GEORGIAN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL

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EISSN : 2667-9701
Published by: Association For Science (10.52340)
Total articles ≅ 17
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Tamaz Karalashvili, Nana Bolashvili, Vakhtang Geladze, Guram Imnadze
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.757

Abstract:
He study of glacier mass balance is gaining significant interest worldwide against modern global climate change. Using Drone gave good results in glacier mass balance studies. There is a sizeable difference between the values ​​obtained by the modern and previous used methods, which is primarily because of the shortcomings of the old one. We believe the results obtained cause the revision of the old data of the mass balance ablation component. Therefore, it became essential to restore the observation series and determine the compatibility of the data obtained by the old, traditional methods with the data obtained using new, modern technologies. The study aimed to compare the results obtained by standard ablation studies (ablation stake) and modern aerial photogrammetric methods based on actual observations in the Adishi glacier tongue.
Giorgi Khomeriki, Giorgi Meladze, Nana Nadareishvili, Mzia Tutberidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Sofiko Dzhvarsheishvili, Givi Tavadze
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.752

Abstract:
The policy of stimulating regional development is based on local potential, one of the main components of which is population: its number, nature of reproduction, structure, and social-economic conditions (employment, standard of living, and so on).The present research aimed to study the issues of Georgia's demographic potential: population dynamics, natural movement, migration, gender and age structure, labour force, and standard of living of the population. The study of the demographic potential of Georgia is a long-term task of the authors, the first geographical object of which is the study area of ​​the present article - eastern Georgia and, in particular, the regions of Kakheti, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Kvemo Kartli (not including Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, but including self-governing city Rustavi) and Shida Kartli. The research adopts a geographical approach, focusing on a unified vision of the issue, and studies regional differences. The research results outline the demographic situation in the study area and the modern trends that reflect the peculiarities of the demographic potential of eastern Georgia. These include the following: a) the decline in the absolute number of population has slowed down in the last decade due to reduced emigration; b) according to the latest statistics, in eastern Georgia as a whole, natural increase is negative (-0.4 percent), but higher than the national average (-1.1%); c) the process of population ageing in eastern Georgia has been generally outlined, the dynamics of which are different between the regions - in Kvemo Kartli, due to the relatively high natural increase, it is developing relatively slowly than in other regions; d) the share of women in gender structure is reduced (50.9 percent) compared to the country's average rate (52.3 percent), while in Mtskheta-Mtianeti, contrary to the general rule, The share of men exceeds that of women; d) Georgians make up 75 percent of the ethnic structure of the study region, followed by Azerbaijanis (19.7 percent), the principal part of the latter concentrated in Kvemo Kartli, which, in, turn, determines a number of peculiarities of the demographic behaviour of the population in this region; e) a large part of the population of eastern Georgia is mostly employed in traditional, non-commercial and partly commercial agriculture, due to which a higher share of self-employed (41.6 percent) was registered in the study area compared to the average in the country (31.9 percent); f) unemployment (18 percent of the economically active population), low income and low purchasing power remain the main social-economic issues. In the last decade, as in the whole of Georgia, signs of improvement were noted in the social-economic situation in the study area, though the COVID-19 pandemic partially slowed this trend.
Elene Salukvadze
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.753

Abstract:
The work describes and assesses the main physical-geographical and anthropogenic factors in the development and characteristic activation of geodynamic processes in Racha. The morphometric (hypsometric, mountain sloping, slope aspect) values are calculated and described. The paper also touches on the quantitative data that give the characteristics of the relief, climate, soil and vegetation cover and influence the development and activation of geodynamical processes. For studying the tasks mentioned above, we selected the mountainous region – Racha (municipalities of Ambrolauri and Oni). For the studies, together with literary material and different sources, we used cartographic material, the landscape maps (1970, 1983) and the topographic map (scale; 1:100 000) of Georgia and Transcaucasia and the observation materials of the field expedition made in 2019-2021 in Racha. Racha is a mountainous region characterized by complex relief and geological structure. Here, nearly all kinds of hazardous geodynamical processes such as landslides, mudflows, erosion, rock flows, avalanches, karst and suffosive phenomena are observed, though the most frequent are landslides, mudflows erosive processes and washing-off of river banks. The activation of the geodynamical process and the hazard of large-scale development of gravitational phenomena are extremely increased because the whole region territory is prone to earthquakes of intensity VII-IX. Among the most critical factors in geodynamical processes are geological, geomorphological, climatic, and anthropogenic factors. The data on the triggering factors of the main geodynamical processes – erosion, landslide, mudflow, etc. in Racha are given in the tables and diagrams of the paper.
Marika Tatishvili, Nana Bolashvili, Ana Palavandishvili
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.756

Abstract:
The paper deals with space weather prediction problem. The investigation of the possible effect of powerful magnetospheric storms on the evolving character of meteorological processes in the atmosphere to identify the correlation between magnetospheric disturbances and meteorological variations is presented in the paper. The investigation is preconditioned by the fact that Georgia is prone to hydrometeorological hazards, and it is essential to investigate their causing physical processes. Meteorological effects resulting from fluctuations in the solar wind are poorly represented in weather and climate models. A geomagnetic storm is a significant disturbance of Earth's magnetosphere exchanging energy from the solar wind into Earth's space environment. These storms result from solar wind variations that significantly change the currents, plasmas, and fields in Earth's magnetosphere. Geomagnetic indices measure geomagnetic activity occurring over short periods. They have been constructed to study the response of the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere to changes in solar activity. The correlation between geomagnetic storms and meteorological elements (temperature, precipitation, wind) has been carried out for the Georgian region using meteorological observation and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre data. The results show that there exists dependence between meteorological parameters and geomagnetic disturbances.
Mariam Tsitsagi, Nino Kharebava, Dali Nikolaishvili, Ia Kupatadze, Lela Gadrani
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.758

Abstract:
Ancient cities have witnessed many changes throughout their long history. These changes have different underlying causes in different regions of the world. This paper discusses the urban sprawl of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, mainly from the beginning of the 19th century to 2020. Through analysis of historical materials, city plans, and old maps, layers of Tbilisi urban sprawl were created using ArcMap 10.8. Images of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI have been used to assess changes over the last 30 years. We compared the obtained data with the census data conducted during the study period, reconstructed the current social, political, and economic situation using historical sources, and finally determined in which period the urban expansion took place, the reasons for it, and how this expansion affected the natural and social environments of the city.
Dali Nikolaishvili, Davit Sartania, Avtandil Ujmajuridze
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.751

Abstract:
This article describes the economic situation, particularly the tradition of Georgian farming culture, in southwestern part of Georgia, concurred by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century and called Gurjistan Vilayet by the Ottomans. Gurjistan Vilayet covered a significant area of southwestern Georgia, with only a tiny part being a part of Georgia and the remained territory being a part of the Republic of Turkey, the legal successor of the Ottoman Empire. The study is mainly based on the Grand Defter of Gurjistan Vilayet. In the study's course, the geographical objects (villages, sites of ancient villages, sowing areas, etc.) given by the Defter were identified, systematized, and classified and a GIS database and relevant maps were developed. The objects plotted on the map were identified by comparing with other sources used to identify the types and amounts of taxes set by the Ottoman for the population, group them thematically, and draw a picture of the region's economic potential. It was found that the Georgian economic tradition was solid and sustainably profitable, but the Ottoman ideological press had a particular effect on it.
Kukuri Tavartkiladze, Nana Bolashvili
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.754

Abstract:
The evaluation of the modern global warming impact on the zero degree isotherm crossing dates of near-surface temperature is unequivocally determined by the length of the warm (cold) season in a given region. The study was conducted using perennial, near-surface temperature field data from ten observation points in a complex, highland region. The correlation changes of the dates of the crossing of the zero degree isotherm of temperature concerning the vertical and horizontal displacement is studied. The statistical structure of the multi-year change in the dates is established. It is accepted that the increase in the warm season caused by global warming mainly occurs in the first half of the year when the zero-degree isotherm crosses from negative to positive. There are also rare cases when the warm season, for a long time, experiences a decrease in the opposite.
Mikheil Pipia, Nazibrola Beglarishvili, Lizi Ezieshvili
Published: 7 March 2022
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2022.755

Abstract:
According to the National Environment Agency data, the cases of blizzards in the period of 2014-2018 on the territory of Georgia are discussed. The existing data on blizzards are analysed, and the distribution of climatic characteristics of blizzards on the territory of Georgia is determined. In particular, the distribution of blizzards cases, wind speed, areas, as well as the type of synoptic processes causing blizzards according to the respective regions and municipalities. Based on the studied data, a geo-information map showing the distribution of blizzards by regions on the territory of Georgia was compiled, which covers the period 2014-2018. Examples of blizzard damage in 2014-2018 on the territory of Georgia are given, which illustrates the scale of the damage caused by the snowstorm and the negative consequences.
Revaz Gachechiladze
Published: 31 May 2021
Georgian Geographical Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.52340/ggj.2021.08.13

Abstract:
The presence of the Jewish population in Georgia and its peaceful coexistence with the local people has more than two millennia history. More or less systemic sources about the spatial aspects of their presence in Georgia exist only from the second half of the 19th century. The paper discusses the historical geography of the Jewish population in the 19th-20th century with the emphasis on their settlement pattern in the 1920s using for that purpose a detailed Population Census carried out in 1926.
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