Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 0216-6461 / 2354-6832
Total articles ≅ 167
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Mozart Nuzul Aprilliza Am, Yenny Nur Anggraeny, Elizabeth Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 13-22; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2548

Enteric fermentation and its corresponding to methane emissions take place in many wild and domestic ruminant species, such as deer, buffalo, cattle, goats, sheep. Ruminant animals are different from other animals in that they have a rumen, a large fore-stomach with a complex microbial environment. A resulting of this process is methane (CH4), which has a global warming potential (25 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2)). Because the digestion process is not 100% efficient, some of the energy intake is lost in the form of methane. Recently, natural plant products, such as tea leaves which are often inexpensive and environmentally safe have been introduced in methane mitigation strategies. Tea leaves have potential for use as an additives in ruminant diets. The adding of catechin 10-40 g/Kg DM were able to declined methane emission 7.4–13.5%. Furthermore, catechin could decrease the methane production. Catechin decreased CH4 production both in vitro and in vivo. Catechin causes direct inhibition of methanogens as well as may act as hydrogen sinks during degradation by rumen microbes via cleavage of ring structures and reductive dehydroxylation reactions. The objective of this paper is to review existing knowledge related to discuss how catechins can act as methane-lowering agents from rumen fermentation on ruminants.
Arie Febre Trisiana, A Destomo, F Mahmilia
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 43-53; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2512

Livestock transportation is carried out to fullfill the need for consumption as well as for raising the livestock in other areas. The regulation of livestock transportation are not well implemented, and far from the ideal way of livestock transportation, such as the aspects of animal welfare. This paper aims is to describe the transportation process, challenge and its effects on small ruminants. The process of transporting livestock is carried out by preparing thye animal that are going to be transported, and the means of transportation used. Travel distance and road infrastructure conditions provide an affordable connection for the transportation of livestock. Long distances and poor infrastructure conditions can cause stresproblems to livestock transportation. Livestock becomes stres and cortisol levels increased in the blood and physiological responses were affected due to transportation. The Goat Research Institute designed a cage in a truck to transport goats and logistical needs during the trip by land and sea routes and has been used in the distribution of goats. The journey took 1 to 16 days with average goat mortality rate was about 0.3%. Severe impacts during the trip can be overcome by transporting goats with attention to the transportation system and to ensure the welfare of animals during the trip.
Peni Wahyu Prihandini, D N H Hariyono, Y A Tribudi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 37-42; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2530

Growth and carcass traits are of economic importances in livestock breeding, because they affect the profitability of animal production. The phenotypic expression of these traits is controlled by multiple genes (polygenes), such as myostatin (MSTN) gene. This paper aims to discuss the expression, polymorphism and potential application of MSTN gene as a marker-assisted selection (MAS) for growth and carcass traits in beef cattle based on data from published studies. MSTN gene or known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass deposition. Several published studies showed that mutations in the MSTN gene can inhibit the activation of myostatin, which leads to an increased muscle mass (hypertrophy). Several MSTN gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with growth and carcass traits in local cattle in several countries, including Indonesia, namely Bali cattle. Based on several assumptions: 1) there is MTSN gene polymorphisms in a population, 2) there is a significant association between MSTN gene polymorphisms and growth and carcass traits, as reported in several beef cattle populations and 3) those cattle with superior genotype have better growth performances, we expect that there will be improvement in growth performances in the future if those cattle are selected. Understanding MSTN gene polymorphisms would be useful to make strategies for the genetic improvement for growth and carcass traits of local cattle.
Agustin Herliatika, Yeni Widiawati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 1-12; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2706

The major of gas emission in the livestock sector are in the form of methane produced by microbial activity in the rumen. The emission of methane cause global warming and is predicted to keep increasing. Feed modification and rumen manipulation are important ways that can be used to mitigate methane emission. Based on this condition, this paper aims to describe several ways to mitigate methane emission using feed and rumen modification for smallholder farmers. Feed modification can be done using high Non-Fiber Carbohydrate (NFC) content in feed and also using balance nutrient feed. Meanwhile, rumen modification can be done through inlcusion of feed additive, microbial products, and oils. Providing feed contains high NFC as much as 21.8-53%DM would decrease methane emission by 3.03-28.33%. While providing feed contains balance nutrients would potentially decrease 21.87% of methane emission. Feed additive addition as much as 0.0011-12%DM decreased 0.59-78% of methane emission. Bacterial inclusion as much as 0.7x108 – 3,6x1011CFU decreased 0- 18.57% of methane emission. Oil or fat inclusion as much as 6%DM decreased 6.02-24.53% of methane emission. A combination of methods can be used to optimize methane mitigation and it can be applicable for farmers to raise their livestock in friendly environment.
Gresy Eva Tresia, Wisri Puastuti, Ismeth Inounu
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 23-36; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v31i1.2723

Feed is one of the main pillars that need to be considered in optimizing production parameters in order to develop an efficient livestock business. Two aspects that need to be considered in order to make agricultural byproducts as a source of feed; those are the availability of raw materials for animal rations with high economic value and the function to reduce environmental pollution. Methane emissions are not only related to environmental problems, but also reflect the loss of some energy from livestock so that it cannot be used for the production process. The purpose of this paper is to review and estimate the carrying capacity for ruminant based on plantation by-products based feed and potential enteric methane emissions. The availability of feed from agricultural byproducts in Indonesia is estimated at 69.6 million tonnes of dry matter (DM), 34.8 million of total digestible nutrient (TDN), and 5 million tonnes of crude protein (CP)/year so it is estimated that it can accommodate 62.4 million livestock unit (LU) based on the DM availability or 39.1 million LU based on TDN availability or 51.6 million LU based on CP availability. From these calculations, it was found that the carrying capacity for ruminant in Indonesia could still be increased much greater than the current livestock population, namely 21.7-45 million livestock units if all byproducts are used entirely as components in rations. There are two groups of feed originating from plantation byproducts based on the potential for methane emissions produced, namely low (65-73 g CH4 / kg of material) and high (83-103 g CH4 / kg of material). Utilization of plantation byproducts as ruminant feed is expected to overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season. Utilization of these byproducts which in line with efforts to reduce methane emissions would enhance the development of livestock populations in friendly environment.
Engki Zelpina, Susan M Noor
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 221-229; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2194

Non-typhypoid Salmonella (NTS) is a pathogenic bacteria causing gastroenteritis in humans which is transmitted through animals and contaminated animal products with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella enteritidis. Many cases of NTS infection in humans have been reported in the world, however most people in Indonesian are generally more familiar with Salmonella typhoid, which is caused by Salmonella typhoid and Salmonella paratypoid. Gastroenteritis due to NTS infection seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. If there is no post-infectious complications such as septicemia, reactive arthritis or aortic aneurysm. Eggs, chicken meat, raw milk and other animal products contaminated with NTS are a source of transmission through food (food-borne pathogens). An estimated 1-3% of pets carry NTS without causing illness. Treatment of NTS in humans can be done by administering antibiotics, but the increase in Salmonella resistance to several types of antibiotics makes it more effective to prevent it through biosecurity applications in farms and prevent contamination of livestock products and their derivatives. This paper provides an overview of NTS, epidemiology, diagnosis and procedures for infection prevention and control in humans and animal reservoirs.
Dewi Ayu Ratih Daning, L M Yusiati, C Hanim, B P Widyobroto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 189-200; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2524

Feed efficiency is essential for dairy cows because it can increase production and quality of milk, and reduce methane emissions in the environment. One of the strategies on increasing feed efficiency is using rumen modifier. Essential oils have antimicrobial activities and have been used in rumen modifier in dairy cows. The aim of this paper is to review several studies on the utilization of essential oils as feed additive to enhance production and quality of milk of dairy cow. Based on some research reports, using essential oils which contained thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol in dairy cattle feed decreased the population of protozoa, methanogens, proteolytic, and biohydrogenase bacteria. The impact of engineering of the rumen microbial population has led to optimal rumen fermentation resulted in the efficiency of carbohydrate, protein, and fat utilizations. It can be concluded that essential oils are potential as rumen modifier by inhibit methanogenesis, increase propionate, energy efficiency and ruminal by pass protein. The inconsistent results on milk production and milk fat requires further research to study deeper the effect of dosage and type of essential oils on dairy cows performance.
Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani, S M Noor, B Bakrie
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 211-220; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2529

Animals have an important role in research and testing to improve human and animal health. Animal usage must be balanced between science and ethical values of animal welfare. This paper discusses the role of IACUC, the implications of animal welfare for research, animal ethical clearance and obstacles in the implementation of animal welfare. Institution of Animal Care Use Committee (IACUC) has an important role to ensure that researcher has animal ethical clearance before conducting research and testing. Research and testing using animal should comply with ethical principles: respect, beneficiary and justice; 3Rs principles: Replacement, Reduction, Refinement and 5F/Freedom: freedom from hunger and thirst, heat and discomfort, pain, trauma and disease, fear and stress and expressing behavior naturally. The application of animal ethics clearance in Indonesia in research using animals is compulsary in various institutions, However thera are several barriers in its implementation, Those are: not all research institutions have IACUC, lack of awareness of researchers to apply for animal ethical clearance, reluctant to IACUC requirements, lack of facilities animals that meet animal welfare requirements and lack of competence in animal handling according to animal welfare.
Cecep Hidayat, E Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 177-188; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2563

Heat stress is an important issue in broiler chicken farms in tropical countries, such as Indonesia. Heat stress is very detrimental to broiler chickens because reducing production performance, health, and causing mortality. In the condition of heat stress, broilers synthesize Heat Shock Protein (HSP) quickly as the body's response to heat stress. HSP 70 is the most studied HSP group related to heat stress. The objective of this study was to review the nutritional approach that has been done to mitigate heat stress in broiler chickens with the HSP70 gene expression as its indicator. Based on some studies, nutritional approaches that can be taken are through the management of feed availability, supplementation of vitamin C, vitamin E, plant bioactives, amino acids (taurine and glutamine), probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, manan oligo saccharide (MOS) and minerals (selenium, zinc, manganese, chromium). By these approaches, HSP70 gene expression decreased indicating that the heat stress level of broiler chicken also reduced. It can be concluded that the nutritional approach can be used as a method for heat stress mitigation in broilers with the HSP70 gene expression indicator.
Harmini Harmini, Ahmad Fanindi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, pp 201-210; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v30i4.2544

Climate change is characterized by an increasing in temperature, drought, and an increase in CO2. This paper aims to propose the right strategy to deal with climate change in forage crops. Plant adaptation mechanisms include increasing water content, cell membrane stability, and photosynthetic capacity by suppressing stomata conductance and C consumption through respiration. The impacts of climate change on animal feed crops include: decreased productivity and nutrient content, and reduced planting area which affects the supply of animal feed so that food availability is disrupted. Adaptation strategies are carried out by managing the cultivation of forage plants, including selecting planting and harvesting times, as well as irrigation. Besides, it is necessary to select adaptive fodder plants through breeding. Breeding methods are conducted through the exploration of genetic resources to compile new superior forage adaptive crops to climate change. Recommendations for adaptable forage include: sorghum, Brachiaria humidicola, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum).
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