Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093)

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EISSN : 2734-2093
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 10
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A. E. Oigbochie, E. B. Odigie, B. I. G. Adejumo
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 01-13; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.187

Abstract:
A drone is an aircraft controlled from a distance without a human pilot onboard using devices ingrained with software flight protocols. Outside the military, it lately just started to reach the relevancy of conventional businesses. The healthcare sector is an industry where this capacity is needed particularly in a pandemic in providing a responsive healthcare service in a contact-free manner. Also, delivery of blood supplies, vaccines, medications and other medical supplies to rural areas with no access to health facilities is made possible by the use of drones as they can navigate through difficult barriers such as buildings and bridges as well as areas that have been rendered inaccessible by conventional land and air transport. Drones have triggered a swift advancement in a variety of commercial, recreational and industrial applications with its capability to effectively put together real-time information on events at a low cost. However, its breakthrough in healthcare has been slower compared to other sectors where drones have been used extensively. Hence, this review is aimed at emphasizing the importance of drones in healthcare delivery noting its current and future usability. In this paper, a systematic review of relevant literatures was employed. Findings suggests that drones have been used effectively in healthcare viz a viz: enabling transportation of birth control, biopsy for emergency surgeries and other medical and laboratory supplies within few minutes. Considering the current global situation (COVID-19 pandemic), the future might experience more outpatient care and perhaps home-based care previously admitted in hospitals. Test results, medication­­s and other treatment ordered by physicians may be couriered to patient’s residence via drones. In conclusion, drones offer a variety of exciting opportunities; delivery of medical and laboratory supplies, blood products including biopsy for emergency surgeries is just a starting point. Drones have the capability to evolve medical care as well as propel advancement in the health industry.
E. Anibor, M. Obaroefe, E. Kaeka
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 27-32; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.196

Abstract:
The human lip is a highly visible aesthetic feature due to its positioning on the face, therefore, laceration of the lip may be viewed as a form of cosmetic deformation. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence level of lip laceration among Delta State University undergraduates in Abraka, Nigeria. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed with data obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were Undergraduates of Delta State University, Abraka, and aged 15-30 years. Data were analysed for inferential statistics using chi-square test tool. Females 198 (51.6%) constituted majority of the respondent as against males 186 (48.4%). Majority of the respondents were within the ages of 18-20 years (210, 54.7%) with the least age group been those of 26-30 years (28, 7.3%). The study reveals a low prevalence of lip laceration amongst the population (79, 19.8%). A significant association was observed between age (0.020), gender (0.030) and lip laceration prevalence level. The study revealed that the female gender 49 (62%) had a higher prevalence of lip laceration alongside individuals within the ages of 15-20 years 47 (59.5%). Overall, the study concludes that prevalence of lip laceration among students of Delta State University in Abraka, Nigeria as at the time of study is low and this a significant literature data.
M. A. Usman, S. A. Otene
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 56–65-56–65; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.211

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-demographic and clinicopathological features of patients with cervical cancer seen in a comprehensive cancer center in North-western Nigeria. It was a six years retrospective study of patients with cervical cancer treated in the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, UDUTH, Sokoto. Data was obtained from the patients’ case notes using a semi-structured data extraction form. A total of 220 cases were reviewed for patients whose mean age was 49.9 years (SD ± 11.9); with the age range of 24-87 years. Results show that squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type seen in 182(82.7%) of the patients, followed by adenocarcinoma 22(10%) and clear cell carcinoma 9(4.1%). Vaginal bleeding 110(50%), foul-smelling vaginal discharge103 (46.8%), fatigue 67(30.5%), lower abdominal pain 65(20.5%) and weight loss 30(13.6%) were the commonest clinical features. 176(80%) patients presented late stages (IIB – IVB) of cervical cancer. Concluding, most of the women with cervical cancer presented with features of vaginal bleeding or foul-smelling vaginal discharge, weight loss, fatigue and lower abdominal pain, with commonest histological categorization being squamous cell carcinoma. Late presentation of the disease was obviously observed in most of the cases diagnosed. The clinical features of cervical cancer identified in the cases reviewed are indicators of advanced disease. Thus, it is imperative that advocacy for cervical cancer screening should be stepped up in order to ensure early detection and prevent the progression of the disease to advanced stages.
S. A. Otene, M. A. Usman
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 47-55; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.208

Abstract:
Cervical cancer (CC) has been identified as a leading cause of cancer-related death of women in Nigeria. Unfortunately, treatment for CC induces renal function injury due to nephrotoxicity of commonly used cytotoxic medications and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy consistently impairs the renal function of cervical cancer patients after treatment as claimed by literature. The study was an ex post facto research, for retrospective evaluation of documented information on 220 cervical cancer patients treated in the Department of Radiotherapy, Usman Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria. The study covered a six-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2015. Data were obtained from the patients’ case notes using a semi-structured data extraction form. Independent t-test and chi-square statistics were used to obtain and interpret results from the analysis of the data. The study hypothesis one states that there would be both positive and negative effects of radiotherapy on the renal function of patients with cervical cancer. But no significant difference was found regarding the effect of radiotherapy on renal function of the patients with cervical cancer at χ2 (1, N=220) = .284, P = 288. Hypothesis two states that there was no statistically significant difference in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of the patients, measured before and after treatment (t (219) = -0.66, P> 0.5). Extrapolating from the study results revealed that radiotherapy does not only cause renal function impairment, but also enhances renal function among patients with cervical cancer. The study however recommends that there should be a constant monitoring of the GFR for every patient with cervical cancer underdoing radiotherapy.
R. M. Labe, A. S. Otene, P. M. Inunduh, G. T. Akume
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 14-26; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.193

Abstract:
The study assesses perception of coronavirus as an existential and conformance to social distance among citizens in Benue state. A total of 343 participants comprised of 187(54.5%) males and 157(45.8%) females. Participants responded to a self-developed questionnaire which has a Cronbach alpha coefficient was.76. The study was a correlational research design. Results, shows there is a significant positive correlation between conformists’ perception of coronavirus as an existential threat and conformance to social distance, r (343) = .559, p< .0.01 for hypothesis one. There was a negative correlation between oppositional group perceptions of coronavirus as an existential threat and conformance to social distance, r (343) = -.175, p< .0.01 for hypothesis two. Hypothesis three shows there is a significant difference in the perception of coronavirus as an existential threat and conformance to social distance between conformists score (M=12.7360, SD=2.39721) and oppositional score (M=16.0242, = 3.03586), t (341) = -7.012, p< .05). A significant difference was also observed in the perception of coronavirus as an existential threat and conformance to social distance between the male scores of (M=14.3520, SD=4.47642) and female scores of (M=14.5137, SD= 4.84979), t (323) = -3.312, p< .05). Findings from this study show that, coronavirus is an existential threat to human life. Nevertheless, people differed in their attitude to conformance to social distance protocol. The peoples’ view of coronavirus and response to social distance should help to deepen government and health managers understanding to strengthen health policy and measures on disease control in future outbreaks.
M Hameed, M. R. Labe, A. O. Akinjola, M. D. Chia, A. E. Enejo, A. S. Otene
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 2, pp 34-46; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v2i1.197

Abstract:
Anxiety is recognized as a potential risk factor for false-positive result derived from radiological image. This study investigated patients’ anxiety levels on exposure to computer tomography and experience of claustrophobia. The study adopts a correlation research design. A total of 96 patients made-up of 49 males (50%) and 47 females (48%) subjects undergoing CT scan examination at the Radiology Department of Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi was recruited for this study. Participants responded to STAI (Form-1) a Nigerian re-standardized version and Radomsky’s Claustrophobia questionnaire. The results of the analysis shows that; there is a strong positive correlation between patients’ levels of anxiety and exposure to computer tomography examination including normal anxiety of r (96) = .812, p< .0.01), mild anxiety level r (96) = .823, p< .0.01), moderate anxiety level r (96)= .746, p< .0.01), severe anxiety r(96) = .669, p< .0.01), and extremely severe anxiety level, r (96) = .220, p<. 0.01). However, there is a negative correlation between patients’ exposure to computer tomography examination and experience of claustrophobia, r (96) = -.18, p< .0.01). There is also a significant difference between male and female levels of anxiety and experience of claustrophobia during exposure to CT scan examination, with males score (M=20.4082, SD=2.39721, N=96) and females score (M=21.1489, SD= 3.03586), t (94) = -1.330, p< .05) for anxiety, males score (M=43.0213, SD=12.04609), and females score (M=42.2979, SD=11.89248) on exposure to CT scan t (94) = .293, p< .05) claustrophobia symptoms, males score (M=15.7083, SD=14.02878) females score (M=13.9149, SD=10.75989), t (94) = .698, p< .05). The study proved that anxiety and claustrophobia is commonly experienced by patients undergoing CT scan examination. Hence, pre-counselling/education should always be used to prepare as well as mitigate anxiety related reactions in patients prior to CT scan in order to achieve a successful outcome of the procedure.
C. A. Otitolaiye, D. M. Sahabi, A. M. Makusidi, Y. Saidu, L. S. Bilbis
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 1, pp 1-9; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v1i1.72

Abstract:
Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. As such, examining the levels of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction is very critical to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to investigate the progression of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction among CKD patients in Sokoto. A total of 67 CKD patients were divided into 5 groups based on the stages of their kidney disease calculated using the MDRD 4-variable equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The presence of inflammation was determined by C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha, while endothelial dysfunction was determined by the levels of Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) using ELISA kits. The mean eGFR of the patients was 49.97 ± 4.69 ml/min/1.73m2. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in CRP, TNF-α and ADMA of the CKD patients across the stages as compared to the non-CKD subjects. It was observed that as the CRP, TNF-α and ADMA increase, the eGFR significantly (p<0.05) decreases. Both CRP and TNF-α indicated a significantly positive correlation (p<0.05) with ADMA. The results indicated progressive increase in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as CKD deteriorates. In addition, increased levels of inflammation could directly affect endothelial dysfunction, thereby aggravating cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among CKD patients in Sokoto. Otitolaiye, C. A. | Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria
A. J. Kukoyi, T. A. Coker, K. A. Arowora, J. E. Ukperoro, M. A. Alabi, A. Ishola
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 1, pp 28-35; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v1i1.75

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to investigate the possible effects of white and red table wine on the brain using Wister rats. Twenty-four (24) Wister rats weighing an average of 193g were purchased and identified at the zoological department of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of six rats each. Red wine (12% alcoholic content), white wine (12% alcoholic content), ethanol+H2O (12%) and distilled water (control), were administered orally and respectively for 10 days. Administration was done using syringe and tourniquets to each rat according to the kg body weight (10ml/kg body weight). The rats were later sacrificed and subjected to biochemical and brain homogenate analysis. The results show that the plasma and brain homogenate of rats administered White wines were significantly lower (p<0.05) than control for Total Cholesterol determination. Similarly, the plasma and brain homogenate of rats administered White wine were significantly lower (p<0.05) than control for Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) determination. Meanwhile, other parameters like HDL-cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, Glutathione, Triglyceride, Total Protein, Uric acid and Creatinine were not significantly different from the control for plasma and homogenate analysis. In all, White wine was not found to express any trace of toxicity on the brain as opposed to Red wine. The study therefore shows that White wine are more healthy than red wines and as such when given an option between red and white, white wine should be preferred. Kukoyi, A. J. | Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P.M.B. 1020, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria
M. I. Ike-Ogbonna, W. E. Mangset, E. E. Ike
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 1, pp 20-27; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v1i1.74

Abstract:
Due to the availability and frequent use of x-ray machine in the diagnoses of diseases and treatment of diseases in most of our hospitals and radio-diagnostic centers in Nigeria, the need to assess the quality control parameters and level of compliance of the x-ray machines cannot be over emphasized. The purpose of this research is to compare the result of four Quality Control test parameters of government (G1and G2), mission (M1 and M2) and private owned (P1and P2) x-ray machines of the radio-diagnostic facilities to ascertain the level of compliance among them with the set reference tolerance limits. Four Quality Control test parameters; kVp accuracy, congruence between optical and x-ray field, beam alignment and tube filtration was assessed from the measurement carried out using Gammex Radiologic kit with Gammex 330 digital kV meter, Gammex 115A half value layer set, collimator test tool model 161B and the beam alignment test tool model 162A.The result of kVp accuracy show that G1,G2,M2 and P1 all had values ranging from 2.30% - 3.14% within the set tolerance limit of ± 5% while M1 and P2 had values above the limit. In congruence between optical and x-ray field with tolerance limit of ±2%, only P2 was above limit, while in perpendicularity G2 and P2 were above the set limit of 1.5o. Tube filtration all the studied x-ray machines failed the test indicate absorption of excess low energy dose for patient. This research therefore reveals that the government and mission x-ray machines have better quality control programme that the private owned. Ike-Ogbonna, M. I. | Department of Physics, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
O. Agofure, M. A. Danzaria
Open Journal of Medical Research (ISSN: 2734-2093), Volume 1, pp 10-19; doi:10.52417/ojmr.v1i1.73

Abstract:
The prevalence of sickle cell anaemia has been shown to be on the increase in Nigeria. Therefore, preventive measures such as premarital genotype screening have been proposed as one of the ways of reducing the scourge of the disease. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age in Kuma Akko Local Government Area of Gombe State towards premarital genotype screening. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. A total of 296 respondents were sampled through simple random sampling technique and the collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Majority of the respondents 200(71.40%) were between the ages of 15-34 years old and 64(22.90%) of the respondents affirmed that they had a family history of sickle cell disease. In addition, 58.60% of the respondents demonstrated poor knowledge of premarital genotype screening while 57.10% exhibited negative perception towards premarital genotype screening and 63.20% exhibited poor attitude towards premarital genotype screening. There was a significant relationship between respondents with family history of sickle cell anaemia and their knowledge of premarital genotype screening. The study therefore recommends that efforts should be intensified by the governments and health workers in primary, secondary and tertiary level of healthcare deliveries, to raise awareness on the importance of premarital genotype screening in order to reduce the prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia in the locality. Agofure, O. | Department of Public and Community Health, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria.
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