Geological Magazine

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ISSN / EISSN : 0016-7568 / 1469-5081
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 23,957
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Sreyashi Bhowmick,
Geological Magazine pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000881

Abstract:
The metavolcanics of Chitradurga region host numerous shallow crustal veins and fractures and faults of multiple orientations. Several high and low P f cycles have been recorded in the region, leading to the reactivation of most of the pre-existing fractures for high P f and selective reactivation of some well-oriented fractures under low P f conditions. The pre-existing anisotropy (magnetic fabric) in the metavolcanics acted as the most prominent planar fabric for fracture propagation and vein emplacement under both conditions, thereby attaining maximum vein thickness. In this study, we emphasize the reactivation propensity of these pre-existing fracture planes under conditions of fluid pressure variation, related to the high and low P f cycles. Multiple cycles of fluid-induced fracture reactivation make it difficult to quantify the maximum/minimum fluid pressure magnitudes. However, in this study we use the most appropriate fluid pressure magnitudes mathematically feasible for a shallow crustal depth of ∼2.4 km. We determine the changes in the reactivation potential with states of stress for the respective fracture orientations under both high and low P f conditions. Dependence of fluid pressure variation on the opening angle of the fractures is also monitored. Finally, we comment on the failure mode and deformation behaviour of the fractures within the prevailing stress field inducing volumetric changes at the time of deformation. We find that deformation behaviour is directly related to the dip of the fracture planes.
, Raya Raicheva, Stoyan Georgiev, Ivan P. Savov, Danko Jelev
Geological Magazine pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000868

Abstract:
Generally all orogenic ultrapotassic rocks are formed after melting of metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle via subducted crustal mica-bearing lithologies. Here we present another possible model, based on the study of the small Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite porphyry intrusion in the Central Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria. The monzonite dated at 30.50 ± 0.46 Ma is intruded into the voluminous Oligocene (31.63 ± 0.40 Ma) Bratsigovo–Dospat ignimbrite. The monzonite hosts both normally and reversely zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The normally zoned clinopyroxene is characterized by gradually diminishing core-to-rim Mg no. (89–74), whereas the reversely zoned clinopyroxene has green Fe-rich cores (Mg no. 71–55) mantled by normally zoned clinopyroxene (Mg no. 87–74). Neither the core of the normally zoned clinopyroxene nor the Fe-rich green cores are in equilibrium with the host monzonite. This ultrapotassic monzonite shows more radiogenic Sr isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.71066) and ϵNd(t) = −7.8 to −8.0 that are distinct from the host ignimbrites with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70917–0.70927 and ϵNd(t) = −4.6 to −6.5. The Sr–Nd isotopic data and the presence of copious zircon xenocrysts from the underlying metamorphic basement suggest extensive crustal assimilation. Our observations indicate that the Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite formed after extensive lower or middle crustal fractional crystallization from an evolved magma producing cumulates. The process was followed by hybridization with primitive mantle-derived magma and subsequent continuous crustal contamination. We suggest that instead of inheriting their high K2O and large-ion lithophile element enrichments from slab-derived/metasomatic fluids, the Stomanovo ultrapotassic monzonite may owe some of its unusually high alkalinity to the assimilation of potassium-rich phases from the Rhodope Massif basement rocks.
Geological Magazine pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000947

Abstract:
Classic tectonic models for the Caledonian orogeny in Scotland involve Ordovician collision of Laurentia–Midland Valley arc (Grampian orogeny), followed by middle Silurian collision of Laurentia–Baltica (Scandian orogeny) and 500–700 km of sinistral displacement along the Great Glen fault separating the Northern Highlands (Moine Supergroup) from the Grampian Highlands (Dalradian Supergroup). A review of the timing of magmatic and metamorphic rocks across Scotland allows a simpler explanation that fits with a classic Himalayan-style continent–island arc–continent collision. Late Cambrian – Early Ordovician NW-directed ophiolite obduction (Highland Border complex) coincided with the ending of stable continental shelf sedimentation along the eastern margin of Laurentia. Following collision between Laurentia and the Midland Valley arc–microcontinent in Early Ordovician time, crustal thickening and shortening led to almost continuous regional metamorphism from c. 470 to 420 Ma, rather than two discrete ‘orogenies’ (Grampian, Scandian). U–Pb monazite and garnet growth ages indicating prograde metamorphism, and S-type granites related to melting of crustal protoliths are coeval in the Grampian and Northern Highlands terranes. There is no evidence that the Great Glen fault was a terrane boundary, and strike-slip shearing post-dated emplacement of Silurian – Early Devonian granites. Late orogenic alkaline granites (c. 430–405 Ma) in both Moine and Dalradian terranes are not associated with subduction. They are instead closely related to regional alkaline appinite–lamprophyric magmatism resulting from simultaneous melting of lower crust and enriched lithospheric mantle. Caledonian deformation and metamorphism in northern Scotland, with continuous SE-directed subduction, show geometry and time scales that are comparable to the Cenozoic India–Kohistan arc–Asia collisional Himalayan orogeny.
, C. Casquet, E. G. Baldo, R. J. Pankhurst, S. O. Verdecchia, C. M. Fanning, J. A. Murra
Geological Magazine pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000935

Abstract:
The Maz Metasedimentary Series is part of the Maz Complex that crops out in the sierras of Maz and Espinal (Western Sierras Pampeanas) and in the Sierra de Umango (Andean Frontal Cordillera), northwestern Argentina. The Maz Complex is found within a thrust stack of Silurian age, which later underwent open folding. The Maz Metasedimentary Series mainly consists of medium-grade garnet–staurolite–kyanite–sillimanite schists and quartzites, with minor amounts of marble and calc-silicate rocks. Transposed metadacite dykes have been recognized along with amphibolites, metagabbros, metadiorites and orthogneisses. Schist, quartzite and metadacite samples were analysed for SHRIMP U–Pb zircon dating. The Maz Metasedimentary Series is polymetamorphic and records probably three metamorphic events during the Grenvillian orogeny, at c. 1235, 1155 and 1035 Ma, and a younger metamorphism at c. 440–420 Ma resulting from reactivation during the Famatinian orogeny. The sedimentary protoliths were deposited between 1.86 and 1.33–1.26 Ga (the age of the Andean-type Grenvillian magmatism recorded in the Maz Complex), and probably before 1.75 Ga. The main source areas correspond to Palaeoproterozoic and, to a lesser magnitude, Meso-Neoarchaean rocks. The probable depositional age and the detrital zircon age pattern suggest that the Maz Metasedimentary Series was laid down in a basin of the Columbia supercontinent, mainly accreted between 2.1 and 1.8 Ga. The sedimentary sources were diverse, and we hypothesize that deposition took place before Columbia broke up. The Rio Apa block, and the Río de la Plata, Amazonia and proto-Kalahari cratons, which have nearby locations in the palaeogeographic reconstructions, were probably the main blocks that supplied sediments to this basin.
L. Robin M. Cocks,
Geological Magazine pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1017/s001675682100073x

Abstract:
During the Early Ordovician Epoch, the Mediterranean brachiopod Province was extensive in the higher-latitude sectors of the globe in the Southern Hemisphere. The latter was much occupied by the massive continent of Gondwana, which stretched from north of the Equator S-wards to cover the South Pole. The Mediterranean Province can be separated into two groups: Group 1, the higher-latitude fauna dominated by large linguliform brachiopods; and Group 2, which is more diverse, particularly in orthides. The large linguliform brachiopod faunas are particularly well known in southern Europe (France, Spain and Bohemia) and North Africa, and the second group in Avalonia, Chile and Argentina. The province is different from, but merges with, more diverse contemporary faunas in the lower latitudes of Gondwana to its north, although the latter contrast with other lower-latitude faunal provinces in South China, Laurentia, Siberia and elsewhere. Since the Rheic Ocean between Avalonia and Gondwana was relatively narrow during the Early Ordovician Epoch, the Avalonian brachiopods were integral parts of the Mediterranean Province, but only until end of the Dapingian Age. This paper focuses on the earlier phases of the Mediterranean Province, although the province continued until near the end of the Ordovician Period. Intermediate-latitude Baltica and some other faunas are included in new principal components and other analyses in order to compare them with the Mediterranean Province faunas. Radiation was very significant for many brachiopod taxa during the period, with first appearances of the Plectambonitoidea (Taffiidae), several orthide families (Euorthisinidae, Tarfayidae and Anamalorthidae) and the earliest endopunctate orthide, the dalmanelloid Lipanorthis.
, John E.A. Marshall, Ian Troth
Geological Magazine pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000741

Abstract:
The Devonian/Carboniferous Boundary (DCB) interval is associated with mass extinction, isotope excursions and a short glacial episode. This study investigates how boundary extinction and environmental change is expressed in the glacial high-palaeolatitudinal record of the Bolivian Altiplano (western Gondwana). A latest Devonian and early Carboniferous section has been investigated using sedimentology, palynology, total organic carbon and bulk δ13Corganic. The Colpacucho Formation is a Late Devonian shelfal–marine siliciclastic sequence. It is overlain in the study area by a unit of coarse sandstones and sandy diamictites, interpreted as glaciomarine. This distinctive glaciomarine unit is at least 7 km wide and 60–120 m thick with a variably incisive basal contact (<100 m). It is of very latest Famennian age and is a stratigraphic equivalent of proven glacigenic deposits across central South America. The offshore marine Kasa Formation overlies the glacigenic unit above a basal flooding surface. The DCB is 12 m above this flooding surface on the last occurrence of Retispora lepidophyta and significant palynological assemblage changes. This includes the loss of the Umbellasphaeridium saharicum phytoplankton bioprovince, endemic to Gondwana. Marine and terrestrial palynological extinctions are synchronous with a 2 ‰ positive carbon isotope excursion interpreted to be reflective of changes in organic matter delivery and preservation during an interval of environmental stress. These results inform wider debates on global environmental change and mass extinction at the DCB.
Geological Magazine pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1017/s001675682100087x

Abstract:
Fossils within early Cambrian phosphorites worldwide are often well preserved due to early diagenetic permineralization. Here, we examine the fossil record contained within phosphorites of the Lower Cambrian Pusa Formation (late Fortunian to Cambrian Stage 2) in Fontanarejo, central Spain. The sedimentology and age of these phosphorites have been controversial and are here reviewed and discussed, providing also an updated geological map. The Pusa Formation is composed of fine clastic sediments that are partly turbiditic, with channels of quartz-rich conglomerates and abundant phosphorites in the upper part of the succession. The microfacies and mineralogy of these channel deposits are studied here for the first time in detail, showing that they are mainly composed of subspherical apatite clasts, with minor mudstone intraclasts, quartzite and mica grains. Numerous sponge spicules, as well as entirely preserved hexactinellid sponges and demosponges, were collected within these phosphorites and likely represent stem groups. In addition to sponges, other fossils, such as small shelly fossils (SSF) of the mollusc Anabarella sp., were found. The phosphorites exhibit multiple evidence of intense microbial activity, including diverse fabrics (phosphatic oncoidal-like microbialites, thrombolites, stromatolites and cements) and abundant fossils of filamentous microbes that strongly resemble extant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Our findings strongly suggest that microbial processes mediated the rapid formation of most of the Fontanarejo apatite, probably accounting for the exceptional preservation of fragile fossils such as sponge skeletons. The apparent presence of taxonomically diverse hexactinellid and demosponge communities at the lowermost Cambrian further corroborates a Precambrian origin of the phylum Porifera.
, Shanchi Peng, , Paul M. Myrow, Ngân Kim Phạm, Shelly J. Wernette, Xuejian Zhu
Geological Magazine pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000844

Abstract:
Later Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites and brachiopods spanning eight horizons from five localities within the Sông Mã, Hàm Rồng and Đông Sơn formations of the Thanh Hóa province of Việt Nam, constrain the age and faunal affinities of rocks within the Sông Đà terrane, one of several suture/fault-bounded units situated between South China to the north and Indochina to the south. ‘Ghost-like’ preservation in dolomite coupled with tectonic deformation leaves many of the fossils poorly preserved, and poor exposure precludes collecting within continuously exposed stratigraphic successions. Cambrian carbonate facies pass conformably into Lower Ordovician carbonate-rich strata that also include minor siliciclastic facies, and the recovered fauna spans several uppermost Cambrian and Lower Ordovician biozones. The fauna is of equatorial Gondwanan affinity, and comparable to that from South China, North China, Sibumasu and Australia. A new species of Miaolingian ‘ptychopariid’ trilobite, Kaotaia xuanensis, is described. Detrital zircon samples from Cambrian–Ordovician rocks of the North Việt Nam and Sông Đà terranes, and from Palaeozoic samples from the Trường Sơn sector of Indochina immediately to the south, contain a predominance of ages spanning the Neoproterozoic period and have a typical equatorial Gondwanan signature. We associate the Cambrian and Tremadocian of the Sông Đà terrane with areas immediately to the north of it, including the North Việt Nam terrane and the southern parts of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China.
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