Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21653356 / 21653364
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 249
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Latest articles in this journal

Ortiz M. A. Hernández, Verde C. Cuenca, Lara E. G. Valdivia, Anda G. Valdivia
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 147-160; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.910013

Emmily C. Ngetich, Ng’Wena Gideon Magak, Ngeiywa Moses, C. Ngetich Emmily, Gideon Magak Ng’Wena, Moses Ngeiywa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 136-145; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.99012

Abstract:Animal trypanosomosis continues to impede animal production in sub-Saharan Africa mostly in locations where tsetse flies are endemic. This has ended up devastating many livelihoods where majority of the people depend on livestock farming as source of food and income generation. The true picture on prevalence and identity of trypanosome species is scanty or unknown in most areas where tsetse flies are present. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomes’ infection in cattle and sheep using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. The use of PCR for detection and identification of trypanosomes has increased sensitivity of diagnostic method compared to conventional microscopy. Ninety asymptomatic free range grazed animals including 72 cattle and 18 sheep randomly sampled from farmers in Kerio Valley of Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya were used in the present study. Blood samples (5 ml) obtained from each of the animals were used for trypanosomes’ detection by microscopy and PCR assay methods. Microscopy results showed that only 2 cattle (2.8%) were positive for trypanosomosis infection. The microscopy results for the sheep showed zero prevalence. On the other hand, PCR results reported 26 trypanosomosis positive cattle (36.1%) and 3 (16.7%) trypanosomosis positive sheep. The PCR method was further used for trypanosomes’ species identification and the results showed that the 26 infected cattle were positive for T. congolense (12) and T. brucei (14) while the three sheep were all positive for T. brucei. The findings of the present study show that microscopy underestimates trypanosomosis detection and therefore cannot be relied upon as a tool for diagnosis. Besides, the method is weak in reporting species differentiation in a case where the morphological differences have only minor details or where the species are very close morphologically. This study recommends routine use of molecular biology-based technique for trypanosomosis detection in the Kenyan Rift Valley lowland areas.
Caio Alves Da Costa, Rafael Artur Da Silva Júnior, Bruna Higino De Souza Silva, Rebeka Pontes Menezes, Ayna Arramis Apolinário Da Silva, Felipe Rosendo Correia, Emanuel Felipe De Oliveira Filho, Ricardo Alexandre Silva Pessoa, Cláudio Coutinho Bartolomeu, Pierre Castro Soares
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 79-90; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.97007

Ana Lucia Malvaez, Carlos Salvador Galina Hidalgo, Ivette Rubio Gutierrez, Jose Luis Pablos Hach, Manuel Dionisio Corro Morales
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 91-99; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.97008

Abstract:Early pregnancy diagnosis is a very important routine management to identify non-pregnant cows in order to keep an optimum reproductive efficiency both for dairy and beef cows. Ultrasound equipment allows estimating the viability and size of the embryo during early gestation. With the aim of assessing age and viability of Bos indicus embryos between 24 and 35 days of gestation, 55 cows were divided into 4 clusters. These clusters were conformed according to the first day that an echogenic structure was seen inside the embryonic vesicle (Group 1: day 24, Group 2: day 26, Group 3: day 27 and Group 4: day 28). The age of the embryos was estimated from the date of AI. Three progressive serial measurements of their length were made within 2 to 5 days. With a model GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations), the effect of days was evaluated to compare the second measurement with the first one and the former with the third observation. No differences in the size of the embryos were observed between the first evaluation (24 days) and the second (28 days) (P = 0.387). Also, simple linear regression analysis found a positive linear association between the size of the embryo and gestation days (R2 = 0.593) with an average growth of 0.078 cm per day (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the variation between measurements at a given time does not allow estimating with precision the exact day of gestation. Nonetheless, serial measurements are useful to estimate the healthy growth of the embryo from day 26 of gestation.
Talita Barban Bilhassi, Rodrigo Giglioti, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Wilson Malagó Júnior, Henrique Nunes De Oliveira, Cíntia Righetti Marcondes, Márcia Cristina De Sena Oliveira
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 161-169; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.911014

Abstract:This work aimed to find quantitative phenotypic traits that can be used to discriminate the levels of resistance/susceptibility to B. bovis and B. bigemina in two groups of cattle presenting the highest (H) or lowest (L) infection levels and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks count. The animals were selected from a previous study of 50 Canchim (5/8 Charolais/zebu) heifers raised in an endemic area for these parasites. These animals were evaluated regarding their TNFα, IL10, IFN-γ, IL12 and iNOS mRNA levels. No differences were found between these groups regarding TNFα, IFN-γ, IL12β or iNOS transcripts. However, the IL10 transcripts were significantly higher in the H group compared to the L group. Moreover, significant correlation coefficients were observed between B. bovis loads and both IL10 and IFN-γ transcripts, while no correlations were found for B. bigemina loads and all tested immune-related transcripts, suggesting that differential IL10 mRNA profiles were closely associated to B. bovis loads. Our results have contributed to a better understanding of the immune responses against Babesia infection, as we demonstrated that the IL10 cytokine levels might also influence or be influenced by parasitemia levels in persistently infected animals.
Paulinus Ekenedilichukwu Emennaa, Didacus Chukwuemeka Eze, Foinkfu Kennedy Chah, John Osita Arinze Okoye, John Ikechukwu Ihejioha, Milton Nancy Sati, Ifeanyi Onyema, Christian Okorie-Kanu, Asabe Adamu Dzikwi-Emennaa, Uchendu Chidiebere, et al.
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 171-184; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.912015

Abstract:Salmonellosis is a serious medical and veterinary problem worldwide and causes great concern in the food and livestock industries, especially the poultry industry which occupies a prominent position in the provision of animal protein and accounts for about 25% of local meat production in Nigeria particularly and is identified as a disease of major economic importance causing low performance in poultry production. The study was carried out at the experimental animal farm, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. One hundred (100) five-week old chickens obtained from the Poultry division of National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, were used for the experiment. The birds were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 25 birds per group (A, B, C, D). Each bird in all the groups received 0.5 ml of PBS containing 1 × 108 cfu/ml of Salmonella enterica serovar Zega as follows: Group A was infected with Salmonella Zega intra-nasally (IN). Group B was infected with Salmonella Zega intra-peritonealy (IP). Group C was infected with Salmonella Zega orally (OR). Group D was the Uninfected control (CT). There was a significant change (p 0.05) in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the infected groups compared across the different days post infection. There was significant increase (p Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum that are known to cause pathology in birds Salmonella Zega which is none host specific for birds can also cause pathology in them. This is the first report in the study area to the best of our knowledge.
Samia Mohamed Abd El-Rheem, Rezk Said Ghallab, Suzan El-Sharkawy
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 109-119; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.98010

Abstract:The aim of this work was to compare the use of local intrauterine moist heat infusion to intrauterine antibiotics infusion, for treatment of subclinical endometritis which affects reproduction and milk production. 42 repeat breeder cows were divided into 4 groups, group 1 was the untreated control (=10 cows). Group 2 (=10 cows) was treated by 50 ml of Oxytetracycline 5% intrauterine for three successive weeks. Group 3 (=10 cows) intrauterine infusion with 30 ml saline adding to them 10 ml Gentamycin 10% and 10 ml penicillin and streptomycin for three successive weeks. Group 4 (=12 cows) intrauterine infusion with 50 ml sterile boiling water (≈100°C) was applied directly to the uterus for only one time. Leukogram was done before and after treatment, it showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia in all the study groups. After treatment for 36 hours and one week, there were no significant changes in the leukogram results of groups 1, 2 and 3. While in Group 4 showed decreasing in numbers of leukocytes (11.92 ± 0.75) and neutrophils (0.87 ± 0.16) to its normal limits after 36 hours and one-week post-treatment. Our new method gave the highest cumulative pregnancy rate 83.3% while other groups using antibiotics or antibiotics with saline gave lower pregnancy rate 40% and 50% respectively (P > 0.001). We named this new treatment method “Samia-treat; SAT”. SAT is a whole new and effective treatment for cases of repeat breeder which are caused by SCE in dairy cows; it caused increase in reproductive performance and cumulative pregnancy rate without over use of antibiotics.
Fabiane Andrade Correia Neiva, Eduardo Eburnio, Paula De Sanctis, Nayara Maria Gil Mazzante, Noeme Sousa Rocha
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 121-135; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.99011

Abstract:ROSE is a method for fast sample evaluation that does not compromise sensitivity and specificity in the hospital environment when establishing the diagnosis and the therapeutic protocol. The technique is already well-established in human medicine as it operates within the standard operational procedure, reducing the rates of inconclusive results and cancelled cytopathology assays in the hospital environment. However, its application is scarce in Veterinary Medicine, including in hospitals where intensive care is available. This study aims at conducting a case-by-case assessment of inconclusive and cancelled examinations in the Cytopathology Outpatient Clinic at UNESP (HV), Botucatu, Brazil, from 2012 to 2016 and ascertains the causes. For this purpose, a retrospective study was conducted for 9587 examinations in canines, of which 4.1% and 10.44% were inconclusive and cancelled, respectively. These results are not in line with ROSE, which foresees a total rate of 5% for these occurrences. The reasons for these high rates in the outpatient clinic were the lack of a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and the relative inexperience of the residents in a university hospital. Therefore, with the adoption of the ROSE protocol for veterinary cytopathological examinations, together with adequate training for the outpatient professionals responsible for the examinations, the goals set forth by the ROSE protocol would be met and the rates of inconclusive and cancelled examinations would decrease considerably. Lastly, this study hopes to contribute towards the diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of the main diseases affecting dogs.
Osman A. Hameed, Hussam Mustafa, Abdul Fatah M. Ahmed, Mohamed Khidr Taha
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 194-201; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.912017

Abstract:IgG Check calf test has been used in this study to identify if a failure of passive transfer occurs in neonatal calves by measuring the level of IgG in blood. An adequate level of IgG measured in all calves at 48 hours, 7 days and 14 days after birth showed level of IgG 1000 mg/dl. This level indicated that they have good passive transfer of immunity. Also, in this study colostrum quality fed to calves was detected using Brix Refractometer. The colostrum is of high quality as it contains 50 mg/ml of IgG. This Brix refractometer can be used on the farm level to estimate colostrum IgG content and monitoring colostrum feeding practices. Colostrum with high quality IgG could provide calves with enough IgG to attain successful passive transfer of immunity. Brix and Obione refractometers provide simple, rapid method for estimating IgG concentration on calf serum, thus considered to be the most common method for determining passive transfer failure.
Esther Albarrán-Rodríguez, Paloma Del Rosario Del Real Quezada, Manuel Rosales Cortés, Guillermo Nolasco Rodríguez, Lucia García Delgado, Guillermo Ruíz Cano, Héctor Marcelo Cruz Alba
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 9, pp 185-193; doi:10.4236/ojvm.2019.912016

Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a 5% neem extract on the presence of ticks. Forty creole cattle were used, divided into four groups: 2 experimental and 2 controls, in the towns of Cocula and El Chante, Jalisco. The tick count was by direct palpation, and with an acarometer (25 cm2). Eight body regions were evaluated: neck, thorax, flank and thigh, left and right. At zero time, after the initial tick count, it was applied by spraying and once, the 5% neem extract, at a dose of 10 ml/L. Ticks were quantified at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days post-treatment. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and Sum of Kruskal-Wallis Ranges (α = 0.05) (SigmaStat 3.1). In Cocula, at zero time, the average of ticks was in neck 32, in thorax 64, in flanks 96 and in thighs 129 (average per animal 323 ticks). In subsequent sampling, the average decreased in the experimental group to 1 or 4 parasites. In “El Chante”, an average of 60 ticks was found at the time of the neck, in the thorax 121, in flanks 181 and in thighs 242 (average per animal 600 ticks). In subsequent sampling, the average decreased in the experimental group, with averages of 1 to 4. Statistical differences (p ≤ 0.001) were found between the groups. It can be concluded that 5% neem extract has a repellent and tick effect in cattle for at least 42 days.