Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21653356 / 21653364
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 258
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Latest articles in this journal

Giuliano Pereira De Barros, Patrizia Ana Bricarello
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 80-91; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.106007

Myiasis is the lesion resulting from the parasitism of diptera larval form in the living tissues of vertebrate animals. These are bloody conditions, causing severe damage to the welfare and the health of humans and animals. In Brazil, Cochliomyia hominivorax is the main responsible species for causing myiasis in humans and animals. The conventional treatment of these lesions in animals massively uses chemosynthetic products. The irrational use of these molecules has led to environmental degradation and has affected human health. The standard treatment of human myiasis is based only on larvae removal, surgically or not, supported by the use of antiparasitic drugs. Human myiasis is an important zoonosis, given its close relation with animal myiasis. However, this zoonosis has currently been neglected in Brazil and other developing countries in America. The One Health approach makes it possible to realize that the occurrence of myiasis in humans is directly related to the maintenance of stocks of this diptera in nature. Recognizing the direct relation that domestic and wild animals have as reservoirs in the human myiasis cycle is essential, in order to formulate strategies to control this ancient and important disease that still affects the population in Brazil.
G. F. Nájera Jantes, J. Barrón González, E. G. Valdivia Lara, J. I. Ángeles Solis, C. Cuenca Verde, G. Valdivia Anda
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 92-102; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.106008

An experimental inoculation of canine Herpesvirus (HVC), strain H17, was performed in rabbits previously and simultaneously treated with dexamethasone, the behavior of the leukocyte count was followed prior and during the experimental phase. Upon death or euthanasia of the animals, a necropsy and evaluation of various organs was performed by histopathology and by nested PCR against the Herpesvirus Polymerase gene. All animals inoculated with dexamethasone showed leukopenia (p < 0.05), animals inoculated with HVC and treated with dexamethasone did not show significant histological lesions, but showed amplification of the Herpesvirus Polymerase gene in various organs despite not showing clinical signs of the illness. A dolphin Herpesvirus isolate was used as a positive control as rabbits developed fatal systemic disease and lesions typical of active (lytic) infection in various organs within 72 hours post-inoculation. The absence of clinical signs, significant histological lesions, and the presence of viral DNA in some organs suggested a state of latency due to canine Herpesvirus. Dexamethasone allowed HVC infection, but did not promote viral reactivation in rabbits contrary to that observed in canines experimentally induced to the lytic cycle by HVC.
Terhemba Ikpa Livinus, Garba Bwala Dauda, Idoko Ankeli Paul, Ahmad Kaikabo Adamu, Salma Maichibi Mugla, Atanda Maurina Issa, Ngutor Abenga Jerry, Douglas Nwankpa Nicholas, Ignatius Adah Mohammed, Livinus Terhemba Ikpa, et al.
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 15-26; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.102002

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecie mycoides, a transboundary animal disease causing serious devastation to cattle producers in Africa. The study was designed to identify and characterize the pathogenic member of mycoplasma cluster the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecie mycoides (Mmm) isolated from cattle infected with the disease. Three hundred (300) samples of nasal swabs and pleural fluid from cattle showing signs of CBPP were analyzed using culture and biochemical identification techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers to determine the prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Isolation recorded a prevalence of 4% and PCR recorded a prevalence of 67.7%. Isolates subjected to PCR analysis produced an amplicon size of 548 bp and 1.1 k bp respectively for the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecie mycoides. Sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene blast search revealed 96% to 99% sequence homology of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecie mycoides compared with 14 available sequences in the gen bank at NCBI. Based on this investigation mass vaccination of cattle is recommended, isolation and PCR techniques could be used as diagnostic tools for CBPP disease in three agro ecological zones of Nasarawa state, Nigeria.
Severin Loul, Abel Wade, Alexandre Michel Njan Nlôga
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 103-115; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.107009

The present study was carried out between April 2015 and January 2016 to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify the risk factors of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Cameroon from April 2015 and January 2016. A total of 269 herds randomly sampled across the country have been studied and 1622 samples of serum have been levied on the sheep and goat. The c-ELISA has been studied in order to detect the presence of antibodies in small ruminants like an indicator of exposition to PPRV. The results revealed the circulation of PPRV in the country with a total sero-prevalence of 39% [95%CI; 37 - 41] and a sero-prevalence of 63.2% [95%CI; 57.2 - 69.2] at the herd level. Sero-prevalence was variable in the ten regions ranging from 7% [95% CI; 6.2 - 8.4] to 73% [95% CI; 62 - 84] with the northern zone (Adamawa, North and Far-North) having 52.3% [95% CI; 37 - 60] and southern zone (including the remaining seven regions) recording 29% [95% CI; 11 - 57]. Similarly, it was higher in animals found in urban/peri-urban areas than in rural areas with prevalence ratio of 2.9 [95% CI 2.54 - 3.4; p i.e. 3 times more, 1.6 [95% CI 1.36 - 1.90; p i.e. 1.6 times more, and 5.02 [95% CI 3.91 - 6.85; p i.e. 5 times more at national level, in the northern zone and in the southern area, respectively. Five risk factors have been identified: the breeding environment, introduction of new animals into the herds, gathering of animals for pasture and watering, wandering and transhumance. The breeding area appeared to be the most important risk factor associated with disease exposure. The control measures for the eradication of this disease must take into account the epidemiological situation, the breeding environment, animal transhumance and breeding system.
Emilie Gertz, Katia Gebara, Vibeke Elbrønd, Adrian Harrison
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 65-79; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.106006

Michael Oluyemi Babalola
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.101001

Rotaviruses have been widely reported to be associated with diarrhea in humans but fewer studies abound on other mammalian species. This prospective study was conducted to detect and characterize Rotaviruses from freely ranged migratory herds of cattle in Ekiti and Ondo states, Nigeria with a view to further expanding knowledge on rotaviruses, possible animal-human interspecies transmission and impacts on vaccine efficiency. By convenience sampling, between September 2014 and February 2015, stool samples from 120 calves, comprising settled and migratory herds of cattle were obtained and examined for group A rotaviruses using Certest® Quadruple Enzyme Immuno Assay. Rotavirus genomes were isolated by extraction from the positive samples, reverse transcribed and amplified by One-Step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and genotyped by semi-nested multiplex PCR. Representative PCR products of the genotyped samples were purified and sequenced using Sanger method. The generated query sequences were queried to the GenBank to retrieve similar sequences for pairwise alignment by ClustalW. Phylogenetic analyses by Neighbour-joining method were conducted at 1000 bootstrap replicates to obtain phylograms using MEGA 6 software. Fifteen samples (15/120: 12.5%) were positive for rotavirus. No statistically significant association existed between rotavirus infection and gender of the calves (χ2 = 0, df = 1, p = 1). Eight samples (8/15: 53.3%) were successfully genotyped where the G1, G5, G9, G10, G12, and P[6] were detected. Nucleotide Sequencing of the VP7 and VP4 genes of the genotyped samples confirmed strains G1P[6], G10P[6], and G12P[6] with 58% - 100% nucleotide identity within these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 possible transmissions from India and Honduras. Bovine rotaviruses were detected in freely ranged and settled calf herds in southwestern Nigeria at a rate of 12.5%. The strains identified were analysed to be group A rotavirus strains with potential interspecies transmission from human to calves and from bovine to humans. The detected mixed strains could eventually impact negatively on the effectiveness of available rotavirus vaccines over the prevailing serotypes in human infections.
Daniel Shock, Steven Roche, Denis Nagel, Merle Olson
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 27-38; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.103003

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam is commonly used as adjunct therapy for neonatal calf diarrhea to control pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in diarrheic pre-ruminant dairy calves dosed either orally or subcutaneously. Twelve pre-ruminant male dairy calves with mild to moderate diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments (three per group): subcutaneous meloxicam (SM, 0.5 mg/kg body weight); an oral bolus meloxicam suspension (OM, 1 mg/kg body weight); an oral meloxicam suspension added to a feeding of oral electrolytes (EM, 1 mg/kg body weight); and an oral meloxicam suspension added to a feeding of milk replacer (MM, 1 mg/kg body weight). The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for OM, MM, EM, and SM groups were: half-life (56.8 ± 21.7 vs. 136.0 ± 26.6 vs. 85.2 ± 21.7 vs. 36.3 ± 21.7 h), Cmax (4.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.4 vs. 3.9 ± 0.4 vs. 2.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL), Tmax (13.3 ± 4.0 vs. 10.7 ± 4.0 vs. 13.3 ± 4.0 vs. 2.7 ± 4.0 h), and AUC0-∞ (383.4 ± 126.8 vs. 877.8 ± 155.3 vs. 457.1 ± 126.8 vs. 126.4 ± 126.8 h * μg/mL). Oral meloxicam, especially MM, had extended elimination phases relative to SM. All meloxicam therapies provided effective therapeutic levels but all oral therapies (1 mg/kg) provided longer durations of activity than injectable meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg).
Ibrahim Garba, Philip Makama Dawuda, Iyorhemba Utim Ate, Due Emmanuel Awai, Usman Adamu Rayyanu, Igah Eyitayo Olanrewaju, Akuchi Chidiadi Nwamo, Umbugadu Cletus Attah, Samuel Moses Abasiama, Jerry Ngutor Abenga, et al.
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 39-54; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.104004

An abattoir survey of 84 genitalia of Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) does was undertaken to investigate and compare bacterial isolates and associated genital disorders and conduct antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Bacteriological examination showed that seven bacterial genera were identified from genital organs of RS and WAD does, respectively: Escherichia coli (64%, 63.2%), Pseudomonas spp (43.2%, 24.1%), Klebsiella spp (11.4%, 13.2%), Proteus spp (5.0%, 1.0%), Staphylococcus spp (5.0%, 8.0%) and Citrobacter spp (1.0%, 5.3%) and Enterobacter spp (in RS only) (2.0%). Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp were the dominant isolates. The rate of genital infection of RS and WAD does examined was highest with Escherichia coli (63.4%) and the pattern of bacterial isolation was high with Escherichia coli. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bacteria species colonizing the genital tracts of RS and WAD does. The relative risk (RR) for an infection of the uterus with Escherichia coli (1.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6588 to 1.769, P > 0.7606) was not significantly different in RS compared to WAD does. Bacteria were isolated from cases of endometritis, pyometra, postparturient metritis, mucometra, uterine congestion, melanosis, caruncular atrophy, salphingitis and cervicitis. Sensitivity test showed bacterial isolates were highly susceptible to Levofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin and Amoxyl. It was concluded that there was no difference in bacterial isolates in genital tracts of RS and WAD does and genital disorders could be associated with bacterial infections in does. The potentials of these bacterial isolates for producing genital pathology in does are likely to be high in Makurdi, north-central Nigeria. Therefore, management of genital disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in does.
Kenneth O. Anya, Chike F. Oguejiofor, Theophilus O. Nnaji, Ikechukwu J. Udeani
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 10, pp 55-63; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2020.105005

Canine reproductive problems constitute some of the most challenging cases encountered in small animal veterinary practice. This is usually complicated in breeding dogs by the unwillingness of clients to give consent for surgical interventions, due to the fear of loss of reproductive function. In this case, a two-year-old Bullmastiff bitch was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a mass protrusion from the vulva. Clinical examination revealed an eversion of a tongue-shaped vaginal tissue from the floor of the vaginal wall which subsequently progressed to an eversion of the complete vaginal circumference forming a doughnut-shaped mass. Investigations carried out included ultrasonography, hematology, hormonal assay, vaginal cytology, vaginal swab microbial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity test. A diagnosis of vaginal fold prolapse (type III) which progressed from a type II prolapse was made. Due to the client’s initial disinclination to a surgical intervention, the approach to the case evolved from a conservative management to an eventual surgical correction. There was a request to preserve the reproductive function of the bitch, therefore ovariohysterectomy was declined and the case was managed by surgical excision of the prolapsed vaginal mass under general anesthesia. A peri-vulvar purse string suture was placed temporarily to restrict any further prolapse. Histopathological evaluation of the excised vaginal tissue confirmed marked hyperplasia of the stratified squamous epithelium with intracellular edema and spongiosis. There was focal ulceration of vaginal mucosa with neutrophilic infiltration. The lamina propria showed reduced cellular density with loose and edematous connective tissue. Post-surgical care included daily care of surgical wound and the administration of analgesic, antibiotic and vitamin supplements. Subsequently, there was no recurrence of the condition in the bitch which came into estrus 27 weeks post-surgery, and was bred with successful conception.
Shehu AbdulQadir Zailani, Sani Bello Nma, Nuhu Abubakar, Hassan Kanti Madu, Ahmad Tijjani Tinau
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.91001

Considering the widespread disease transmission among butchers/meat inspectors and a possible risk of exposure to diseases due to the attitude of some butchers and nature of meat inspector’s jobs. Ignorance and lack of awareness of such dangers has also been identified to be responsible for some of the problems encountered in most instances as well as the presence of some predisposing factors for diseases. In view of the above, this model is developed as a means of demonstrating the use of the abattoir and other registered related slaughter premises in the provision of the physical facility, where the primary role of extension personnel to develop the capacity and capability of target groups in the abattoir and livestock producing community, in order to enhance animal/zoonotic disease surveillance and control. The model if adopted and fully utilized will create awareness among target groups of dangers of disease transmission and ways of curtailing such problems, government through their agencies, professionals and private organizations should be involved in the implementation of this model in order to achieve the desired response.
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