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EISSN : 2673-995X
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 33
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Published: 21 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 441-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2040032

Abstract:
South Africa continues to be marked by high youth unemployment. This paper investigates youth labor market perspectives in northern South Africa in the light of data from the Livelihoods, Religion and Youth Survey. In addition to standard explanatory variabless of labor market outcomes, it explores whether the ‘soft’ factors of social capital and religion might contribute to youth’s labor market success. Methodologically, the study draws on descriptive statistics and the estimation of linear probability models. The results indicate that religious social capital goes along with improved labor market success, while there is no indication in the data that (non-religious) social capital or religiosity are positively correlated with labor market performance among the youth in the sample. The social capital created in religious communities seems to contribute to youth labor market success. Further research should investigate how these structures can serve as models for the improvement of government interventions aiming at improving youth labor market outcomes. Moreover, the results are in line with the findings of previous research on spatial mismatches in the labor market and highlight the need for job creation, particularly in rural areas.
Published: 17 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 422-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030031

Abstract:
The present study examined the relationship between adolescents’ efficacy beliefs (both personal and collective), climate anxiety (as measured with climate worry), group dynamics during an environmental intervention, and behavioral intentions in a setting where their agency was called upon. Data were collected in French-speaking Switzerland during and after four environmental education interventions during which adolescents developed climate-related projects or narratives in small groups. Questionnaire data (N = 150 adolescents) were matched with observations (from group dynamics) and interview data (from teachers). Self- and collective efficacy, climate anxiety, citing group work as a most interesting part of the intervention, and observed group attention were all positively related to stronger pro-environmental intentions. In addition, feeling involved in the group was also indirectly related to pro-environmental behaviors, through climate anxiety. Overall, our results suggest that being worried about climate change has the potential to translate into climate action. In addition, working in small groups has clear benefits for adolescents.
Published: 16 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 405-421; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030030

Abstract:
Young adults in rural areas in many cases have limited educational opportunities. To obtain higher educational qualifications, rural youth often travel long distances. Therefore, many rural youths choose the “shorter” route and complete vocational training closer to home or drop out of their education prematurely. Against this background, this study examines the education policies of European countries and explores the extent to which these problems are addressed within their policy framework and what measures are taken to improve the situation. Using a unique dataset of policies of 31 European countries for the period 2010 to 2020, we examine more than 500 national and subnational policies that address formal and informal education and training. The results show that despite the sometimes high number of rural youths not in education, employment, or training (NEETs) and high early-school-leaving rates, only some countries have developed a respective policy strategy. The analysis presents the different measures implemented in the countries and furthermore shows that a high problem pressure in a country is not necessarily accompanied by a consideration in policy. Prospectively, there is a need for new policies that understand the multidimensionality of the issue and significantly improve the situation of rural youth.
Published: 13 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 391-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030029

Abstract:
Public health measures adopted due to the COVID-19 pandemic made emergency remote learning the designated higher education delivery model under lockdowns, causing several transformations in the sector. Based on an online survey of 1009 students aged between 16 and 24 years old during 2021, this article examines the perceptions and experiences of distance education of a cohort dealing with the second lockdown in Portugal. It explores how young people perceived their student lives during the lockdown. More specifically, the study focuses on higher education experience, from learning conditions to pedagogical quality; expectations regarding academic life; and main concerns about academic (and professional) futures due to the lockdown’s effects. The results show that while some students adapted well to remote teaching, stressing its advantages in terms of time management and convenience, the majority disliked it because they had greater difficulty in following classes, not due to material and technical limitations, but rather for lack of socialisation and peer support. We discuss the value of a hidden curriculum for student engagement.
Published: 5 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 384-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030028

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to examine macro-determinants of the Not Engaged in Employment, Education or Training (NEET) rate with the country as the unit of analysis. Data from 40 countries were extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) database. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations between the NEET rate and gross domestic product (GDP), population density, life expectancy, social spending, homicide rate, part-time employment, poverty, social inequality (GINI index), and education spending. As part of a sensitivity analysis, the analysis was repeated using open data from the World Bank Group. GDP and social spending were uniquely associated with the NEET rate after controlling for the effects of other factors. Social inequality, poverty, and education spending showed borderline significant associations with the NEET rate. The findings of the present ecological study showed associations between environmentally unfavourable conditions or harshness and the NEET rate at the country level and may inform appropriate policy measures to contain and promote a decrease in the NEET rate.
Published: 31 August 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 366-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030027

Abstract:
Research that examines lived experience and how emerging adults seek to create wellbeing in their daily lives through nature is limited. This paper addresses this gap by providing unique insights into how emerging adults perceive and experience nature as a beneficial resource for their wellbeing. Data were collected using photo-elicitation interviews, where 18 emerging adults took photographs that represented their views on and experiences of wellbeing, and during the follow-up interviews discussed the meaning of their photographs. Without a priori mention, 14 participants identified contact with various elements of nature as important resources in supporting their wellbeing. It is the results of these 14 interviews that are discussed in this paper with a focus on (i) the elements of nature which these emerging adults identify as important resources for their wellbeing, (ii) experiences and the perceived pathways between these elements of nature and wellbeing. Thematic analysis revealed four distinct perceived pathways connecting nature to wellbeing, including symbiotic nurturing, building social glue, maintaining a positive outlook, and centreing yourself. Four elements of nature facilitated these pathways: domesticated fauna, domesticated flora, wild fauna and wild surrounding nature. The findings help build understanding of how emerging adults perceive elements of nature as resources for wellbeing and can inform the development of nature-oriented interventions.
Published: 23 August 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 352-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030026

Abstract:
Many adolescents with diverse sexual orientations lead happy and fulfilled lives. However, evidence consistently suggests elevated rates of mental health difficulties in this population relative to heterosexual peers, and internalization of stigma (i.e., self-stigma) is implicated in these elevated rates. This study aimed to understand and describe the lived experience of self-stigma with respect to participants’ sexual orientations. To do this, N = 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 14–18 who are attracted to the same gender, asking about how their stigma experiences affected their views of their sexual orientation, and themselves. A community reference group of young people with diverse sexual orientations was also consulted in the development of the study, and interpretation of the themes. Through thematic analysis of the self-stigma data and the consultation process, four themes were developed: (1) stigma is a precursor to self-stigma; (2) acceptance is a precursor to self-acceptance; (3) contents of self-stigma, characterized by two subthemes: (i) self-shame (comprised of feelings of abnormality, self-disgust and/or being a ‘bad’ person) and (ii) self-invalidation; and (4) self-stigma is painful and can be damaging. There is a contrast between the way that internalized homophobia is operationalized, and the way self-stigma was characterized in this study with young people, and conceptualizing and measuring self-stigma may need to be updated. Based on the analysis, we suggest four ways to address self-stigma and its impacts: (1) individual intervention; (2) increasing acceptance in families and communities; (3) providing respectful and normalizing sexuality education and information; and (4) overcoming community stigma.
Published: 22 August 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 339-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030025

Abstract:
Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ people’s housing experiences are poorly understood in Aotearoa, New Zealand, including those of young people. We use data from an online survey to investigate experiences of homelessness, involuntary mobility, and housing-related discrimination amongst Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ youth (n = 334). Multiple linear regression analysis shows a significant relationship between homelessness scores and experience of state care, involuntary mobility, and housing discrimination. Furthermore, these young people had high rates of poverty (57% reporting an annual income below NZD 20,000), involuntary mobility (56%), housing-related discrimination (55%), and lifetime experiences of homelessness (31%). These findings highlight the difficulties that Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ young people face in the housing market, emphasising the need for targeted programs and policies to meet their needs and prevent homelessness from occurring.
Published: 20 August 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 318-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030024

Abstract:
In recent years, young people in Australia and abroad have taken to social media to express their concerns about the violent behaviour of their peers, and to share content that challenges the causes of gender-based and interpersonal violence. From launching policy-changing petitions to responding to and engaging with online campaigns, young people are pushing action and momentum from generational changes in feminist movements. Young people have their own contexts and influences that affect understandings and responses to gendered inequality and violence. This paper discusses the findings of nine focus groups with 32 young people who share content online about preventing gender-based violence, exploring their perceptions on their reasonings for using these tools and how they came to assumptions about gender inequality. It explores the contexts that young people in Australia draw upon to challenge existing gender inequalities and their reasonings for using social media to share ideas about preventing violence with others. The findings of this paper, thus, have implications for how young people are engaged in the primary prevention of gender-based violence, suggesting better use for social-media-campaign content engagement.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Youth
Youth, Volume 2, pp 309-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030023

Abstract:
Musculoskeletal fitness (MF) is a multidimensional construct that combines muscle strength, endurance, and power to allow for the performance of tasks against one’s own body weight or an external resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of school-based programs on promoting MF in children aged 6 to 10. PubMed and Web of Science databases were used as searching tools. A total of 16 studies were included in a systematic review with primary school-based program interventions measuring at least one variable related to musculoskeletal fitness. Parameters for measuring explosive power, especially standing broad jump (SBJ), have a large potential for development throughout school-based programs. Long-lasting interventions did not necessarily improve MF; however, there were shorter interventions that caused the improvement in a larger number of parameters. Our findings imply that increased physical activity during a school week, together with improved lesson content, is crucial for MF development in this age group.
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