#### Journal of Blood Transfusion

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ISSN / EISSN : 2090-9187 / 2090-9195
Total articles ≅ 56
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, Sabitra Poudel, , Niru Khatiwada
Published: 12 February 2018
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2018, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6190859

Abstract:
Background. The complications associated with errors in transfusion practice can be minimized by assessing transfusion practices. In Nepal, there is no standard protocol on blood transfusion. So, this study was conducted with an aim to assess the blood transfusion practice among healthcare personnel. Methods. A descriptive observational study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal, over a period of 10 months. Bedside blood transfusion procedures were observed using structured checklist. Results. Altogether, 86 observations were made. Time taken from dispatch from the blood bank to transfusion was >2 hours in 53.2% of cases. In majority of the cases, blood was kept in the ward in uncontrolled and unprotected manner by the patients’ relatives. Only 8.2% of the patients and/or the relatives were informed about the reasons, associated probable risks (2.4%), and the benefits of transfusion (4.7%). Assessment of vital signs at 15 minutes of initiation of transfusion was done on about 2 to 4% of cases. Conclusion. We found a suboptimal blood transfusion practice in Nepal, which could be attributable to substantial knowledge gap among healthcare personnel and the absence of quality culture, quality system, and quality management in the area of blood transfusion practices.
, Janaki Sonoo, Laurent Musango, Jean Baptiste Nikiema, Thomas Lapnet-Moustapha
Published: 17 October 2017
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2017, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1970479

Abstract:
In 2001, the WHO Office for Africa adopted a strategy for blood safety defining four targets. This paper describes the progress made by Mauritius in the implementation of this strategy. The blood safety indicators were collected and compared with the norms recommended by WHO. The country has formulated its blood policy and developed a strategic plan for its implementation since 2004. The total number of blood donations increased from 31,228 in 2002 to 43,742 in 2016, giving an annual blood collection rate evolving from 26.3 per 1000 inhabitants in 2002 to 34.2 per 1000 inhabitants in 2016. The percentage of voluntary donations rose from 60% to 82.5%. Since 2002, all the blood units collected have been tested for the mandatory infectious markers. The Blood Transfusion Service has been certified ISO2008-9001 and nucleic acid testing has been introduced. The preparation of blood components increased from 60% to 98.2%. The most transfused blood components were red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, and fresh frozen plasma. In addition to transfusion activities, there were other departments performing antenatal serology, tissue typing, special investigations, and reagent preparation. Despite the progress made, some challenges remain, namely, legal framework and haemovigilance system. A regulatory system for blood needs to be established.
Published: 29 December 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2482157

Elionora Elias, , Rune N. Philemon, Damian J. Damian, , Sia E. Msuya
Published: 14 December 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8546803

Abstract:
Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation.
Published: 14 December 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4860284

Abstract:
Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.
, Kate Chipperfield
Published: 8 December 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6140239

Abstract:
High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer’s point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility.
Vijay M. Patel, Anna W. Rains,
Published: 5 December 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2859720

Abstract:
To reduce the rate of inappropriate red blood cell transfusion, a provider education program, followed by alerts in the computerized provider order entry system (CPOE), was established to encourage AABB transfusion guidelines. Metrics were established for nonemergent inpatient transfusions. Service lines with high order volume were targeted with formal education regarding AABB 2012 transfusion guidelines. Transfusion orders were reviewed in real time with email communications sent to ordering providers falling outside of AABB recommendations. After 12 months of provider education, alerts were activated in CPOE. With provider education alone, the incidence of pretransfusion hemoglobin levels greater than 8 g/dL decreased from 16.64% to 6.36%, posttransfusion hemoglobin levels greater than 10 g/dL from 14.03% to 3.78%, and number of nonemergent two-unit red blood cell orders from 45.26% to 22.66%. Red blood cell utilization decreased by 13%. No additional significant reduction in nonemergent two-unit orders was observed with CPOE alerts. Provider education, an effective and low-cost method, should be considered as a first-line method for reducing inappropriate red blood cell transfusion rates in stable adult inpatients. Alerts in the computerized order entry system did not significantly lower the percentage of two-unit red blood cells orders but may help to maintain educational efforts.
, Varsha Bhakta, Qi-Long Yi, Craig Jenkins
Published: 24 November 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6260792

Abstract:
Regulations concerning the storage of transfusable plasma differ internationally. In Canada, plasma obtained from whole blood donations and frozen within 24 hours of phlebotomy (frozen plasma, FP) may be thawed and transfused within 120 hours of refrigerated storage. However, plasma frozen within 8 hours of phlebotomy following apheresis donation (FFPA) must be transfused within 24 hours of thawing and refrigeration. Our objectives were to measure coagulation factors (F) V, VII, and VIII, fibrinogen activities, and the prothrombin time (PT) in thawed refrigerated FFPA at 0, 24, and 120 hours of storage and to compare these values to those in thawed refrigerated FP. Fibrinogen activity remained unchanged over time, while mean factor levels in 28 FFPA units declined by 17% (FV), 19.7% (FVII), and 54.6% (FVIII) over 120 hours, while PT values rose to 7.6%. Factor activities were significantly higher in FFPA than FP after 120 hours of refrigerated storage. Residual FVIII activities in thawed FFPA met predefined noninferiority criteria compared to thawed FP after 120 hours. These results support a change in Canadian regulations to permit transfusion of thawed FFPA made in a closed system and refrigerated for up to 120 hours, one that could reduce wastage of transfusable plasma.
Kelly Rooks, Clive R. Seed, Jesse J. Fryk, Catherine A. Hyland, Robert J. Harley, Jerry A. Holmberg, Denese C. Marks, Robert L. P. Flower,
Published: 13 November 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3059848

Abstract:
Dengue viruses (DENV 1–4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT) cases reported globally. DENV 1–4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia. Plasma samples were collected from blood donors during local dengue outbreaks. All samples were tested for the presence of DENV RNA and selected samples were tested for DENV antigen (nonstructural protein 1, NS1) with two assays. No donors residing in high risk areas had detectable levels of DENV RNA or NS1 and no cases of DENV viremia were detected in blood donors residing in areas of Australia experiencing DENV outbreaks. Definitive conclusions could not be drawn from this study; however, the lack of detection of DENV RNA or antigen in donations suggests that the current risk of TT-DENV is low and maintaining the fresh component restriction for “at-risk” donors is appropriate.
Ashish C. Shrestha, Robert L. P. Flower, Clive R. Seed, Susan L. Stramer,
Published: 7 November 2016
Journal of Blood Transfusion, Volume 2016, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9647675

Abstract:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transfusion-transmissible and therefore poses a risk to blood transfusion safety. Seroprevalence studies are useful for estimating disease burden and determining risk factors. Considerable variability in the sensitivity of HEV antibody detection assays exists. This study aimed to compare the performances of commercially available HEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in Australian blood donor samples. Plasma samples that tested positive ($n=194$) or negative ($n=200$) for HEV IgG (Wantai HEV IgG ELISA) were selected. Of the 194 HEV IgG positive samples, 4 were positive for HEV IgM (Wantai HEV IgM ELISA). All samples were tested with the MP Diagnostics: HEV IgG ELISA, total (IgG, IgM, and IgA) HEV antibody ELISA, and HEV IgM ELISA. Of the 194 Wantai HEV IgG positive samples, 92 (47%) tested positive with the MP Diagnostics HEV IgG ELISA ($κ=0.47$) and 126 (65%) with MP Diagnostics total HEV antibody assay ($κ=0.65$). There was poor agreement between Wantai and MP Diagnostics HEV IgM assays. This study demonstrated poor agreement between the assays tested. These observations are consistent with previous reports demonstrating significant variability between HEV ELISAs, highlighting that results of HEV serology should be interpreted with caution.