Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093)

Journal Information
EISSN : 2734-2093
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 23
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R Adams, B. I. Idemudia, E.E. Imarhiagbe, B. Ikhajiagbe, F. O. Ekhaise
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 3, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v3i1.307

Abstract:
Poultry farmers and birds are exposed to poultry dust which is a byproduct of commercial poultry production. It increases the chances of developing serious respiratory conditions. Adult male Wistar rats were used in this study due to their stable hormonal status to investigate the effect of poultry dust (PM10) on the biochemical, haematological and histopathological parameters of the animals. The Wistar rats were exposed to dust samples collected from 9 poultry farms in Edo State. Indoor concentration of dust samples was determined monthly using a Casella Cel 712 micro dust pro air sampler from December 2016 to November 2017. Wistar rats were exposed to sieved poultry dust obtained with the aid of a vacuum cleaner equipped with a 25- m mesh paper dust bag. Blood samples and organs were obtained from sacrificed Wistar rats for biochemical, haematological and histopathological studies. Poultry dust (PM10) concentration were above recommended limits (0.15mg/m3) of the United State Environmental Protection agency (USEPA). There was significant reduction in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, monocytes and lymphocytes count in dust-exposed Wistar rats compared to unexposed ones. There was also evidence of histopathology attributed to exposure. This study therefore revealed high dust concentration that can result to a number of health impacts in mammals within the poultry environment.
O. S. Asaolu, C. Agbede
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 3, pp 12-19; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v3i1.321

Abstract:
The global effort to address HIV/AIDS prevalence rest with a holistic intervention that promotes adherence and reduces the sociocultural factors limiting treatment adherence. This study assessed the predictors of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among Young People Living with HIV (YPLHIV) in Niger State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional survey utilizing a 43-item validated questionnaire to collect information on HIV medication adherence among 208 young people living with HIV currently enrolled in four facilities providing free comprehensive HIV care and treatment services in Niger State Nigeria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at p=0.05 significance level. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 24 years with a mean age of 21.5 ± 1.92 years. Participants had been on antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for a period ranging between one to 14 years. The overall adherence rate in the study was 20% and was unevenly distributed across the four sites. In bivariate analysis, factors associated with ART medication adherence include educational attainment, religion and knowledge of medication adherence practices. Participants with higher education of at least a secondary school certificate were significantly more likely to adhere to ART (100%) than the lowly educated persons (0%), (p <0.0001). Similarly, other significant correlates of adherence at the bivariate level included knowledge of medication adherence (p <0.0001) and religion (p=0.038). Medication adherence is sub-optimal among Young People Living with HIV in Niger State and this study recommends holistic youth-friendly health literacy interventions programs to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among this population.
E. E. Otto, D. O. Luyi
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 3, pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v3i1.351

Abstract:
The healthcare-related infection has been a foremost national and international public health concern with millions of people affected globally and thus constituting a grave matter for patient health, and as much as 5 to 10% of hospitals admissions in industrialized nations of the world (Pittet et al., 2008), with the risk similarly as high as 19%, in developing nations and therefore presenting a very serious challenge to health care workers (Angel, 2015). As a result, this study evaluates healthcare practitioners' knowledge and practice of handwashing in private health care facilities in Ijebu Ode, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized, and the collection of data was through a structured questionnaire from 98 consenting participants selected through purposive sampling and was descriptively analyzed utilizing Microsoft Excel and a statistical tool for social sciences. According to the results, a good number of health practitioners in private facilities in Ijebu Ode have high knowledge and hand-washing practice with 96.9% and 837% respectively. Hence, the work concluded that health care practitioners in private hospital facilities in Ijebu Ode have adequate knowledge of hand hygiene and practice. The study, however, suggested that hospital authorities should ensure adequate motivation and amenities for hand-washing activities are made available to ensure its sustainability.
B. U. Idam, P. Ebisintei
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 3, pp 30-42; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v3i1.352

Abstract:
The gastro-protective effect of ethanolic root extract of Uvaria ovata through ulcer scores, extractible mucus weight, stomach acid secretion and gastric activity was studied using rat models. A total of 40 Wistar rats were used for this study. The animals were separated into 2 experimental groups, namely: chronic (15 rats) and acute (25 rats), with rats in both groups weighing between 100-140g. For the chronic group, group 1 served as the control and received normal feed and distilled water only, group 2 were given low dose of 500mg/kg of Uvaria ovata root extract orally along with food and water, and group 3 were given high dose of 1000mg/kg of Uvaria ovata root extract orally along with feed and water for 30 days respectively. In the acute study, group 1 received no administration, group 2 were used as the negative control and were administered 800mg/kg of Aspirin. Group 3, which constituted the positive control, were administered 4mg/kg of Omeprazole, followed by 800mg/kg Aspirin. Group 4 were given low dose (400mg/kg) of Uvaria ovata root extract, followed by 800mg/kg of Aspirin, while group 5 were given high dose (800mg/kg) Uvaria ovata root extract followed by 800mg/kg of Aspirin. The findings suggested that Uvaria ovata root extract provided gastroprotection against gastric ulceration.
O. Ariyo, F. O. Samuel, T. E. Eyinla, O. O. Leshi, B. I. C. Brai, W. O. Afolabi
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 153-162; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.301

Abstract:
As part of the measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus in Nigeria during the early stages of the pandemic, a lockdown of movements within and from outside the country was declared by the federal government. This article presents findings on food-related coping strategies adopted during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. A cross sectional survey using an online based questionnaire received responses from 883 households regarding information on food consumption, health seeking behaviour and food coping strategies during the COVID-19 lockdown. Food Coping Strategy Index (FCSI) was computed from the data received based on standard methods. Analysis and presentation of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The key findings show that daily mealtimes generally reduced from an average of 3 to 2 times. The storage capacity of households showed an average of 2-week food stock of staples, and most of the respondents had started reducing either their usual portion sizes or frequency of meals in order to cope with food shortages. As regards health seeking behavior, older respondents were more likely to take prophylactic medication (p<0.004) and there was a higher preference for fruits and Vitamin C as prophylactic items. A negative correlation between FCSI with mealtime during COVID-19 lockdown (p<0.000) and monthly income (p<0.000) was observed. The findings presented provide information for policy intervention in the areas of social safety nets and palliatives disbursement in the event of similar lockdown restrictions in the future.
D. Brotobor, O. I. Edeawe, I. D. Owoeye, S. O. Bankole, O. K. Famuyide
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 109-117; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.271

Abstract:
Stress reduces productivity and increase pressure that can influence student nurses learning and academic performance negatively. The stressors faced by student nurses are enormous and their impact is huge. It is important to enhance positive and adaptive behavior in student nurses as it might affect their coping method in practice. Aim: To examine the different stressors and stress management strategies adopted by student nurses of the Department of Nursing Science, at the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study used a cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaires. Using the census approach, the 314 undergraduate students of the department of nursing, at the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma were used. Results: Out of 314 of the respondents, 301 (95.9%) agreed that academic work was their main source of stress. When faced with stress, majority of the respondents (73.6%) reported to always become religious; they pray for guidance and strength. Some also reported that they always rest when they experience stressful situations (70.4%), 45.5% reported to always seek support from healthcare workers, friends, family and their lecturers, while 51.6% respondents claimed they occasionally go for recreational activities. Conclusion: There should be a continuous effort to counsel student nurses; create some diversional therapies and revision of the academic workload. These are essential in creating an enabling and motivating environment for learning and practice.
E. M. Okonkwo, F. O. Samuel
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 118-128; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.275

Abstract:
This study determined food neophobia (FN) and the relationship of infant feeding practice (IFP) and (FN) among pre-school children in Orogun community, Ibadan. Three hundred and seventy mothers of pre-school children were chosen using a systematic random sampling technique from a pre-survey house to house list of eligible children. A semi-structured questionnaire that included socio-demographic characteristics, retrospective breastfeeding practice, retrospective complementary feeding practice (CFP) and FN scales were used to collect information. Data were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression. The exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate was 26.8% and 38% of the mothers had a good breastfeeding practice. Timely initiation of complementary feeding was 54%. The prevalence of FN was 35%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds for FN was higher among children who were initiated to breastfeeding late (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.886 – 2.31), children that were not breastfed on demand (OR = 1.766, 95% CI: 0.925 – 3.372), those not exclusively breastfed for six months (OR = 1.366, 95% CI: 0.834 – 2.240) and children introduced to complementary food before 6 months (OR = 1.473, 95% CI: 0.787 – 2.760). Most rejected foods were from the fruits and vegetable group. There were suboptimal IFP in the study and prevalence of FN was high. Poor IFP were associated with FN. Community-based nutrition education programs should be encouraged to improve IFP.
O. M. Oluseye, N. A. Jimoh, C. A. Ogunleye
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 136-148; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.295

Abstract:
Measles has remained endemic in some part of the world where the vaccine is not easily accessible. Although vaccine is available in some parts of the world, with routine immunization services and campaigns, many children are yet to be vaccinated. Hence, this study assessed the knowledge and attitude towards measles and Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR) among mothers in Idi-aba community. This was a descriptive research design using multistage sampling technique to choose participants for the study. A self-constructed questionnaire was used to collect information from participants. After the distribution and collection of the questionnaires, data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed that 93.2% (386) and 65.9% (273) participants indicated that they knew what measles and MMR vaccines are respectively. However, overall analysis revealed that only 165 (39%) participants had high knowledge of measles and MMR vaccine while 303 (74%) had good attitude towards measles and MMR vaccine. This study showed that there are some knowledge gaps. Factors significantly associated with high percentage of mothers having good attitude are occupation (????2=20, P=0.000), income (????2=5.9, P=0.009) and parity (????2=23, P=0.000). In conclusion, this result implies that in order to sustain the good attitude displayed by the mothers, there is need for strategic intensive health educational programs for the mothers of the community.
A. A. Akingbade, E. M. Ikegwu, O. J. Akinsola, C. F. Nwachukwu
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 98-108; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.247

Abstract:
This study assessed mothers’ knowledge on, the practice of, and factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding in the initial 6 months after birth. A descriptive cross-sectional research design and purposive sampling technique were used to pick 323 mothers that attended immunization at Community Health Project Amukoko and who had at least 1 child and a well-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from them. Data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution, Chi-square test, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test significant differences in the knowledge of EBF and demographic characteristics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show that the mean age of the mothers is 29.47 (18 - 47 years). The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was found to be 72.1% and the knowledge of mothers on exclusive breastfeeding was very good (81.81%). The mode of delivery, introduction of prelacteal feed and introduction of water before breastfeeding have significant related to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (p < 0.05). The study concluded that most of the mothers had good knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding rate at six months, mode of delivery, offering of prelacteal feed and introducing of water before breastfeeding is significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding. The study recommended healthier talks and support from health care workers on breastfeeding for mothers and the use of expressed breast milk promoted among mothers.
D. Brotobor, I. Nwadike, O. I. Edeawe, O. C. Izekor, J. Olowogboye
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojmr.v2i2.233

Abstract:
Vaccination demand and acceptance depends on several factors that are quite broad and complex. The knowledge and attitude of a mother to childhood immunization play a key role in immunization coverage. Low immunization coverage in Nigeria is mostly attributed to poor knowledge, compliance, accessibility and inappropriate attitude among other factors. Poor compliance with full immunization is believed to be the most significant reason for low immunization coverage in the country due to socio-cultural obstacles to the acceptance of immunization. Aim: This study aims to assess the factors that determine the attitude of mothers towards immunization. Methodology: A hundred (100) mothers were recruited into this cross-sectional descriptive study using a simple random sampling technique. Data collection was performed by using a structured questionnaire. This study was carried out in Ukpenu community in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in the Ukpenu community in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. 100 mothers were recruited into the study using a simple random sampling technique. Result: The results showed that the respondents have a positive attitude towards immunization. This was evident in the immunization report. Their record revealed that most of their children were fully immunized. This is seen in their readiness to fully immunize their children against childhood vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), their willingness to recommend full immunization of children to their friends, relatives and other women, and their readiness to purchase the vaccines if they are no longer available free of charge to ensure that their children are fully immunized. It was discovered that educational status plays a contributory role in the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards immunization. Conclusion: Maternal health education should be sustained to ensure continuous compliance and a positive attitude of mothers towards immunization.
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