Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069)

Journal Information
EISSN : 2734-2069
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 15
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H Babayi, A. Mustapha, K. I. Olayemi, Fadipe A. L., E. Baba
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 3, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v3i1.306

Abstract:
Ethyl acetate fraction (Ec4) of honeycomb was evaluated for acute toxicity and haematopoietic effects in rats using standard methods. Oral LD50 of fraction Ec4 was 5000 mg/kgbw. Oral administration of Ec4 (25 mg/kgbw, 50 mg/kgbw and 100 mg/kgbw) for 28days did not cause any variation in neutophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, WBC, RBC PCV, MCHC, MCV and platelet counts of rats. Fraction Ec4 at 100mg/kgbw evoked an insignificant (P>0.05) increase in the levels of basophil and significant (P<0.05) decrease in eosinophil counts in treated rats compared with the control. The results of this study revealed the potentials of honeycomb in stabilizing the immune system. Therefore, the fraction could be standardized and developed into affordable and acceptable phytomedicine for various ailments. But caution should be exercised on chronic exposure since it is capable of causing allergy in rats.
H. B. Yesufu, Y. Z. Abacha, F. A. Goje
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 3, pp 09-17; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v3i1.347

Abstract:
It is well established that various extraction factors, including the method, temperature, time, and solvent system, significantly influence the antioxidant quality of plant-derived products. Extraction conditions are an important factor in the process of obtaining bioactive compounds from plant matrix. Previously, extraction of the plant materials was carried out with Polar (methanol and ethanol) solvents via maceration and thereafter assayed for its antioxidant capacity. In this study, solvents of gradient polarity were used to fractionate the crude extracts of ten (10) plant materials and thereafter assayed using an in-vitro DPPH assay for their antioxidant capacity. Findings revealed that one (1) of the ten (10) plant materials gave fractions that were very prominent in scavenging free radicals across the non-polar and mid-polar solvents which was supported by the IC50 values obtained (ASH= 0.77 μg/ml; ASC=0.05 μg/ml; ASE=0.62 μg/ml: CNNB= 0.98 μg/ml; PRRA=0.99 μg/ml). However, the standard ascorbic acid showed better activity (Vit. C = 0.04).
O. D. Akwuma, A. G. Ezra, A. J. Nayaya
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 66-73; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i2.287

Abstract:
Emergent and floating macrophytes in relation to some physicochemical parameters were assessed in Waya pond, Bauchi. Water and macrophytes were sampled monthly between October 2019 to March 2020. Ten physicochemical parameters were measured and twelve macrophytes species recorded. The diversity index was 1.38, evenness (0.55) and abundance were 12 species. The site was polluted as all the values of dissolved oxygen (DO) were ˂ 5 mg/L, nitrogen ˃ 18 mg/L and pH ˂ 7 except for December. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed that DO correlated with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (r = 0.936, p˂0.01), Phosphate (r = 0.927, p˂0.01) and Nitrate (r = -0.953, p˂0.01). TDS correlated with Phosphate (r = 0.969, p˂0.01) and Nitrate (r = - 0.938, p˂0.01). The significant correlation between physicochemical parameters and macrophytes were: Nymphaea nouchali with DO (r = - 0.849, p˂0.05), TS (r = 0.88, p˂0.05). Panicum repens was negatively correlated with TDS, DO, TS, Phosphate but not Nitrates. Eichhornia crassipes, Nymphaea micrantha and Nymphaea lotus at p˂0.05 were negatively associated with TDS, DO, and Phosphate but positively with Nitrate. Nuphar lutea, Nelumbo nucifera and Echinochloa colona related positively with Turbidity. Nuphar lutea positively related with Nitrate but negative with DO, and TS. Typha latifolia with TS (r = - 0.871, p˂0.05). Potamogeton natans with phosphate (r = 0.927, p˂0.01). The state of water pollution in the study-area corresponded with low diversity, evenness and abundance of species. This puts biodiversity and sustainability at risk.
J. U. Ekenwosu, P. U. Okorie, C. Ikpeama
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i2.220

Abstract:
Spodoptera frugiperda, Fall Armyworm (FAW), poses an existential threat to farmers in Africa given their destructive effect on crops. This is essentially the case in south-eastern Nigeria where major crops such as cassava and maize are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of the pest. This paper reviewed published work on the availability of biopesticides that can control FAW without compromising environmental sustainability. Altogether, 50 active ingredients have been identified as potential biopesticides to control fall armyworm globally, out of which 29 were described in Africa. Although there are reports of remarkable successes in the application of these organic pesticides, there is a need to identify more biopesticides and also establishing the most effective modes of application for managing the pest. This review examines possible biopesticides that may be used in controlling FAW in Africa and also provides insight for further research.
G. Chamba, A. S. Falmata, B. P. Bintu, B. K. Maryam, S. Modu
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 36-65; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i2.286

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to produce high protein diet for growing children from yellow maize, soya bean, pumpkin seed and fish meal. The raw materials were subjected to different processing techniques. The yellow maize (YM) was blended with different proportions of soya bean (SB), pumpkin seeds (PS) and fish meal (FM) with a view to formulating a high protein diet to address protein Energy Malnutrition. The formulated food Blends were; Blend 1 (70 % YM: 30 % SB), Blend 2 (70 % YM: 30 % PS), Blend 3 (70 % YM: 30 % FM), Blend 4 (70 % YM: 20 % SB :10 % PS), Blend 5 (70 % YM: 15 % SB: 15 % FM), Blend 6 (60 % YM: 20 % PS: 20 % FM), and a therapeutic milk (F-100) was used as a control diet. The raw materials and the food Blends were assayed for proximate, mineral, vitamin content and amino acid profile. The data obtained were analyzed statistically. The results of the proximate composition showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in moisture, protein, total fat and fibre contents of the fermented yellow maize, roasted soya bean and pumpkin seed while that of the dried fish showed significant (P<0.05) increase. The results shows that food Blend 6 had highest values for protein (17.77±0.09 %), total fat (6.00±0.27%) and total energy (388.10±0.29 Kcal/100g). A Significant (P<0.05) difference was observed in the mineral element content of yellow maize and fish meal after fermentation and drying respectively, while an increase was observed in roasted soya bean and pumpkin seed. The food Blend 5 recorded higher value for Na, and K, while the control diet had higher value for P, Zn, Fe and Cu. An increase in B-group vitamins, and vitamin C, were observed in the samples, while decreased in fat soluble vitamins A and E were observed in fermented yellow maize and dried fish, while decrease was observed in roasted soybean and pumpkin seed. The control diet had higher value for all the vitamins analyzed compared to the food Blends, except for vitamin A and E. The result of the amino acid profile showed that the levels of the essential amino acids were increased in the fermented yellow maize, and dried fish, while a reduction was observed in roasted soya bean and pumpkin seed. However, all the prepared food Blends were enhanced in terms of essential amino acid, but more enhanced in food Blend 6, followed very closely by food Blend 5. The amino acid profile of the control Blend was higher than those of the food Blends1, 2, 3 and 4. Thus, the high energy and protein contents of the formulated diets are adequate in the management of PEM.
P. B. Bintu, A. S. Falmata, B. K. Maryam, R. O. Nnenna, A. L. Hasina, S. Modu
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 66-78; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i2.298

Abstract:
Awara, a Nigerian soft cheese analogue produced from soy milk using crude coagulant of citric acid and alum. Soybean and banjara bean were used in this study and were evaluated for their proximate composition, mineral element content, antinutritional factors, in vitro protein digestibility and vitamin content using standard procedures. Results obtained indicated that fermented banjara bean awara had a protein content of 2.15±0.01%, and fermented soybean awara had a protein content of 3.75±0.01%. Fermented banjara beans awara and soybean awara had a fat content of 5.16±0.01% and 17.13±0.01% respectively. There were significant differences in the mineral element content of both non fermented and fermented banjara bean and soybean awara. Level of antinutritional factors showed that both tannin and phytic acid were absent in fermented soybean awara. The in vitro protein digestibility of non-fermented and fermented banjara bean and soybean awara significantly increases with time. Vitamin A contents of fermented banjara and soybean awara increased when compared to non-fermented banjara and soybean awara, while a decrease was observed in non-fermented banjara and soybean awara as compared to fermented banjara bean and soybean awara. It can be concluded from this study that fermented soybean awara which is free of antinutritional factors is a more suitable source of protein and fat as a local cheese in this part of the world.
S. K. Adebiyi, E. Emoresele, M. J. Ogbonnaya
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.207

Abstract:
Solar Disinfection (SODIS) has been identified as a relatively cheap method of purifying water against pathogens, therefore providing potable drinking water, an essential component upon which living systems and the human body depends. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of solar disinfection of drinking well water was studied. A total of thirty (30) wells were randomly sampled from six (6) local government areas in Benin City, based on accessibility and communal usage. The well water was sampled using transparent 1L polyethene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Standard microbiological and biochemical test procedures were carried out to enumerate, isolate, characterize and identify the isolates to genus level. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was also ascertained. Coliform tests were conducted and cell counts were expressed in Most Probable Number (MPN). The study revealed that Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., and Klebsiella sp. and, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Candida sp. were the most prevalent heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolates in the study area in addition to faecal indicators (Escherichia coli and Fecal streptococci) with 83.33% occurrences respectively. The study also revealed that the overall percentage elimination of the identified isolates was recorded as 42.11%, while the percentage elimination of faecal indicators identified was 50%. It was observed that SODIS was very efficacious with a percentage reduction of above 95% for all identified isolates. It was also observed that SODIS is slightly more bactericidal as compared to its being fungicidal. From the study, it could not be ascertained with certainty whether or not, exposure to SODIS alters a microbial pathogens’ antibiotic susceptibility. The use of SODIS did not completely eliminate all the faecal coliforms isolated in the studied well water, therefore making it unfit for drinking with regards to WHO recommendation. Consequently, the study recommends the use of SODIS only in conjunction with other water purification methods to ensure potability.
O. B. Akinsanya, P. F. Ayodele, O. F. Onifade, M. O. Salimom
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.189

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus develops either due to insufficient insulin secretion or lack of insulin resulting from damaged pancreas beta cells. Dyslipidaemia is an acute complication in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the extenuating effects of T. cattapa leaves and P. americana seed aqueous extracts on streptozotocin-induced lipids profile perturbation and pancreatic damage in experimental rats. Thirty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). Group 1: (negative control), group 2: 80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin (positive control), group 3: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt T. catappa leave extract), group 4: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt Persea americana seed extract), group 5: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt extracts-mixture), group 6: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 5 mg/kgbwt glibenclamide (standard drug). A single dose of streptozotocin was administered to the rats intraperitoneally; the extracts and glibenclamide were administered orally for 21 days, after which their pancreas was excised for histology. Thereafter, extracts of T. catappa leaves and P. americana seed on serum lipid levels imbalance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect of the pancreatic islet cells of strotozotocin-induced groups. Results showed improvement in the regulation of lipid metabolism as well as the regeneration of the beta cells of pancreas on treatment with T. catappa leaves and P. americana seed. The extracts both equally exert significant antidyslipidemic effects in diabetic rats, in view of the extenuating effects of the extracts on pancreatic islet cells.
E. Anibor
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.195

Abstract:
The closing order of superior and inferior teeth whilst chewing or at relaxation is termed dental occlusion. Literature exploration divulged want of information on dental occlusion among the Urhobos in Delta State, Nigeria. The endeavour of this work was to consider varied dental occlusion patterns and explore gender variation in dental occlusion patterns amongst the Urhobo tribal cluster in Abraka, Nigeria. Totality of 384 citizens (200 females and 184 males) who were within 15-30 years age set were engaged in this inquisition. The gender gap is a depiction of the male/female scattering in the appraised populace. Records on dental occlusion patterns were composed by having the subjects’ bite, gulp saliva, occlude and open their mouths. The connexion of the upper and lower teeth was labelled as mild overbite, edge to edge bite, negative bite or severe overbite as specified by Eveleth in 1972. Inferential statistics were explored using chi-square by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 23 and significance level were determined by p < .05. The dental occlusion patterns observed were mild overbite 168 (43.4%), edge-edge bite 146 (38.2%), severe overbite 70 (18.4%) with no negative overbite 0 (0%). The gender dissimilarity in dental occlusion pattern was not notable (p>.05). Mild overbite is preponderant and severe overbite is infrequent amid the Urhobos in Abraka, Nigeria.
S. G. Pandukur, T. T. Sambo, A. G. Plangnan
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i2.143

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the frequency and antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial agents associated with diabetic patients attending out-patients Department in Plateau Specialist Hospital Jos. Wound swabs and pus were collected from the wounds of 251 out-patients’ department (OPD) over a 14 months’ period. Subjects were recruited upon approval by the Ethical Research Committee of the UCTH and after obtaining written or oral informed consent from the subject. Samples were cultured and microbial isolates identified using standard microbiology methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out on the bacterial isolates. Six bacterial isolates were identified from wounds of diabetic patients viz: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most frequently encountered bacterial pathogen of wound infection among subjects was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.67%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.33%) while the lowest was Klebsiella pneumonia (6.67%). The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics ranged between 0.0% to 100%. The flouroquinolones were the most active antimicrobial agents observed among bacterial isolates from diabetic out-patients studied. S. aureus [7(100%) and 6(85.7%)] was the highest susceptible bacteria followed by P. aeruginosa [7(87.5%) and 5(62.5%)], E. coli 6(100%) against Ciprofloxacin (10%) and Augmentin (30%) respectively. Meanwhile, K. pneumonia and S. pneumonia were not susceptible each (0.0%) against Doxycycline and Chloramphenicol at 10% and 30% concentrations respectively. The study showed a high index of wound contamination with bacteria pathogens and resistance pattern to standard and commonly used antibacterial agents among diabetic out-patient from the study area. Pandukur, S. G. | Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos.
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