Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics

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ISSN / EISSN : 0100-7203 / 1806-9339
Published by: Georg Thieme Verlag KG (10.1055)
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, Maite Castro, Isabel Carriles, Maria de Arriba, ,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 911-918; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740271

Abstract:
Objective Currently, there are up to three different classifications for diagnosing septate uterus. The interobserver agreement among them has been poorly assessed. Objective To assess the interobserver agreement of nonexpert sonographers for classifying septate uterus using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE/ESGE), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), and Congenital Uterine Malformations by Experts (CUME) classifications. Methods A total of 50 three-dimensional (3D) volumes of a nonconsecutive series of women with suspected uterine malformation were used. Two nonexpert examiners evaluated a single 3D volume of the uterus of each woman, blinded to each other. The following measurements were performed: indentation depth, indentation angle, uterine fundal wall thickness, external fundal indentation, and indentation-to-wall-thickness (I:WT) ratio. Each observer had to assign a diagnosis in each case, according to the three classification systems (ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM, and CUME). The interobserver agreement regarding the ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM, and CUME classifications was assessed using the Cohen weighted kappa index (k). Agreement regarding the three classifications (ASRM versus ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM versus CUME, ESHRE/ESGE versus CUME) was also assessed. Results The interobserver agreement between the 2 nonexpert examiners was good for the ESHRE/ESGE (k = 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55–0.92) and very good for the ASRM and CUME classification systems (k = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.86–1.00; and k = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.79–1.00, respectively). Agreement between the ESHRE/ESGE and ASRM classifications was moderate for both examiners. Agreement between the ESHRE/ESGE and CUME classifications was moderate for examiner 1 and good for examiner 2. Agreement between the ASRM and CUME classifications was good for both examiners. Conclusion The three classifications have good (ESHRE/ESGE) or very good (ASRM and CUME) interobserver agreement. Agreement between the ASRM and CUME classifications was higher than that for the ESHRE/ESGE and ASRM and ESHRE/ESGE and CUME classifications.
, Mariana Silva Castro Vianna, , Daniella Moretti Arbore, Thais Helena Wilmers Perini, Tulio Jose Tomass Couto, Jose Pedroso Neto,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 926-931; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740279

Abstract:
Objective The present study assesses the implementation and the impact after 2 years of a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in a Brazilian city. Methods A prospective study assessing the implementation of the program, offering quadrivalent HPV vaccine in two annual doses to girls and boys aged from 9 to 10 years old. The program was started in the city of Indaiatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2018, and had authorization from the National Immunization Program. The number of HPV vaccine first doses applied and the coverage in 2018 was calculated and compared to the year 2017. There were described events that have influenced the results. Results The program invited 4,878 children through schools (87.1% of the target population), and 7.5% refused vaccination. Several concurrent events required or competed for health professionals of the vaccination teams. The coverage of the first dose (between 9 and 10 years old) was 16.1% in 2017 and increased to 50.5% in 2018 (p < 0.0001). The first dose in all ages increased 78% in 2018 compared with 2017 (6,636/3,733). Competing demands over the program continued in 2019, and the first dose coverage dropped (26.9%). For 2020, a municipal law instituted school-based vaccination and the creation of dedicated teams for vaccination, and these strategies are waiting to be tested. Conclusion School-based annual HPV vaccination in children between 9 and 10 years old was feasible and increased vaccination coverage, regardless of gender, although the program was vulnerable to competing events.
Victoria Elizabeth Galvão, ,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 894-903; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740270

Abstract:
Objective Gestational hypertension (GH) is characterized by increased blood pressure after the 20th gestational week; the presence of proteinuria and/or signs of end-organ damage indicate preeclampsia (PE). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant enzyme with an important role in maintaining endothelial function, and induction of HO-1 by certain molecules shows potential in attenuating the condition's effects over endothelial tissue. HO-1 production can also be stimulated by potassium iodide (KI). Therefore, we evaluated the effects of KI over HO-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) incubated with plasma from women diagnosed with GH or PE. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with a pool of plasma of healthy pregnant women (n = 12), pregnant women diagnosed with GH (n = 10) or preeclamptic women (n = 11) with or without the addition of KI for 24 hours to evaluate its effect on this enzyme expression. Analysis of variance was performed followed by Dunnet's test for multiple comparisons between groups only or between groups with addition of KI (p ≤ 0.05). Results KI solution (1,000 µM) reduced HO-1 in the gestational hypertension group (p = 0.0018) and cytotoxicity in the preeclamptic group (p = 0.0143); treatment with KI reduced plasma cytotoxicity but did not affect the preeclamptic group's HO-1 expression. Conclusion Our findings suggest that KI alleviates oxidative stress leading to decreased HO-1 expression; plasma from preeclamptic women did not induce the enzyme's expression in HUVECs, and we hypothesize that this is possibly due to inhibitory post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to overexpression of this enzyme during early pregnancy.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 919-925; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1735156

Abstract:
Objective Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent chronic inflammatory disease with symptoms such as pelvic pain, which affect the physical, emotional, and social health of women in reproductive age. The current overview article aims to explore the effect of complementary medicine on the treatment or in mitigating the risk of endometriosis. Methods This is an overview article done in Iran. Two separate researchers systematically searched 3 databases (Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register Trials) until September 2020. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Results The results of two reviews suggested that physical activity, tobacco smoking, diet, coffee and caffeine intake had no effect on mitigating the risk of endometriosis or improving its treatment, but acupuncture successfully reduced pain and related marker (serum CA-125) levels. Conclusion As endometriosis is an annoying disease with many complications and is hard to diagnose and treat, related studies in complementary medicine can help patients with endometriosis. Based on the relevant literature review, among the complementary medicine available for the treatment or to mitigate the risk of endometriosis, only acupuncture seems to alleviate the pain of endometriosis.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 904-910; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740273

Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) in each trimester of pregnancy as a predictor of early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) in Colombian pregnant women. Methods The UtAPI was measured in singleton pregnancies in each trimester. Uterine artery pulsatility index as predictor of PE was evaluated by odds ratio (OR), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and Kaplan-Meier diagram. Results Analysis in the 1st and 3rd trimester showed that abnormal UtAPI was associated with early PE (OR: 5.99: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64–21.13; and OR: 10.32; 95%CI: 2.75–42.49, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 79.6%, respectively, for developing PE (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.922). The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that a UtAPI of 0.76 (95%CI: 0.58–1.0) in the 1st trimester was associated with early PE, and a UtAPI of 0.73 (95%CI: 0.55–0.97) in the 3rd trimester was associated with late PE. Conclusion Uterine arteries proved to be a useful predictor tool in the 1st and 3rd trimesters for early PE and in the 3rd trimester for late PE in a pregnant population with high prevalence of PE. Objetivo Avaliar o índice médio de pulsatilidade da artéria uterina (UtAPI) em cada trimestre da gravidez como preditor de pré-eclâmpsia (PE) precoce ou tardia em gestantes colombianas. Métodos O UtAPI foi medido em gestações únicas em cada trimestre. O UtAPI como preditor de PE foi avaliado por odds ratio (OR), curvas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) e diagrama de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados A análise no 1° e 3° trimestres mostrou que um UtAPI anormal foi associado com PE inicial (OR: 5,99; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,64–21,13; OR: 10,32; IC95%: 2,75–42,49, respectivamente). A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram de 71,4 e 79,6%, respectivamente, para o desenvolvimento de PE (area under the curve [AUC]: 0,922). A curva de Kaplan-Meier mostrou que um UtAPI de 0,76 (IC95%: 0,58–1,0) no 1° trimestre foi associado com PE precoce, e que um UtAPI de 0,73 (IC95%: 0,55–0,97) no 3° trimestre foi associado com PE tardia. Conclusão As artérias uterinas mostraram ser uma ferramenta preditora útil no 1° e 3° trimestres para PE inicial e no 3° trimestre para PE tardia em uma população de gestantes com alta prevalência de PE. All the authors contributed with the project and data interpretation, the writing of the article, the critical review of the intellectual content, and with the final approval of the version to be published. Received: 28 November 2020 Accepted: 13 October 2021 Publication Date: 21 December 2021 (online) © 2021. Federação Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda. Rua do Matoso 170, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 20270-135, Brazil
, Sara Cunha, Matilde Martins, Luísa Sousa, ,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 961-967; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740209

Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the differences between bladder emptying options (permanent catheterization and intermittent bladder emptying/spontaneous urination) regarding the effects on labor length, need of operative vaginal deliveries, and cesarean section rate. Data Sources The search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Selection of Studies The survey returned 964 studies. A total of 719 studies were evaluated by title and abstract, of which 4 were selected for inclusion. Data Collection All references were inserted in the Rayyan QCRI tool (Rayyan Systems Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA). The full text of the selected articles was obtained so we could later decide whether or not to include them in this systematic review. Data Synthesis No differences were found in the number of instrumented deliveries or in cesarean section rate between groups. Conclusions After evaluating the studies performed on the topic, we concluded that there is no clear advantage to either method, although continuous catheterization was associated with a greater occurrence of eutocic births. In the remaining outcomes, there were no differences between catheterization types.
David Balbino Pascoal, Isabela Macêdo de Araujo, Lorenna Peixoto Lopes, Cristiane Monteiro da Cruz
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 940-948; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740208

Abstract:
Women have metabolic, immunological, and genetic variables that ensure more protection from coronavirus infection. However, the indication of treatment for several pathologies and contraception is determined by hormones that have adverse effects and raise doubts about their use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the present study searches women specificities and the relation between female sexual hormones and COVID-19, and reports the main recommendations in this background. To this end, a review of the literature was conducted in the main databases, auxiliary data sources, and official websites. Therefore, considering the hypercoagulability status of COVID-19, the debate about the use of contraceptives due to the relative risk of thromboembolic effects that they impose arises. However, the current available evidence, as well as the recommendations of main health organs around the world, demonstrate that the use of hormonal contraceptives must be maintained during the pandemic.
Mona Najaf Najafi, Neshat Najaf Najafi, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Somayeh Moeindarbary, , Zeinab Sadat Hoseini,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 968-979; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740210

Abstract:
Objective The aim of the present systematic review meta-analysis is to assess the effect of olfactory stimulation on reducing dysmenorrhea. Methods Systematic search was conducted in several databases, such as PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus, to identify relevant research up to October 26, 2019. The identified studies were evaluated based on a modified Jadad scale. The intervention involves aromatherapy alone or in combination with essential oils. There was no restriction for the control group such as a placebo group or other common treatments. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 (Bio stat, Englewood, NJ, USA) was used for meta-analysis. Cochran's Q and I2 tests were utilized. Results The findings of our meta-analysis, which contained 13 trials (15 data), showed that dysmenorrhea decreased significantly in the group receiving aromatherapy with herbal compared with the control group (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.795; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.922 to- 0.667; 17 trials O < 0.001); heterogeneity; I2 = 19.47%; p = 0.236). In addition, four studies with insufficient data were not included in our meta-analysis. The results of all studies suggested that aromatherapy with herbal medicine group compared with control group is effective. Conclusion Aromatherapy with herbal medicine decreased dysmenorrhea. This treatment was particularly effective when aroma oil was combined with massage or when a mixture of aroma oil was used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
Pedro Castro, , Ana Paula Matos, Gerson Ribeiro, Jorge Lopes,
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 985-987; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1739297

Abstract:
Conjoined twins (CTs) are a rare complication from monochorionic and monoamniotic twin pregnancies. We describe the use of 3D technologies, including 3D virtual and 3D physical models on prenatal evaluation of one parapagus CT. A 16-year-old G1P0 woman was referred for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomical evaluation of a CT at 28 weeks of gestation. 3D images of the fetal surface were generated by the software during the examination for spatial comprehension of the relationship between the fetal parts. The pair of CTs died at the 32nd week of gestation, a few hours after cesarean section. 3D technologies are an important tool for parental counseling and preparation of the multidisciplinary care team for delivery and neonatal assistance and possible surgical planning for postnatal separation in CTs cases.
Andrea Prestes Nácul, Gabriela Pravatta Rezende, , Técia Maranhão, Laura Olinda Bregieiro Fernandes Costa, , , Lia Cruz Vaz Da Costa Damásio, Ana Carolina Japur De Sá Rosa E Silva, Vinicius Medina Lopes, et al.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics, Volume 43, pp 988-994; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740610

Abstract:
The National Specialty Commission on Gynecology Endocrinology of the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Associations (FEBRASGO) endorses to this document. The content production is based on scientific studies on a thematic proposal and the findings presented contribute to clinical practice. Publication Date: 21 December 2021 (online) © 2021. Federação Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda. Rua do Matoso 170, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 20270-135, Brazil
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