Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069)

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EISSN : 2734-2069
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 10
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J. U. Ekenwosu, P. U. Okorie, C. Ikpeama
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i2.220

Abstract:
Spodoptera frugiperda, Fall Armyworm (FAW), poses an existential threat to farmers in Africa given their destructive effect on crops. This is essentially the case in south-eastern Nigeria where major crops such as cassava and maize are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of the pest. This paper reviewed published work on the availability of biopesticides that can control FAW without compromising environmental sustainability. Altogether, 50 active ingredients have been identified as potential biopesticides to control fall armyworm globally, out of which 29 were described in Africa. Although there are reports of remarkable successes in the application of these organic pesticides, there is a need to identify more biopesticides and also establishing the most effective modes of application for managing the pest. This review examines possible biopesticides that may be used in controlling FAW in Africa and also provides insight for further research.
E. Anibor
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.195

Abstract:
The closing order of superior and inferior teeth whilst chewing or at relaxation is termed dental occlusion. Literature exploration divulged want of information on dental occlusion among the Urhobos in Delta State, Nigeria. The endeavour of this work was to consider varied dental occlusion patterns and explore gender variation in dental occlusion patterns amongst the Urhobo tribal cluster in Abraka, Nigeria. Totality of 384 citizens (200 females and 184 males) who were within 15-30 years age set were engaged in this inquisition. The gender gap is a depiction of the male/female scattering in the appraised populace. Records on dental occlusion patterns were composed by having the subjects’ bite, gulp saliva, occlude and open their mouths. The connexion of the upper and lower teeth was labelled as mild overbite, edge to edge bite, negative bite or severe overbite as specified by Eveleth in 1972. Inferential statistics were explored using chi-square by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 23 and significance level were determined by p < .05. The dental occlusion patterns observed were mild overbite 168 (43.4%), edge-edge bite 146 (38.2%), severe overbite 70 (18.4%) with no negative overbite 0 (0%). The gender dissimilarity in dental occlusion pattern was not notable (p>.05). Mild overbite is preponderant and severe overbite is infrequent amid the Urhobos in Abraka, Nigeria.
O. B. Akinsanya, P. F. Ayodele, O. F. Onifade, M. O. Salimom
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.189

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus develops either due to insufficient insulin secretion or lack of insulin resulting from damaged pancreas beta cells. Dyslipidaemia is an acute complication in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the extenuating effects of T. cattapa leaves and P. americana seed aqueous extracts on streptozotocin-induced lipids profile perturbation and pancreatic damage in experimental rats. Thirty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5). Group 1: (negative control), group 2: 80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin (positive control), group 3: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt T. catappa leave extract), group 4: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt Persea americana seed extract), group 5: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 200 mg/kgbwt extracts-mixture), group 6: (80 mg/kgbwt streptozotocin + 5 mg/kgbwt glibenclamide (standard drug). A single dose of streptozotocin was administered to the rats intraperitoneally; the extracts and glibenclamide were administered orally for 21 days, after which their pancreas was excised for histology. Thereafter, extracts of T. catappa leaves and P. americana seed on serum lipid levels imbalance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect of the pancreatic islet cells of strotozotocin-induced groups. Results showed improvement in the regulation of lipid metabolism as well as the regeneration of the beta cells of pancreas on treatment with T. catappa leaves and P. americana seed. The extracts both equally exert significant antidyslipidemic effects in diabetic rats, in view of the extenuating effects of the extracts on pancreatic islet cells.
S. K. Adebiyi, E. Emoresele, M. J. Ogbonnaya
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 2, pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v2i1.207

Abstract:
Solar Disinfection (SODIS) has been identified as a relatively cheap method of purifying water against pathogens, therefore providing potable drinking water, an essential component upon which living systems and the human body depends. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of solar disinfection of drinking well water was studied. A total of thirty (30) wells were randomly sampled from six (6) local government areas in Benin City, based on accessibility and communal usage. The well water was sampled using transparent 1L polyethene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Standard microbiological and biochemical test procedures were carried out to enumerate, isolate, characterize and identify the isolates to genus level. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was also ascertained. Coliform tests were conducted and cell counts were expressed in Most Probable Number (MPN). The study revealed that Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., and Klebsiella sp. and, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Candida sp. were the most prevalent heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolates in the study area in addition to faecal indicators (Escherichia coli and Fecal streptococci) with 83.33% occurrences respectively. The study also revealed that the overall percentage elimination of the identified isolates was recorded as 42.11%, while the percentage elimination of faecal indicators identified was 50%. It was observed that SODIS was very efficacious with a percentage reduction of above 95% for all identified isolates. It was also observed that SODIS is slightly more bactericidal as compared to its being fungicidal. From the study, it could not be ascertained with certainty whether or not, exposure to SODIS alters a microbial pathogens’ antibiotic susceptibility. The use of SODIS did not completely eliminate all the faecal coliforms isolated in the studied well water, therefore making it unfit for drinking with regards to WHO recommendation. Consequently, the study recommends the use of SODIS only in conjunction with other water purification methods to ensure potability.
S. G. Pandukur, T. T. Sambo, A. G. Plangnan
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i2.143

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the frequency and antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial agents associated with diabetic patients attending out-patients Department in Plateau Specialist Hospital Jos. Wound swabs and pus were collected from the wounds of 251 out-patients’ department (OPD) over a 14 months’ period. Subjects were recruited upon approval by the Ethical Research Committee of the UCTH and after obtaining written or oral informed consent from the subject. Samples were cultured and microbial isolates identified using standard microbiology methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out on the bacterial isolates. Six bacterial isolates were identified from wounds of diabetic patients viz: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most frequently encountered bacterial pathogen of wound infection among subjects was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.67%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.33%) while the lowest was Klebsiella pneumonia (6.67%). The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics ranged between 0.0% to 100%. The flouroquinolones were the most active antimicrobial agents observed among bacterial isolates from diabetic out-patients studied. S. aureus [7(100%) and 6(85.7%)] was the highest susceptible bacteria followed by P. aeruginosa [7(87.5%) and 5(62.5%)], E. coli 6(100%) against Ciprofloxacin (10%) and Augmentin (30%) respectively. Meanwhile, K. pneumonia and S. pneumonia were not susceptible each (0.0%) against Doxycycline and Chloramphenicol at 10% and 30% concentrations respectively. The study showed a high index of wound contamination with bacteria pathogens and resistance pattern to standard and commonly used antibacterial agents among diabetic out-patient from the study area. Pandukur, S. G. | Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos.
A. Aisami, N. A. Yasid, W. L. W. Johari, S. A. Ahmad, M. Y. Shukor
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 28-43; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i1.57

Abstract:
Phenol is mainly used by the industries to produce a variety of chemical products such as resins, textiles, pesticides, plastics and explosive. The wide use of phenol and other phenolic compounds by industries, has resulted in an increased presence of these toxic compounds in the environment as pollutants. Bio-removal of phenol by microorganisms especially bacteria has been demonstrated to be the most effective and economical approach compared to physio-chemical methods. The search for efficient phenol-degraders especially local sources to remediate local phenol pollution is important as indigenous bacteria usually have better survival and resilient to local geographical conditions. In this study, a phenol-degrading microorganism was isolated from local soil and waste water bodies. Identification was carried out using gram staining, 16s rRNA gene sequencing and molecular phylogeny analysis using the Phylip software. The isolates were inoculated in mineral salt media with 0.5 g/L phenol as the sole source of carbon. Phenol degradation was determined using 4-amino antipyrine method. Physical and cultural conditions influencing phenol degradation such as pH and temperature were optimized via one-factor-at-a-time. Through phylogeny analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia sp. and the sequence was deposited the NCBI Genebank and accession number KT693287 was assigned to the bacteria. The highest degradation was achieved at pH 7.5 (phosphate buffer) and temperature of 30°C. Ammonium sulphate was established to be the best nitrogen source at the concentration of 0.4 g/L and a sodium chloride concentration of 0.15 g/L. Aisami, A. | Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
T. T. Sar, U. E. Umeh, O. Amali
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i1.55

Abstract:
The effects on haematological parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats infected (challenged) by the injection of pathogenic Pasteurella multocida and the administration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (ATCC™ 1534) as therapy, occasioned by the consideration of its use as an alternative to antibiotics, due to the high rate of bacterial resistance to current clinically used antibiotics was investigated. A total of 60 rats, divided into 5 groups (4 experimental groups and 1 control group) of 12 rats each were used in this study. The first group of 12 rats were injected subcutaneously with one millilitre of 1 x 108/ml B. bacteriovorus (ATCC™ 1534). The second group of 12 rats were injected with one millilitre 108/ml of P. multocida in saline. One millilitre each of 108/ml of both P. multocida and B. bacteriovorus (ATCC™ 1534) were injected into another set of 12 rats in the third group. The third group of 12 rats were injected once intra-muscularly, in the hind flank muscle, with 2 mg/kg of Ketamine Hydrochloride. And lastly, one set of 12 rats were not injected with any bacteria served as control. In all cases, observed haematological data were analysed from the experimental rats after 168 hours (except rats which were injected with 2mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride, used as anaesthetic, (at sacrifice), and compared with the haematological profiles of the 12 control rats. Results shows a reduction of mortality from 9 to 1 (88.8%) of rats challenged with P. multocida over those inoculated with B. bacteriovorus and P. multocida was observed. WBC counts were higher (4.12 x 103/µL) in B. bacteriovorus and P. multocida over WBC counts in control rats which served as WBC reference values. Though, not statistically significant (ANOVA = p >0.05). In a similar comparison, RBC counts (6.5 x 103/µL) were lower than observed in control rats, while platelet counts (1138 x 103/µL) were higher than values in controls, however, this was statistically significant. Moreover, haemoglobin concentrations were lower (11.7 g/dL) than in control rats. Though there were slight variations in haematological profiles from reference values, it was concluded that B. bacteriovorus seems to have no life-threatening effect on haematology of rats. However, evaluations such as observed platelet increases on inoculations of B. bacteriovorus, need to be addressed before the promise of its in vivo use in controlling Gram-negative infection in animals and humans can be tapped. Sar, T. T. | Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
N. U. Ikot, S. B. Ekanem, V. O. Eyo
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i1.59

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate some aspects of the reproductive biology of the African Bonytongue Heterotis niloticus from the Great Kwa River, Cross River State Nigeria with the view to encourage conservation and rational measures for sustainable management of the species. A total of 62 matured H. niloticus were sampled and their gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor, fecundity and egg diameter (mm) were studied in other to determine the spawning season of the fish. Gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index showed an inverse relationship during spawning seasons. Total length (TL-cm) ranged between 47.1 cm – 76.2 cm and total weight (TW – g) ranged between 4300g - 1169g with sex ratio of 1:1.2 (male: female) revealing a dominant female population. Fecundity ranged from 511 oocytes (48.4cm TL; 1.69 kg wt, 5.9g gonad weight) to 7822 oocytes (69.3cm TL, 3.11kg wt. 14.9g gonad weight). The regression equation derived from the scattered diagram in the relationship between fecundity and total weight, total length gonadosomatic index and length-weight is; F= 6.6231TW0.837, R2= 0.2456; F= 5.1112TL1.6367, R2= 0.1606; F= 10680GSI0.9276, R2= 0.6567; TW= 0.4072TL2.0987, R2= 0.7533, the relationship were significant (p < 0.05). Fecundity and ovary weight relationship showed a positive correlation coefficient of 1. The highest egg diameter (0.92±0.01) was recorded in May and other months with corresponding high gonadosomatic index performance to confirm spawning period. In view to encourage conservation by investigating measures for sustainable management of the species, this study observed that H. niloticus spawns throughout the year. Ikot, N. U. | Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115 Calabar, Nigeria
A. D Mowang, U. J. Naku, B. C. Ndome, M. E. Ayim
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 9-27; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i1.56

Abstract:
This study examined the effect of different concentrations of bonny light crude oil on the development and growth of the tadpoles of the crowned bullfrogs. After series of range finding tests (RFT) the tadpoles of H. occipitalis were exposed to acute and sub-lethal log concentrations of 0.00 ppm, 1.00 ppm, 1.30 ppm, 1.48 ppm, 1.60 ppm, 1.65 ppm and1.69 ppm of different fractions of bonny light crude for 96 hours. The various fractions of crude recorded no significant differences in mortalities (P > 0.05) for three- and four-weeks old tadpoles. The mortalities increased with increase in concentration of toxicants. The tadpoles recorded 75% mortalities in Water Soluble Fraction (WSF), 65 % mortalities in Water Insoluble Fraction (WIF) and 70 % and 75 % mortalities respectively in Whole Crude (WC). The WSF of crude showed the lowest LC50’s in the tadpoles ranging from 1.51 ± 0.17 ppm with (lower limit 1.45 and upper limit 1.55) to 1.61 ± 0.37 ppm with (lower limit 1.58 and upper limit 1.65). WIF showed the highest LC50’s in the tadpoles ranging from 1.62 ± 0.42 with (lower limit 1.59 and upper limit 1.66) to 1.69 ± 0.41ppm with (lower limit 1.55 and upper limit 1.62). The WC showed an LC50’s range of 1.60 ± 0.37 ppm with (lower limit 1.56 and upper limit 1.64) to 1.63 ± 0.32 ppm with (lower limit 1.59 and upper limit 1.66). Results shows that increased toxicity produced higher mortalities in tadpoles of H. occipitalis (an endangered species). This study therefore advocates that Oil companies should adhere to the current WHO / FEPA regulatory limits of 0.2 mg/l to 14.0 mg/l for C5 – C22 hydrocarbons to ensure the survival of its vital ecological niche. Mowang, A. D. | Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
A. S. Akubuilo, O. Amali, A. Onekutu
Open Journal of Bioscience Research (ISSN: 2734-2069), Volume 1, pp 44-54; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojbr.v1i1.58

Abstract:
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is reported that one third of the world’s population is infected with the parasite. T. gondii represents the risk of miscarriages and congenital abnormalities in pregnancy. This study was carried out to ascertain the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three major Health Centres in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Three hundred and eight four (384) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited for the study. Participants were screened for T. gondii specific antibodies using the Chromatographic Immuno-Assay (CIA) test method. Information on risk factors were obtained by the administration of a structured questionnaire. An overall seroprevalence of 11.7% was established. IgG antibodies represented 11.7% seroprevalence and 0.0% seroprevalence recorded for IgM antibodies. The highest seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was established in women in their second trimester. Seropositivity was found to be significantly associated (p<0.05, 95%CI) with type of drinking water, consumption of raw or fresh vegetables, previous history of miscarriage and older child with congenital deformation. Akubuilo, A. S. | Department of Zoology, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
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