Journal of Medical and Health Studies

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EISSN : 2710-1452
Total articles ≅ 12
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Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 45-54; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.5

Abstract:
To explore the perceptions of higher specialist trainees and fellows in Ireland with respect to the Irish Department of Health’s recent proposal to implement a drafted, non-negotiated, consultant contract under a new model for healthcare, termed the Sláintecare plan. A customized survey, incorporating multiple-choice and Likert-scale questions and a free-text option, was disseminated to doctors enrolled in Irish higher specialist training (HST) programmes and pre-consultant HST graduates (fellows). Responses were compiled and analysed. There were a total of 1109 respondents across all specialities. Trainees were particularly concerned regarding the Sláintecare contract’s potential impact on their abilities to engage in patient advocacy and provide optimal patient care in the future, the maintenance of specialist skillsets, their ownership of intellectual property and a stable location of the practice. Of respondents, 93.7% (1003/1070) indicated that they would consider working abroad rather than accept the proposed contract. This study highlights the perceptions and concerns of the higher specialist trainees and fellows of Ireland. A large proportion may emigrate rather than accept the Sláintecare proposals. Concerns exist surrounding the ability to advocate for patients, to provide patient care, the proposed working conditions and perceived potential to deskill under this contract’s terms.
, Ravindra P Choudhary
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 63-69; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.7

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diverse illnesses that often show hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance via insulin shortage, insulin impairment or both (Sicree et al., 2006). These difficulties occur due to disruptions in regulation systems controlling the storage and movement of metabolic fuels, including carbohydrate, lipid and protein catabolism and anabolism, induced by poor insulin production, insulin activity or both (Shillitoe, 1988; Votey and Peters, 2004). With more than 62 million diabetics already diagnosed in India, the situation of a potential pandemic is approaching fast.
, Ahmed Hassanein Ahmed
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-30; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.2

Abstract:
The study aims to try to identify the nature of the quality of life of kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis in the light of some demographic variables (gender, age, educational level, marital status, and starting date of hemodialysis). The research sample consisted of 70 dialysis patients (32 males - 38 females) who frequently go to the dialysis unit department (attia al-Kaseh Hospital in Kufra city). The WHO quality of life scale was used (the short picture). The study results revealled that the quality of life for patients with renal failure who are subject to dialysis is low. The results also showed that the physical field is considered one of the lowest fields, and a statistically significant effect was found for each age, gender, and educational level on patients' quality of physical life.
Barthélemy Mabika, Nicole Josiane Andeme, Sidonie Solange Nguizi Ogoula, Guy Joseph Lémamy
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 55-62; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.6

Abstract:
To establish the immunohistochemical profile of the molecular markers of free-ranging breast carcinomas. Descriptive retrospective study over 3 years from July 2014 to September 2017. The tumour samples came from the Anatomical Pathology Laboratories of the Omar Bongo Ondimba Army Instruction Hospital and the University of Health Sciences. In total, the records of 60 patients with histologically proven breast carcinoma with the immunohistochemical study were included in the study. The following molecular markers, hormone receptors (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors), the HER2/Neu oncogene, and the Ki67 cell proliferation marker, was identified using the Immunohistochemistry technique.The average age was 47.6 years, with extremes of 15 and 69 years. Depending on the location, the right breast was most commonly affected (50%). Histologically, there was a predominance of infiltrating ductal carcinomas (66.6%) and a majority SBR III grade (50%). This study revealed an immunohistochemical profile of positive hormone receptors: ERs + (13.3%); PRs + (8.3%) and a Ki67 profile positive in 10% of tumors. The molecular classification into 4 subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Triple Negative) places the Luminal A group in the first rank (33.3%) followed by the Luminal B (15%), Triple Negative (11.6%) and HER2 (8.3%). The present work is the first study reporting the immunohistochemical profile of molecular markers of mammary carcinomas in Gabon. It would be necessary to continue this study on a larger and wider cohort throughout Gabon because the knowledge of the immunohistochemical profile gives an indication of the origin of breast cancers and allows to consider better management of patients by a targeted therapy to avoid unnecessary toxic effects resulting from ineffective treatment.
, Ebenezer Olayemi Dada
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 70-80; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.8

Abstract:
The development of bacteriuria and subsequent antibiotic resistance may be facilitated by infection with the parasite Schistosoma hematobium. This situation has been described in some African countries like Nigeria, Sudan and Congo. The present study aimed to assess the association of bacteriuria with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Ipogun, located in Ifedore Local Government, South-west, Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and nine (109) terminal urine samples were collected from inhabitants of the village and analyzed for the presence of bacteriuria and ova of Schistosoma haematobium via culture and microscopy respectively. Our findings revealed that 81 (74.31%) samples had bacteriuria and 42 (38.53%) were infected with Schistosoma haematobium. Of the 42 samples that were positive for schistosomiasis, 32 (76.19%) were associated with bacteriuria. Gram negative bacteria associated with co-infection of urine samples with schistosomiasis demonstrated a higher level of resistance to conventional antibiotics compared to bacteria isolated from single bacteriuria infection. Findings from the study highlight the role of Schistosoma haematobium in the perpetuation of antibiotic resistance in cases of co-infection with bacteriuria.
, Ella Nurlaella Hadi
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.3

Abstract:
People with Disability are having limited access to participation. The most significant barrier for people with disabilities to participate is stigma. However, there is a limited source of existing intervention to reduce stigma on people with disabilities. Indonesia, home of more than 20 million people with disabilities, is still having no effort in reducing stigma yet. Therefore, it is important to provide Indonesia with insight of interventions to reduce stigma on people with disabilities. The objective of the study was to provide insight of interventions to reduce stigma on people with disabilities around the world through a systematic review. The study employed a systematic review following the methodological framework provided by Prisma multistep using electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest), reference lists, and journals to locate studies. Inclusion criteria were based on title and content through keyword search with stigma, disability, and intervention as its keyword. The study revealed that from 449 articles that are found online, only 17 are eligible with the inclusion criteria. Most of the interventions are targeting to reduce stigma from the general population towards people with disabilities. Mental disability is the most type of disability addressed by the intervention. The study concluded that education intervention has proven to be the most effective and efficient type of intervention in reducing stigma toward people with disabilities. Especially in Indonesia, a fourth most populous country, increasing impact area by targeting the general population can be seen as the most efficient way in reducing stigma.
, Samuel Oyedeji
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.4

Abstract:
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. Antiretroviral therapy, the drug used to treat HIV patients, had been reported to have an adverse effect on patients’ livers. Therefore, this research aims to assess the parameters for measuring liver injury of HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Owo and to determine the patients' vulnerability to liver injury. The study sample was divided into five groups comprising Control groups and groups with 6 months, 1 year, 3 years and 5 years’ periods of administration of an antiretroviral drug. Serum was separated from their blood and values of ALT, ALP and BILT were determined. The results of profiling the patients based on values ALT, ALP and BILT indicated that 73%, 71% and 59% of the patients are within the reference range of the parameters, respectively. Further analysis of the percentage of patients likely to have liver diseases indicated that only 3.2% are prone to liver injury. The results of the One-way Analysis of Variance of the mean values of the groups on ALT, ALP and BILT indicated differences in mean values of the groups. It is suggested that a longitudinal study should be carried out to determine the effect of seasonal variation in the value of the studied parameters. It is also suggested that a wider interval of the period for the groups should be used in the future to determine whether there will be a relationship between the period of administration of the drug and the parameters.
Reuben Grech, Paulann Grech
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.2.9

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a stroke knowledge assessment tool based on a mixed-methods approach and a synthesis of the relevant literature on stroke. The content of the tool was predominantly developed by the findings from a qualitative study involving ten stroke patients who had been admitted to a state hospital due to a stroke during the previous 2 years. The other source for tool construction was the information that emerged from an extensive literature review. The resulting online questionnaire was divided into three main sections namely i) demographics ii) stroke knowledge and iii) stroke response. A 5-point Likert scale was chosen to answer each question in Sections B and C, which facilitates the analysis process using descriptive and inference statistics. The tool was subjected to psychometric testing with promising results. The use of a standard tool, such as SKAT, which is the one presented in this paper, presents health professionals, who are in a prime position to gauge healthcare educational needs, with the means to assess stroke knowledge and carry out interesting uniform comparisons between different geographical and ethnical populations. The targeted audience for the use of this tool is a). The general population and/or b). A population where stroke knowledge enhancement is being planned. SKAT can then inform educational and awareness needs.
, Dessalegn Tamiru, Tefera Belachew
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.1.3

Abstract:
Risks of NCDs are prevented by adopting healthy lifestyles, but it remains a matter of concern and the knowledge regarding the effect of social factors on health almost not researched in West Ethiopia. The objective of the study is to explore barriers and facilitators in adopting healthy lifestyles among urban residents of West Ethiopia. A qualitative study design was used with three diversified focus group discussion (FGD) guidance to obtain adoption and perception of 27 participants’ on healthy lifestyles. The collected audio-record and session note data’s; were transcribed, verbatim and qualitatively analyzed through a thematic approach. The following themes were identified based on social capital perception frames (bonding, bridging, and linking). Barriers theme: negative influence from family, peer pressure and perceive towards unhealthy lifestyles &obesity, and accepted socialization by the community (bonding); inadequate awareness on NCD screening and management and insufficient support from health care workers (bridging); and hospital & community healthcare professionals related barriers, inequity in the allocation of public resources (linking). Facilitators theme: motivation to participate in physical activity (bonding); cooperative relationships with health extension workers (bridging); and fear of morbidity and mortality; access of media to an aware, healthy lifestyle (linking); were identified themes to healthy lifestyles adoption. This study revealed that urban residents of west Ethiopia adopted unhealthy lifestyles. Bonding, bridging and linking social capital would be work as barriers and facilitators to adopting healthy lifestyles. Therefore, integrating quoted findings into the chronic care system need attention.
Journal of Medical and Health Studies, Volume 2, pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmhs.2021.2.1.4

Abstract:
Having a baby is a huge responsibility. It often happens that mothers, especially when they are having their first baby, feel stressed and incompetent in their role as mothers even as their children normally grows. The purpose of this article is to identify the general features of psychological stress among mothers of autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome and to identify the differences and relationship in psychological stress between mothers of autism and down syndrome. In this study participated a group of mothers with children who have autism (n = 44) and mothers of children with Down syndrome (n = 44). The findings made proved that the general features of psychological stress are high Among mothers of autistic children, while it was low among mothers of Down syndrome, there were also statistically significant differences in the level of psychological stress between mothers of autism and Down syndrome, and a correlation was found between mothers of autism and Down syndrome at the level of significance (0.01).
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