100%), and the production of mitochondrial superoxide (26–100%) and total ROS (17–100%) was abrogated. CAE significantly (p< 0.05) modulated cell signaling pathways associated with ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, including an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (2.8-fold), protein kinase B (AKT) (2.8-fold), GSK3 (2.3-fold), Raf-1 (1.9-fold), and mTOR (1.7-fold). In conclusion, results suggested that the cocoa shell’s phytochemicals could protect mitochondrial liver function and alleviate oxidative stress by modulating key pathways involved in their regulation.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005037

Abstract:
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) encompasses a set of disorders involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. It is a complex biopsychosocial disorder with several triggering, predisposing and perpetuating factors. In the etiology of TMD, oral parafunctions, namely bruxism, play a relevant role. The study of bruxism is complicated by some taxonomic and diagnostic aspects that have prevented achieving an acceptable standardization of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and bruxism in a Portuguese sample.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005040

Abstract:
The sports dentistry consultation at the Clínica Universitária Egas Moniz is guaranteed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals that provide a customized service to high performance athletes. Over the last year, 99 athletes were evaluated in terms of their oral health through extraoral, intraoral and radiographic exams. In this population a high prevalence of dry mouth, erosive wear, gingivitis, periodontitis and DMF index was observed, which may have a profound and negative impact on sports performance. Of the athletes, 40.4% attended follow up consultations, where restoration and scaling were the majority of the clinical procedures performed. This data highlights the importance of a dedicated sports dentistry consultations.
Published: 22 July 2021
by MDPI
Medical Sciences Forum, Volume 5; doi:10.3390/msf2021005043

Abstract:
Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, it is estimated that one third of school-age children practicing sport regularly suffer from a serious injury. Maturation can make young athletes more vulnerable to sports injuries and increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maturation on sports injury profiles in Portuguese youths. Distance to peak height velocity (PHV) was a significant predictor of injury patterns in children and adolescents of both sexes.
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