Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2165-3356 / 2165-3364
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 295
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Victor Molina, Diego Pérez, Jorge Prada, Luis Carlos Perez Cogollo, Natalia Pedraza, Francisco Perozo, Frederic Beugnet
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 12, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2022.124004

Abstract:
The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus lato sensu) is the tick that most affects dogs worldwide and is therefore the main blood pathogen vector in dogs. The efficacy of afoxolaner 2.7 to 7.1 mg/kg NexGard® (group A) and afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime 2.5 to 5.4 mg/kg and 0.5 to 1.1 mg/kg respectively NexGard Spectra® (Group B) against R. sanguineus, was evaluated in naturally infected sheltered dogs under high challenging conditions in four different areas of Colombia (Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander, and Meta). Tick counts (alive, dead, attached, and unattached) were performed on treated dogs, the average was calculated for the different areas to evaluate the efficacy of each treatment at six different times post-treatment (24 h, 48 h, 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, 30 d). None of the dogs showed adverse events related to the treatments. The average tick number pre-treatment was 68 in group A and 78.3 for group B indicating a strong natural infection of the dogs and their environment. Efficacy after 24 h against R. sanguineus was always above 90% with ≥97.4% for NexGard® and ≥93.7% for NexGard Spectra®. Consistent results were observed along all the observation periods with final efficacies (day 30) of ≥99.8% and 98.3% for NexGard® and NexGard Spectra®, respectively. In conclusion, both NexGard® and Nexgard Spectra® provided a curative effect and sustained efficacy against Rhipicephalus sanguineus for at least 30 days in highly contaminated shelter environments.
Başar Ulaş Sayılkan, Taylan Önyay, Umut Burak Ağan, Yücel Meral, Duygu Dalgın
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 12, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2022.121001

Abstract:
A 1.8 kg, seven months old, intact, female, mix-breed cat was referred with dyspnea and paresis. Since the patient was in such a condition that she was too incapable of the operation, treatment for dyspnea was performed. The patient has abdominal enlargement. When the respiratory stress of the patient decreased, a radiograph was taken and lordosis was found. Medical treatment was applied, because the general condition was impaired. Lordosis is the excessive curvature of a certain number of vertebrae in the neck and back region. Congenital thoracic lordosis has been described as a highly progressive and low vital capacity disease in humans and cats. Because it compresses the lung, it can cause dyspnea in patients and rhythm disturbances in the heart. This case represents a severe example of untreatable and unmanageable lordosis encountered in a cat.
Crystal M. Cooley, Jessica M. Quimby, Stacie Summers, Michael R. Lappin
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 12, pp 7-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.122002

Abstract:
Purpose: To determine if cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) would willingly consume an oral nutritional supplement formula (NS-CKD) and to assess associated effects on select clinical and biochemical parameters. Methods: Client-owned cats with CKD classified as International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 (n = 7), IRIS stage 3 (n = 12), or IRIS stage 4 (1 cat) were classified by the owners as having normal or variable appetites. The cats were offered 30 ml NS-CKD for 14 days concurrently with a meal in a separate bowl and the amount of the NS-CKD consumed daily was recorded. Bodyweight, physical examination, and serum biochemical profiles were assessed on Days 0, 7, and 14. Results: Greater than 50% of the NS-CKD was consumed by 14 of 20 (70%) cats and 12 of 20 cats (60%) consumed >80% of the NS-CKD. The total volume of NS-CKD consumed over the course of the study was statistically greater for the cats classified by owners as having normal appetite (P = 0.046). Increases in body weight were noted for 9 of 14 cats (64.3%) that ingested >50% of the NS-CKD and 1 of 6 cats (16.7%), that ingested ≤ 50% (p = 0.1409) and the group mean % change in body weight was greater in the cats that ingested >50% of the NS-CKD (P = 0.023). The volume of NS-CKD consumed correlated to the % change increases in serum bicarbonate concentration (R = 0.4998; P = 0.02) and was weakly correlated to % change decreases in serum phosphorus concentration (R = 0.0406; P = 0.08). Conclusions: In this pilot study, the NS-CKD was accepted by most cats, no adverse effects were noted, and several findings suggest that the product was associated with ameliorating some metabolic complications which suggest it could be considered in the management of cats with CKD.
Nathalie Nseya, André Ngombe Kaseba, Charles Muhadila, Jean Claude Mbang, Claude Yav, Ghislain Kikunda, Augustin Mutombo Mulangu, Philippe Mulenga Cilundika, Oscar Luboya Numbi, Eric Mukomena Sompwe
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 12, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2022.123003

Abstract:
Introduction: Rabies, a neglected disease, could be grossly underreported in the DRC; in the absence of post-exposure prophylaxis, the WHO estimates that this disease would cause 327,000 deaths per year in Africa and Asia. The objective of this study is to determine the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in order to encourage decision-makers to develop national strategies for its elimination. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data collection was done retrospectively and in total6 420 victims of bites received during the period between January 2005 and December 2015 at the anti-rabies center in Lubumbashi were included in this work. Excel 13 software and Epi info 3.3.4 were used for data analysis and interpretation. Results: People over the age of 15 are the main victims of canine bites (62.1%), more than half of the victims are male (55.9%); dogs represent the majority of biting animals (96.4%) of which around 3/4 are unvaccinated (71.37%). Two municipalities are more affected: Lubumbashi (prevalence 83.35/100,000 and Kampemba (Prevalence 51.74/100,000). LBite peaks were observed from July to October (p = 0.01). For the 34 people seen with clinical signs of rabies encephalitis (confirmed case of rabies), the case fatality rate was 100%. Conclusion: Rabies is a major problem in Lubumbashi but its extent is different depending on the municipality. The dog is the main biting animal and the vaccination coverage of dogs remains very low. Access to rabies vaccine for bite victims is difficult. Its elimination remains possible through the implementation of an extensive canine vaccination program, the awareness of owners and the large-scale provision of post-exposure prophylaxis.
Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Maria Luiza Albuquerque Ribeiro, Juliano Sarmento Macedo, Brunno Aguiar Ferreira, Marcelo Araújo Silva, Anaemília Das Neves Diniz, Helena Emília Cavalcanti Da Costa Cordeiro Manso, Helio Cordeiro Manso Filho
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 165-176; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.116012

Abstract:
The vaquejada race is a sport with animals which has the greatest socio-economic impact in Brazil and is responsible for generating an intense cultural and economic movement. However, this activity has been the subject of questions about well-being involving the environmental and mental comfort conditions offered to equine and cattle interactions. It is necessary to perform technical evaluations of the cattle involved on the basis of scientific study to better understand the processes of sport and, with this, promote their evolution on good welfare practices in the 21st century. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that the use of the official rules of the vaquejada where cattle use a protective harness on the tail protects the cattle’s tail from injuries in this region that compromise health. Before, during and after races, a study was developed that aimed to perform a general and radiological clinical evaluation in the proximal coccygeal region in cattle that ran in a modern cattle stall. Forty male bovines were evaluated (average: 2 year-old and 420 kg). Oxen were subjected to clinical and radiological examination before and after racing with official rules. Results of the clinical and radiological evaluations performed by veterinarians, did not observe clinical occurrences before and after the races in the 40 cattle evaluated. The increase in heart and respiratory rates was a reflection of temporary management stressors, as the animals returned to the feeding/rumination/interaction pattern after running in the rest pen. The radiographic findings in the tail, represented by the reduction of the intervertebral space and areas of subcutaneous radiolucency, suggest technical artifacts derived from the manipulation of the tail for proper positioning to perform the tests in the condition of retention in the corral. The partial fracture found by an evaluator showed signs of calcification and was accompanied by swelling in the soft tissue but without pain in the pre-run examination. It is concluded that the modern vaquejada race, which meets the official rules, is not related to the increase in lesions in the locomotor apparatus or other evaluated tissues, including the tail.
Prudence Mpundu, Allan Rabson Mbewe, John Bwalya Muma, Gift Mwinga Sitali, Charles Miyanda Mubita, Musso Munyeme
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.111001

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to conduct a comparative assessment of bacterial cross-contamination in commercial and non-commercial processing plants including associated risk factors for bacterial contamination. Study Design: This was analytic cross sectional survey on bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses between different processing systems. Introduction: Zambia, like most African and Asian Countries, still practices “live-open non-commercial broiler carcass processing systems” besides the “closed abattoir based systems”. However, shelf life, spoilage and hygiene levels have been postulated to vary based on the type of processing system. Live-open non-commercial processing systems are popular among majority consumers owing to their perceived “freshness”, compared to commercially dressed chickens. In between, consumers have to balance freshness and quality assurance. Ultimately, this becomes inert, remotely but an important public health issue. However, lack of empirical evidence on safety levels to guide consumer product selection leaves them to speculation. It is this need to close this gap that created an impetus for us to undertake this study. Methods: Biological samples were collected before carcass wash and after carcass wash alongside a structured questionnaire that gathered risk-associated data. Standard microbiological enumeration methods were used to isolate bacteria and enumerate contamination. Results: Broiler carcasses processed from “open” non-commercial systems were more contaminated (45.6%) than “closed-abattoir” commercially processed systems (35%). Escherichia coli were major contaminants (71.3%) and few Salmonella spices (typhi or para-typhi) in 1.3%. Risk analysis indicates washing (method) of carcasses at commercial systems was significantly more risky for contamination than non-commercial ones. Major sources of contamination were “distance from water sources”. Increased volume of slaughters per day (>15,000 birds) for commercial systems accounted for increased cross-contamination, particularly, distance from water source was a ma-jor risk factor for contamination.
Sara Manfredini, Luca Formaggini, Michele Marino, Luigi Venco
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 157-164; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.115011

Abstract:
Background: Intestinal protothecosis is an uncommon and insidious mycotic disease. Only one human case and a few rare cases in dogs have been reported. To the authors’ knowledge, intestinal protothecosis has never been reported in cats. Case description: This paper describes a case of intestinal protothecosis in a nine-month-old male, Bengal cat. The cat presented because of onset of haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Investigations allowed diagnosis of intestinal protothecosis, confirmed by PCR test on faeces. Treatment with itraconazole did not improve the clinical signs. Treatment with nystatin was prescribed and caused improvement in the clinical signs and decreased number of pathogens seen on faecal cytology. PCR on faecal samples was negative two months after treatment, with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Infection with Prototheca should be part of the list of differential diagnoses for diarrhoea in cats. nystatin was effective in treating the infection in this case; this drug should be considered as a first-line treatment in cats as well as in dogs, in which protothecosis appears to have a poor prognosis. Although protothecosis is not considered a zoonotic disease, cases of algal infections in companion animals might be considered indicators of environmental risks for humans.
Matthew Day, Arin Esterbrook, Ignatius Bisharat, Abdullah Saleh Albqomi, Bryn Kennell, Russ Manteca, Heaton Oakes, Geoffrey M. Scalarone, Gene M. Scalarone
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.114009

Abstract:
Blastomycosis, the systemic fungal disease of humans and animals caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis and the cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, is often misdiagnosed as a bacterial or viral pulmonary disease. Therefore, the development of improved immunodiagnostic assays for this disease has been the primary focus of research in our laboratory. The present study was designed to evaluate four Blastomyces yeast-phase lysate antigenic preparations (human, 597, Eagle River, WI; dog, ERC-2, WI; Human, B5927, Mountain Iron, MN; soil, 85, Georgia, ATCC 56920) for their ability to detect antibody in 48 serum specimens from dogs with diagnosed blastomycosis using an indirect ELISA (STD) compared to a biotin-streptavidin ELISA (B-SA). All four lysate antigens were able to detect antibodies in the specimens with mean absorbance values ranging from 0.930 (B5927) to 1.142 (ERC-2) with the STD ELSA and from 1.395 (B5927) to 1.775 (85) with the B-SA ELISA. The results indicated that both ELISA methods could be utilized for antibody detection, but the B-SA ELISA exhibited greater sensitivity than the STD ELISA with all four of the lysates.
Ayodeji Ayotunde Oni, Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi, Joseph Atawalna
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 299-306; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.119020

Abstract:
Forty testicles were used to carry out histomorphometry study on the testes, epididymides and spermatozoa of four indigenous breeds of bull found in Ibadan (Red Bororo (RB), Sokoto Gudali (SG), White Fulani (WF) and Dhali (DL)). The testicles were harvested immediately after the slaughter at the Bodija abattoir and transported to the laboratory in an insulated flask containing warm water at 37?C within 30 minutes. In the laboratory, the samples were dissected and histological sections of the right testis, right and left caudal epididymides taken from two bulls in each group. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fluid. They were processed in an automatic tissue processor, embedded in paraffin wax using the embedding system (Leica EG 1160) and sectioned with microtome at 4 microns. The sections were then stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin method and mounted and examined under a microscope. There was no significant difference between breed and seminiferous tubular diameter (STD) and testicular germinal height (TGEH). The mean STD ranged from 223.00 ± 28.35 to 316.00 ± 37.70 μm, while the TGEH ranged from 81.60 ± 10.05 to 89.80 ± 4.83 μm. The mean epididymal tubular diameters (ETD) and epididymal lumen diameters (ELD) had the highest value of 378.00 ± 10.95 and 298.20 ± 26.0489 μm in DL and lowest of 373.80 ± 37.70 and 278.10 ± 27.71 μm in RB, respectively. The mean epididymal germinal epithelia heights (EGEH) were highest (61.20 ± 5.70 μm) in WF and lowest (39.80 ± 0.86 μm) in RB. The mean sperm head length (SHL), sperm midpiece length (SMPL), sperm tail length (STL) and sperm total length (TL) had the highest values of 5.90 ± 0.10, 8.80 ± 0.25, 24.20 ± 2.59 and 38.90 ± 2.94 μm, respectively in SG. SHL and SMPL were lowest in DL bulls (5.00 ± 0.00 and 6.30 ± 0.20 μm), while STL and TL were lowest (18.90 ± 0.24 and 31.30 ± 0.85 μm). The results of this study provide baseline data on the histomorphometry of the testes and epididymides and spermatozoa of some indigenous bulls.
Nadège Perier, Douglas S. Carithers, William Russel Everett, Phrutsamon Wongnak, Karine Chalvet-Monfray, Frederic Beugnet
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Volume 11, pp 289-298; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2021.118019

Abstract:
Fleas and ticks are major ectoparasites of dogs globally. Their control is based on regular treatments with ectoparasiticides, which represent the most important part of veterinary drugs worth around 3 billion Euros per year. In many parts of the world, dogs are also at risk of infection by endoparasites like heartworm, eyeworm, and lungworm. In these areas, endectoparasiticide formulations are used to prevent the risk of ecto- and endoparasite infections. Since 2014, oral formulations of insecticidal-acaricidal drugs have been launched, followed by endectoparasiticide formulations. These oral formulations facilitate the treatment by the owners and are now the market leaders. Intense work has been done during their development to enhance their palatability through their consistence (hard to soft) and their flavors. Palatable oral formulations facilitate the dog-owner relationship and help ensuring compliance. The most recent palatable formulations include isoxazoline as the ecto-parasiticide molecule. They also include anthelmintics (milbemycin oxime or moxidectin + pyrantel) to provide control of parasitic nematodes. Being very similar in terms of spectrum of activity, any differences in palatability may be a key differentiating factor for the owners. The present study was conducted to verify if dogs exhibited a preference between two endectoparasiticide oral formulations, NexGard Spectra® (afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime) and Credelio® Plus (lotilaner and milbemycin oxime). For four consecutive days, 100 dogs were offered the choice between both products and consumption was recorded. If one product was more consumed than the other, it was defined as the preferred product. A total of 375 chewable tablets were consumed over the four days, with a significantly higher consumption (p 0.0001) for NexGard Spectra® (272 chews, 72.5%) compared to Credelio® Plus (103 chews, 27.5%). Seventy-six dogs showed a preference for a product amongst whom 68 preferred NexGard Spectra® (89.5%) and 8 preferred Credelio® Plus (10.5%), resulting in a preference ratio of 8.5 to 1 for NexGard Spectra® (p 0.0001).
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