Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0216-6461 / 2354-6832
Total articles ≅ 182
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Achmad Fanindi, Harmini Harmini
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 163-174; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i4.2736

Abstract:
Mutation induction in breeding is one of many ways to improve the character of a plant, including forage crops. Formation of new variety of forage plants, especially grass is still very rare in Indonesia due to several obstacles, including the flower structure, ploid and reproductive systems of forage plants. Mutation induction in breeding as a method of producing new varieties of forage plants (grass and legume) can be utilized by eliminating the constraints in forage plants, because it can create new variety without being restricted by floral structure and reproductive system of plant. The paper aims to describe the mutation breeding and its methods on forage plants and its prospect to obtain new varieties of superior forage plants to meet the needs of forage in Indonesia. A number of factors, including mutation technique, mutagenic type, seed and other factors, are determining the success of mutational breeding. The creation of new types of forage plants by mutation-induction is aiming to increase productivity, improve forage performances and resist abiotic and biotic stress. Mutation breeding is expected to produce new varieties of superior forage plants in a relatively shorter time, because forage plants can be propagated in a vegetative or generative manner. It is epxected that the assembly of new varieties of forage plants can meet the needs of forage in quantity and quality.
Agustin Herliatika, Dika Permatahati, Yusti Pujiawati, Gresy Eva Tresia, Elizabeth Wina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 185-198; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i4.2889

Abstract:
The insect which contains high protein is potential to be used as an unconventional protein source (UPS) in feed. Production cost of this feedstuff is affordable through utilization of waste as growing media. Moreover, this production helps the environment by reducing the unprocessed waste. This study aims to review the potential use of cricket, black soldier fly (BSF), mealworm, and silkworm as UPS in replacing fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SM) in the feed. The insect meal contains relative similar crude protein but higher ether-extract compared to conventional protein sources. The insect meal contains higher tyrosine but lower arginine, histidine, lysine, and tryptophan compared to FM and SM. The chitin content in UPS decreases the digestibility, causing restriction its utilization in the diet. However, it can be used as antibacterial and antifungal in feed, and in ruminant, it can be used to mitigate enteric methane emission. UPS in layer and broiler diet can replace SM, meanwhile, in quail diet, it can replace FM. From different sources, it can be summarised that the potential addition of BSF, cricket, mealworm, and silkworm in the broiler’s diet is 8%DM replacing 100% SM, 5-15%DM replacing 40-100% FM, 5-29,5%DM replacing 3-100% SM, and 7,8%DM replacing 100% SM, respectively. The potential addition of BSF and mealworm in the layer’s diet is 10-15%DM replacing 66-100% SM and 2-5%DM replacing 21% SM, respectively. The potential addition of cricket, mealworm, and silkworm in the quail’s diet is 2-8%DM replacing 25-100% FM, 2,25%DM replacing 25% FM, and 2,08-6,25%DM replacing 26-76% FM, respectively.
Suyatno Suyatno
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 155-162; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i4.2845

Abstract:
Stem cells are unique cells that have the ability to differentiate into cells with specific functions and renew themselves to produce new stem cells. One type of stem cells that are actively studied is Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSC). SSC is a unipotent cell that develops into spermatozoa in the mammalian testis. SSC can be transplanted into male testis recipients to improve the genetic quality of livestock and propagate valuable livestock. SSC transplantation procedure is started from the isolation of SSC from testis of the donor animal, in vitro culture of SCC for propagation or genetic modification, preparations of recipient males, and transplant SSC into recipient males to produce normal sperm that can fertilize the egg. SSC transplantation technology has been successfully applied to large animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, buffalo, pigs, other mammals such as monkeys. SSC transplantation is promising biotechnology to improve livestock production in the near future. This review will describe the origins of the SSC, identification, and characterization of SSC, in vitro culture of SSC, and the application of SSC transplantation for genetic quality of livestock improvement.
Deni Fitra, Niken Ulupi, Irma Isnafia Arief, Rita Mutia, Luki Abdullah, Edi Erwan
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 175-184; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i4.2683

Abstract:
The free-range system is a currentmodel of chicken production according to the concept of Animal Welfare. This article aims to discuss how the free-range system was implemented and its effect on health, performance and quality product as well as free-range development strategies as an alternative to chicken production systems. The free-range system must have access to outdoor to express their natural behavior. Based on regulation, the density of chickens in outdoor is a maximum of 10,000 birds/ha. Chickens reared using the free-range system show better welfare indicators, as evidenced by the Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L) value and the frequency of their natural behavior. Chicken eggs from the free-range system contain higher levels of protein and carotenoid. It also contains omega-3 & 6, DHA, vitamins A and E and have lower cholesterol level. Chicken meat from the free-range system contains higher protein and lower fat levels. However, the performance of chicken production using free-range system was still not consistent and was greatly influenced by the type of forage in the pasture. The introduction of grazing land with superior forage such as Indigofera zollingeriana and choosing kampung or local type of chickens may become development strategies of chicken production in the free range system.
Bess Tiesnamurti, Sri Muharsini, M I Shiddieqy
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 199-207; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i4.2972

Abstract:
The government is responsible for fulfil the needs of safe, healthy and halal food for all its people in a sustainable manner. The world population will increase from 7 to 9 billion people in 2050. While the availability of land may not increase in the future, it may even not be used for agriculture. Scientists are trying to overcome this problem by creating technologies that can increase livestock productivity, one of which is through a genetically modified process. Genetically modified animals are animals that have been genetically modified for many purposes including yields and disease resistance. Although genetically modified animals are at the last stage of research and the possibility to entering Indonesia remains small, but government should prepare a regulation related to it. European countries and USA have regulations to control genetically modified animals. Malaysia also has applied a similar regulation since 2007. Currently, Indonesia has formed an authority that oversees the genetically modified product, namely Biosafety Commission (Komisi Keamanan Hayati) on genetically modified products. However, this commission only supervises genetically modified organism in food and feed. This paper is aimed to propose the regulation for genetically modified animal that may be entering Indonesia and or be researched by Indonesian scientists.
Intan Nursiam, Muhammad Ridla, Nahrowi Nahrowi, Widya Hermana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 119-128; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i3.2754

Abstract:
In AGP ban era, addition of a fiber source in broiler feed improves the performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract. This paper aims to describe the differences in fiber analysis methods and the effect of fiber source addition on growth, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and microbiota profile in the digestive tract of broilers. Oat hulls, sugar beet pulp, rice hulls, pea hulls, sunflower hulls, wheat bran, and wood have been tested as fiber source in broiler feed. The effectiveness of fiber in increasing growth performance and stimulating the development of the gastrointestinal tract were influenced by the physico-chemical properties, level of addition, particle size, and fraction composition of the fiber source. Exploration of local fiber sources from Indonesia, which can have ability to increase growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of broilers is needed to support food security in the future.
Juniar Sirait, Kiston Simanihuruk
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 137-146; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i3.2876

Abstract:
Forage is an important component in raising ruminants. Limited land specifically for forage cultivation is a big challenge in providing forage. Tithonia diversifolia is a promising species used as feed for ruminants because it is easy to grow in various places without being cultivated, such as on roadsides or as fences. This paper aims to give information about Tithonia diversifolia and its cultivation, production, nutritional value and its utilization as forage for ruminant. This plant can be propagated vegetatively and generatively. The spread of seeds can be carried by vectors such as humans, livestock, water currents and wind. T. diversifolia plants have several advantages: fast growing, high production, high crude protein content, resistance to high cutting frequencies and tolerance to acidic soils. Apart from these advantages, this plant also has some weaknesses because it contains several secondary compounds which may affect rumen fermentation. This weakness can be overcome by addition of feed aditive, charcoal or by processing it into silage. T. diversifolia has been used as feed for small and large ruminants either as single or mixed feed with concentrates and other forages with relatively high digestibility. The dry matter consumption of T. diversifolia reaches nearly 600 g/h/d when given as single feed to goats. However, recommended feeding level is 30% of total ration.
Anika Prastyowati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 147-154; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i3.2850

Abstract:
Wild horse milk of Sumbawa is a national commodity derived from the wild horse in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. This product is well known to have health benefits for people. There have been studies related to milk’s characterization, chemical composition, microbial biodiversity, and probiotics effects by Indonesian academists since it is a local product produced only in Indonesia. This report objects to collect scientific documentation in Indonesia of wild horse milk of Sumbawa usage, its production, chemical compounds, microbial community, and potency as probiotics. Milk production of Sumbawa horse milk was 1-2 liters/horse/day. The usage of this commodity covered the health, medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. The main chemistry compound of wild horse milk was lactose 6.48%, protein 1.81%, and fat 1.67%, which will affect its microbial community. Lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus, were the dominant bacteria that have potency as probiotics. Thus, this article provides a reference for academists or researchers who are interested to explore this commodity.
Triana Susanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 109-118; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i3.2671

Abstract:
Muscovy duck is one of the genetic resources of waterfowl that spreads almost all over Indonesia. Muscovy duck is classified as meat-producer waterfowl, because of its relatively large body weight and better meat quality compared to other waterfowl. Therefore, cross breeding between Muscovy and ducks were often conducted by farmers to produce offspring with large body weight in order to anticipate the higher demand for duck meat. If this crossing pattern has been widely adopted by breeders, it will require a larger number of Muscovy duck. Whereas, currently the population of Muscovy is relatively low and no breeding system exists both at the community farm level or industrial level. Therefore, a development program of local Muscovy duck, especially its breeding program needs to be done immediately. As an information material to facilitate the preparation of the program, this paper describes factors that affect the breeding program including production performance and reproduction, as well as the breeding strategy of Muscovy duck as candidates of male line to form special type of meat type ducks through 3 groups of livestock breeds in the shape of a conical triangle at the top. The top position was the pure stock (nucleus), the middle was the parent stock (multiplier) and the bottom was the commercial stock. The genetic quality of livestock flows from the top position to the bottom and cannot be the other way around, because the breeding system is closed in the pure stock (nucleus).
Anak Agung Gede Fandhiananta Widyanjaya, Anak Agung Gede Jayawardhita
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, pp 129-136; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v31i3.2751

Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest health challenges in the world. The unwise use of Antibiotic Growth Promoter (AGP) in livestock is one of the factors that triggers the increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance. In an effort to anticipate the negative impact of using antibiotics, alternative materials are needed to replace AGP. From those various problems, this paper aims to provide information on the use of phytogenic feed additives as natural antibacterials that have the potency as an alternative AGP. Based on the results of various studies, Jamaican cherry leaf extract has the ability to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species in vitro. Various phytochemical test results showed that Jamaican cherry leaves contain several types of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins that have antibacterial effect. The addition of Jamaican cherry leaves to feed was able to increase the value of digestibility, carcass weight, egg production, and protein content of meat. Therefore, Jamaican cherry leaf (Muntingia carabula L.) has the potency to be used as feed additive to replace AGP.
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