Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0973-1245 / 2456-2602
Published by: Oriental Scientific Publishing Company (10.13005)
Total articles ≅ 2,183
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Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 451-457; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2999

Abstract:
Background: Many tribal communities are still using today traditional medicinal plants across the India. Our research paying attention on current use of such plants in different tribal communities’ in the Sundarban mangrove forest region. Methods: Twelve villages of four blocks (Gosaba, Basanti, Kultali, PatharPratima) and adjoining forest area are being selected for data collection regarding traditional medicinal plants during 2016-2019 covered roughly entire the seasons of the year. Information was obtained through respondents. A total 12 key informants has been chosen for interview and everyone is local tribal people and also herbalists. Result: Cuts & wounds, digestive disorders, diarrhea, dysentery, appetite & Blood pressure diseases etc. may be treated through the different medicinal plants. One particular variety was used for cuts & wounds; another for dysentery, 1 variety for Blood pressure diseases; 1 variety for stomach trouble; 1 variety for lower abdomen pain; 1 species for cough, and as tonic; and the rest of plants (3 species) are used for preparation of vitamins respectively. Conclusion: Sundarban is the mangrove forest biodiversity region. Various medicinal plants are being used by the local tribal people depending on their traditional knowledge. Although use of modern medicine is so fast with safety and faith, however, medicinal plants have potential values which are not properly explored. If these plants effectively used for various human disorder with scientific way, then scientific acceptance will increase. That is why the result of this study is justified for the benefit the entire society.
, Amer Alanazi
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 407-411; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2995

Abstract:
Introduction: Prediabetes, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly prevalent diseases around the world. They cause numerous complications that result in significant morbidity and mortality. Nutrition plays an important role in reducing CVD risk. This study explores potential effects of fasting, fasting-mimicking diets, and time-restricted eating on reduction of CVD risk factors and provides initial data on their potential benefits in CVD prevention and treatment options. Method: This prospective cohort study involed 31 male adult participants. All of them were provided with VLCD meal replacements (OPTIFAST®), and instructed to practice IF 14 hours a day for 4 weeks. The parameters that were measured before and after the intervention were body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC) levels. Student's T test was utilized to test statistical significance of the results. Results: The average BMI was 38.03 (±SD 4.69) before and 36.19 (±SD 4.26) after the study, but this reduction was not statistically significant. Statistical significance was confirmed in reduction of FBG levels (p=0.0008), with an average value of 7.69 mmol/L (±SD 1.03) before and 7.24 mmol/L (±SD 0.69) after the intervention. TC levels were also significantly reduced (p=0.016), with average values of 277.96 mg/dL (±SD 21.21) before and 272.19 mg/dL (±SD 25.89) after the intervention. Conclusion: IF and FMD might help in prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Their impact mostly lies in their effectiveness in weight reduction. More research is warranted in order to fully explore potential health benefits of these diet plans.
Sreepriya M Sreepriya M, Bhimnaik S Bhimnaik S, Bhavyasai Bhavyasai, Rumana A Rumana A, Divya M Divya M
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 309-319; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2986

Abstract:
Phytoestrogens are phytoalexins, plant secondary metabolites produced in response to microbial attacks and other forms of external stress stimuli. These compounds are devoid of the steroidal structure of endogenous estrogens but could bind with estrogen receptors with great affinity as they have structural similarity with endogenous/synthetic estrogens. Phytoestrogens are reported to possess several health benefits including cardio protective, antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti osteoporotic properties. Phytoestrogens like genistein, daidzein, and equol have been reported to possess excellent anti proliferative and anticancer properties. Formononetin, is a phytoestrogen, isoflavone widely present in red clover (Trifolium pratense) and resveratrol is a phytoestrogen which is widely present in red grapes (Vitis vinifera). The cardio protective property of red wine has been attributed to the presence of resveratrol. Although formononetin and resveratrol have been investigated extensively for several pharmacological properties, reports on their anti proliferative effects especially against human pulmonary carcinoma cell lines are very less. Hence the current study aims to understand the influence of these two compounds on the growth of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A 549. MTT assay, cytomorphology analysis by phase contrast microscopy, DNA topology assay and DPPH assay were few assays which were performed to understand the antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of these compounds. Results of the study indicated the potent antiproliferative effects of these compounds against human pulmonary carcinoma cell lines implicating that these compounds could be potential therapeutic molecules with multifaceted roles as anticancer agents, potent antioxidants and anti inflammatory agents.
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 357-363; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2990

Abstract:
The Ganges is home to a high variety of microorganisms, both beneficial and harmful. Anthropogenic activities cause depletion in microbial communities at urban sites of river Ganga. From the ancient period, it is believed that purification of Ganges Water does not possible after long storage and so it can be used frequently for cooking, drinking, or bathing purposes. About 200 years ago, British colonial scientists suggested that Ganga may contain unique microbial life, which makes it relatively more resilient to putrefaction. That unique microbial life is the virome. The presence of various kinds of viruses gives Ganga its self-purificatory property.
Mayur Arjun Aswani, Suyash Arunrao Kathade, Akib Nisar, Pashmin Kaur Anand, ,
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 387-394; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2993

Abstract:
The current study used an in-vitro technique to evaluate the functional potential of Dioscorea alata L. and D. bulbifera L. extracts as prebiotics. Prebiotics are nondigestible carbohydrates that undergo a selective fermentation process in the gut to benefit the host, according to Gibson and Roberfroid in 1995. Many wild edible plants are high in carbohydrates and are utilised as both a staple food and medicine for a variety of stomach-related disorders. This study employed sweet tuber (ST), bitter tuber (BT), sweet bulbils (SB), and bitter bulbils (BB) from D. bulbifera, as well as tuber (AT) from D. alata and extracted prebiotics using standard method.The AT plant sample seemed to have the least reducing sugars, with a concentration of 2.83 mg/mL. The prebiotic activity of ST, BT, SB, BB, and AT samples was examined as the sole carbon source for microorganisms; among these, AT exhibited a considerable increase in the growth of recognised probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. boulardii, and Pichia spp. in-vitro when compared to fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This preliminary investigation indicates that AT has the potential to be used as a promising prebiotic.
, Nagesh Malik, R. B. Pal
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 413-421; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2996

Abstract:
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) exhibits oncolysis in its natural form. This oncolytic virus (OV) has the potential to specifically infect, propagate, and lyse cancer cells while sparing the normal cells. This study was aimed to screen for oncolytic NDV strain isolated from poultry. A total of ten velogenic NDV strains were propagated in 10 day old embryonated SPF chicken eggs and allantoic fluid of these infected eggs was collected for further study. The virus enumeration was carried out by hemagglutination assay (HA) and end point dilution method. The cytopathic effect of ten NDV strains on cancer cell lines like MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, PC3, and A549 along with normal control cell line HEK293 was determined by MTT assay 72 hours post infection. These cell lines were infected with three doses (1, 0.1, and 0.01 MOI). DNA laddering effect of the screened NDV isolate was studied after infecting all cancer and normal cells at MOI 1. Morphological changes in MDA-MB-231 on infection with the screened NDV isolate were analyzed using H&E hematoxylin and eosin staining. The screened NDV isolate showed the maximum cytopathic effect i.e. 61.55% on MDA-MB-231 at MOI 1 but had no potent cytotoxic effect on HEK293. DNA laddering effect was observed which confirmed the mode of death to be apoptosis. All the observed morphological changes in MDA-MB-231 were typical of the cytopathogenic effects of NDV on cancer cell lines. In conclusion, the screened oncolytic NDV shows effective oncolysis against MDA-MB-231 cell line. However, further study is required to determine the exact mode of action involved.
Jelshing Yein, , James Sanong, Nirupam Raj Khanikar, Biswajit Pegu
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 497-500; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/3003

Abstract:
Assam's Mising community is the state's second most populous tribal community. Since ancient times, the Mising tribe has consumed homemade alcoholic beverages. Mising community members, primarily drink two types of homemade alcoholic beverages: Po:ro Apong and Nagin Apong. Various plant ingredients were used in the preparation of the starter culture for such homemade alcoholic beverages as Apong. In Mising rural areas, the ingredients of these plants were also used in traditional ethnomedical practise. The current study documented the Mising community of Majuli District, Upper Assam's traditional ethnomedicinal practise in the homemade alcoholic beverage.
Pratik Dilipraj Dhanawate, Ashwini Ramkrishana Gawade, , Akash Anil Podutwar
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 507-514; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/3005

Abstract:
Microemulsions (ME) is a system that combines water, oil, and an emulsifier / surfactant which is a form of volatile liquid, homogeneous and kinetically stable. Microemulsion is an attractive drug delivery system for topical administration. Due to its solubility, mild skin irritation, and watery swelling are used in the Topical Drug Delivery System (TDDS). By improving the quality of skin texture, it provides a level of penetration. The function of skin balance is to limit the penetration of bacteria, viruses, and other environmental factors. With standard drugs, skin penetration may take time and have not been able to provide immediate action. So, in this case, we used the Microemulsion-based Topical Drug Delivery system. Microemulsion increases solubility, protects the drug from environmental factors and improves drug bioavailability. MEs provide high penetration and the ability to penetrate into the skin. Because of this, the immediate action of the drug can occur in the infected area. Due to the presence of a hydrophilic and lipophilic environment, it provides outstanding biocompatibility. There are several test frames used to maintain stability, microemulsion kinetics.
Soham Lavande, Shraddha Jaiswal, Roshanee Deore, Jayant Pawar,
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 487-496; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/3002

Abstract:
Nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts is biologically safe, cost-effective, and environment-friendly, hence attracting many researchers owing to its advantages over chemical or physical methods. In the current study copper and silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and biological methods (using fruit extract). The leftover fruits collected from the fruit vendors and were used for the study, such as guava (Psidium guajava L), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a source of ascorbic acid, while lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) and orange (Citrus X sinensis) as a source of citric acid. Quantification of ascorbic acid and citric acid present in fruit extract was performed by Iodometric and acid-base titrations, respectively, followed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) to confirm their role in nanoparticle production. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The number of particles produced with fruit extract as a reducing agent was more compared to chemical methods. The size and structure of the synthesized nanoparticles produced using fruit extracts were similar to those produced chemically. Also, the antibacterial effect of Cu and Ag nanoparticles was seen against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes strains.
, Anshika Singh, , Mukul Kumar
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 19, pp 473-486; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/3001

Abstract:
Introduction: This article presents a relevant review of technological interventions used in gait analysis for post-operative knee surgery cases. Gait analysis plays a vital role in the early monitoring and rehabilitation of post-operative instances. The Gait analysis help with early diagnosis and physiotherapy interventions can produce significant results. Thus, reducing the overall cost of treatment and increasing the effect of administered treatment. In the modern era, physiotherapists use different sensors to monitor spatiotemporal parameters. These sensors help assist and enhance the administered physiotherapy. This review paper focuses on sensor-based technological interventions in gait analysis. It emphasizes that technology-assisted rehabilitation, notably sensor-based technologies, motion sensors, and motion analysis software, improves monitoring and functional mobility in knee arthroplasty. Methodology: The systematic search yielded 272 studies, 11 added retrospectively via reference screening of included articles. Following title and abstract screening, we include 53 studies for full-text screening, and ultimately, 20 studies met the review's predetermined eligibility criteria. Two physiotherapists, 'SR' and 'AS,' conducted a thorough search using various electronic databases and screened the eligibility of titles and abstracts. This review included a total of twenty studies. We included all those studies associated with various technological interventions, outcome measures, and study populations. All relevant studies were categorized and tabulated based on the technologies used, the type of device used, and the outcome measure used to monitor and quantify Gait and other mobility impairments. Conclusion: This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of technology-based intervention to monitor and quantify mobility status using assisted gait analysis. There is moderate-quality evidence that technology-assisted rehabilitation, specifically sensor-based technology, motion sensors, and motion analysis software, results in a statistically significant improvement in monitoring and functional mobility in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty.
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