Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring

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Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 7
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, Peng Li, Arlen Gaba, Erik Musiek, Yo‐El S. Ju,
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12211

Abstract:
Introduction Degradation in fractal motor activity regulation (FMAR), a measure of multiscale self-similarity of motor control, occurs in aging and accelerates with clinical progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether FMAR changes occur during the pre-symptomatic phase of the disease in women and men remains unknown. Methods FMAR was assessed in cognitively normal participants (n = 178) who underwent 7 to 14 days of home actigraphy. Preclinical AD pathology was determined by amyloid imaging-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phosphorylated-tau181 (p-tau) to amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) ratio. Results Degradation in daytime FMAR was overall significantly associated with preclinical amyloid plaque pathology via PiB+ imaging (beta coefficient β = 0.217, standard error [SE] = 0.101, P = .034) and increasing CSF tau181-Aβ42 ratio (β = 0.220, SE = 0.084, P = .009). In subset analysis by sex, the effect sizes were significant in women for PiB+ (β = 0.279, SE = 0.112, P = .015) and CSF (β = 0.245, SE = 0.094, P = .011) but not in men (both Ps > .05). These associations remained after inclusion of daily activity level, apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status, and rest/activity patterns. Discussion Changes in daytime FMAR from actigraphy appear to be present in women early in preclinical AD. This may be a combination of earlier pathology changes in females reflected in daytime FMAR, and a relatively underpowered male group. Further studies are warranted to test FMAR as an early noncognitive physiological biomarker that precedes the onset of cognitive symptoms.
, Leigh A. Johnson, Robert C. Barber, Meredith N. Braskie, Bradley Christian, James R. Hall, Nalini Hazra, Kevin King, Deydeep Kothapalli, Stephanie Large, et al.
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12202

Abstract:
Introduction Mexican Americans remain severely underrepresented in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. The Health & Aging Brain among Latino Elders (HABLE) study was created to fill important gaps in the existing literature. Methods Community-dwelling Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic White adults and elders (age 50 and above) were recruited. All participants underwent comprehensive assessments including an interview, functional exam, clinical labs, informant interview, neuropsychological testing, and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Amyloid and tau positron emission tomography (PET) scans were added at visit 2. Blood samples were stored in the Biorepository. Results Data was examined from n = 1705 participants. Significant group differences were found in medical, demographic, and sociocultural factors. Cerebral amyloid and neurodegeneration imaging markers were significantly different between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Discussion The current data provide strong support for continued investigations that examine the risk factors for and biomarkers of AD among diverse populations.
, Megan E. O'Connell, Karen Pitawanakwat, Melissa Blind, Wayne Warry, Andrine Lemieux, Christopher Patterson, Cheryl Allaby, Meghan Valvasori, Yantao Zhao, et al.
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12213

Abstract:
Introduction Despite increasing dementia rates, few culturally informed cognitive assessment tools exist for Indigenous populations. The Canadian Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (CICA) was adapted with First Nations on Manitoulin Island, Canada, and provides a brief, multi-domain cognitive assessment in English and Anishinaabemowin. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, we assessed the CICA for inter-rater and test–retest reliability in 15 individuals. We subsequently evaluated validity and established meaningful CICA cut-off scores in 55 individuals assessed by a geriatrician. Results The CICA demonstrated strong reliability (intra-class coefficient = 0.95 [0.85,0.98]). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.98 (0.94, 1.00), and the ideal cut-point to identify likely cases of dementia was a score of less than or equal to 34 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85%. Discussion When used with older First Nations men and women living in First Nations communities, the CICA offers a culturally safe, reliable, and valid assessment to support dementia case-finding.
, Laura J. Bird, Carolina Restrepo, Wasim Khan, Emilio Werden, Natalia Egorova‐Brumley, Amy Brodtmann
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12195

Abstract:
Introduction Hippocampal subfield volumes are more closely associated with cognitive impairment than whole hippocampal volume in many diseases. Both memory and whole hippocampal volume decline after stroke. Understanding the subfields’ temporal evolution could reveal valuable information about post-stroke memory. Methods We sampled 120 participants (38 control, 82 stroke), with cognitive testing and 3T-MRI available at 3 months and 3 years, from the Cognition and Neocortical Volume after Stroke (CANVAS) study. Verbal memory was assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised. Subfields were delineated using FreeSurfer. We used partial Pearson's correlation to assess the associations between subfield volumes and verbal memory scores, adjusting for years of education, sex, and stroke side. Results The left cornu ammonis areas 2/3 and hippocampal tail volumes were significantly associated with verbal memory 3-month post-stroke. At 3 years, the associations became stronger and involved more subfields. Discussion Hippocampal subfield volumes may be a useful biomarker for post-stroke cognitive impairment.
, Miriam T. Ashford, Chengshi Jin, John Neuhaus, Gil D. Rabinovici, Diana Truran, Paul Maruff, R. Scott Mackin, Rachel L. Nosheny, Michael W. Weiner
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12207

Abstract:
Introduction This study investigated the extent to which subjective and objective data from an online registry can be analyzed using machine learning methodologies to predict the current brain amyloid beta (Aβ) status of registry participants. Methods We developed and optimized machine learning models using data from up to 664 registry participants. Models were assessed on their ability to predict Aβ positivity using the results of positron emission tomography as ground truth. Results Study partner–assessed Everyday Cognition score was preferentially selected for inclusion in the models by a feature selection algorithm during optimization. Discussion Our results suggest that inclusion of study partner assessments would increase the ability of machine learning models to predict Aβ positivity.
, Peter Zhukovsky, Aristotle Voineskos, Cheryl Grady
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12208

Abstract:
Introduction The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to identify the structural brain measures that mitigate the negative effect of APOE ε4 on cognition, which would have implications for AD diagnosis and treatment trial selection. Methods A total of 742 older adults (mean age: 70.1 ± 8.7 years) were stratified by APOE status and classified as cognitively normal (CDR 0) or with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5). Regional brain volume and cognitive performance were measured. Results There were significant interactions between APOE and CDR on the left precuneus and on bilateral superior frontal volumes. These regions were preserved in CDR-0 ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4 carriers but were reduced in CDR-0.5 ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4 carriers, compared to their respective ε3/ε3 counterparts. Educational attainment predicted greater brain reserve. Discussion This pattern of preserved brain structure in cognitively normal ε4 carriers with comprised medial temporal volume is consistent with the theory of brain reserve.
Andrea Mastrangelo, Simone Baiardi, Corrado Zenesini, Anna Poleggi, Angela Mammana, Barbara Polischi, Anna Ladogana, Sabina Capellari,
Alzheimer's & Dementia : Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12214

Abstract:
Introduction Surrogate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration still have a central role in the first-line screening of patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Recently, CSF α-synuclein, a marker of synaptic damage, showed a close to optimal performance in distinguishing between CJD and other neurodegenerative dementias. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic value of CSF α-synuclein in patients with prion disease, non-prion rapidly progressive dementias, and non-neurodegenerative controls. Additionally, we studied its distribution across the different prion disease subtypes and evaluated its association with survival. Results CSF α-synuclein levels were significantly higher in patients with prion disease than in the other groups but showed a lower diagnostic value than CSF total tau or 14-3-3. Moreover, CSF α-synuclein was significantly associated with survival in the whole prion cohort and the most frequent clinicopathological subtypes. Discussion In the clinical setting, CSF α-synuclein does not exceed the diagnostic performance of currently used surrogate markers, but it might constitute a robust prognostic indicator.
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