African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2695-2386 / 2695-1819
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 54
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I.N. Egbon
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 224-232; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.207

Abstract:
Termite infestation on wooden poles is becoming worrisome to home and business owners given the public reliance on such poles for electricity supply. Here electric poles were surveyed in the Ekosodin community using visual observation of randomly tagged functional poles to evaluate the extent of the infestation and the functional state of the poles relative to the infestation, alongside the economic cost of replacing the damaged poles in three predetermined areas (zones) within the community, based on the scale of human development. A total of 164 poles were surveyed, 26.8% (44) of which were concrete poles. The survey showed that the infested wooden poles outnumbered the ‘unaffected’ ones as more than two-thirds of the 120 wooden poles surveyed were infested as opposed to the uninfected ones (30.83%). The termite implicated in this impact was Macrotermes bellicosus Smeathman (Blattodea: Termitidae) and its impact visibly eroded the base and structural strength of affected poles, thus contributing to the tilting (53%) of the infested poles, which are load-bearing poles in dire need of replacement. Replacement cost for the affected poles within the community was estimated alongside the cost of pre-installation treatments of wooden poles, and the use of concrete poles, though more expensive than wooden poles which could mitigate termites’ impacts on the utility poles were recommended. Frequent replacement with untreated wooden poles may heighten the pressure on our natural resources through lumbering for pole production; besides the attendant threats and dangers of pole wreckage on people, homes and other facilities such as electricity transformers.
F.I. Okolafor, I.B. Idemudia
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 217-223; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.206

Abstract:
Water quality, free/total chlorine (Cl2) and bacteriological standard, determine the shelf life of water in the hands of the consumers. This study was carried out to determine the free/total chlorine, coliform and heterotrophic bacterial profile of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and sachet water sold within and around the University of Benin Campus. PET/sachet water was randomly sampled from sales vendors and transported to the laboratory in ice condition for analysis. Standard microbiological methods were followed for the determination of the coliform and heterotrophic bacterial profile of the sampled water. The digital colorimeter methods with N, N Diethyl-P-Phenylene Diamine (DPD) pillow for free chlorine (DPD 1) and total chlorine (DPD 4) determination in water was used. The free chlorine from PET/sachet water samples of UNIBEN, Faithmark, Dandori and Olivia were < 0.1 mg/l, falling short of the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease and Prevention (CDC) permissible limit (0.2 to 0.5 mg/l). The coliform bacterial counts from this study were recorded as 500 cfu/ml). A proper hygienic regime should be employed during the processing, packing, distribution and sales of PET/sachet water to eliminate high levels of heterotrophic bacteria, which may contaminate the water.
E. T. Aisien
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.196

Abstract:
Without a doubt, plants take up toxic substances such as heavy metals which are transferred along the food chain. These constrain should not be overlooked due to the importance of vegetables in the human diet, hence this study was aimed to determine the heavy metal concentrations in green leafy vegetables from Oluku dumpsite and a nearby farm during the dry season (2020) and the rainy season (2021). In this study, samples (green leaves, water leaves, bitter leaves and fluted pumpkin leaves) were randomly collected and analyzed using the dry ashing method and atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Results obtained showed that chromium and manganese concentrations were above the permissible limits set by FAO/WHO guideline values in all the samples, except bitter leaves which were within the FAO/WHO safe limit. The other heavy metals (mercury, lead, cobalt, cadmium and copper) analyzed were below the detectable limit of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer used. This study revealed that dumpsites and lands close to the dumpsite should not be used in the cultivation of vegetables because green leaves, water leaves and pumpkin leaves bioaccumulated chromium and manganese above the FAO/WHO safe limit for consumption.
T.O. Yahaya, B.H. Gulumbe, A.K. Umar, A. Yusuf, A.Z. Mohammed, A. Izuafa, A. Abubakar
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 26-34; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.197

Abstract:
Energy drinks are sold worldwide because they boost physical and mental performance. However, studies show that some of them contain high levels of heavy metals, prompting a safety evaluation of all brands of energy drinks. This study evaluated the safety of three brands of energy drinks (Fearless, Monster, and Power Horse) sold in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with regard to heavy metal concentrations. The heavy metals evaluated are iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb). Samples of the energy drinks were subjected to atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the results were compared with the World Health Organization standards for drinks. The average daily intake (ADI), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) of the heavy metals were also calculated. The levels of Fe, Cu, and Cd were above the permissible limits in all the energy drinks, while zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were below the permissible limits. The ADI of the heavy metals in the three energy drinks was within the recommended limits. However, the HQ and CR of Cd in all the energy drinks and Pb in Power Horse were beyond the recommended limits (HQ > 1 and CR > 10-6). This suggests that the three energy drinks sold and consumed in Birnin Kebbi may pose health hazards. There is a need to sensitize consumers in the city about the occurrence and risk of heavy metals in energy drinks.
V. P. Orugbo, M. Ntaji
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.195

Abstract:
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men, and it is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world today. PCa is detected via a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test. PSA is a protein produced by malignant and noncancerous tissue in the prostate gland. Although PSA levels grow as a result of prostate cancer, a high PSA test result does not always mean a man has prostate cancer. Several studies have corroborated this assertion of the inability of elevated PSA levels to most effectively indicate carcinoma without necessarily following up with histological examination. This study considered men within the 40 – 80 age bracket, who presented at the Urology Clinic of Delta State University Teaching Hospital. Results showed that whereas the mean PSA value for normotensive participants was 8.0 ng/ml (or the 95th percentile of 46.6 ng/ml), the mean PSA of 15.3 ng/ml (or 72.2 ng/ml as the 95th percentile) for those participants with BPH was reported. For study participants with PCa, a mean PSA of 43.2 ng/ml was reported. Although the statutory level for PSA within that age bracket is 4.0 ng/ml, significant increases in the normotensive participants mean that elevated PSA may not have been due to either BPH or carcinoma. Although there was a strong association between PSA levels and PCa based on the Phi and Cramer’s V value of 0.221, sensitivity was 50% and the positive predictive value was less than 20%. With the report of PSA elevations in normotensive individuals, and also with reports of some patients with reported PCa who had low PSA levels, it is suggested PSA levels may not be used in isolation. There is a need therefore to enhance the reliance on PSA or the development of more accurate biomarkers for PCa.
O.O. Adewumi, E.O. Oladele, O.S. Jegede
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.198

Abstract:
This study investigated the type 1 and type 2 diabetes risk factors and prevalence among residents of Ikorodu Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. This research was a cross-sectional study involving Ehi, Pharcept and Divine Intervention Medical centers. The demographics of 106 patients living with diabetes were collected and analyzed to characterize people living with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) in Ikorodu LGA. Written ethical approval was obtained from the health facilities visited. Administrative personnel in the health facilities assisted with the medical files of participants. Participants were interviewed and their consent was sought. Cronbach Alpha value of 0.79 was obtained for the questionnaire’s reliability. Filled copies of questionnaires were collected and analyzed using frequency, percentages and regression analysis. The results showed the prevalence of diabetes in the study area increased with age and diet was the most risk factor. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of diabetes in men and women with a P-value of 0.195. The study revealed that persons with T1DM and T2DM were predominantly between ages 41 and 60, although they were mostly middle class, non-smokers and Christians. Unhealthy diets (eating mostly carbohydrates) devoid of vegetables and proteins should be avoided by urban dwellers for good quality health; as revealed in the study that diet posed a key risk factor, especially for T2DM. The study recommends intensive efforts by healthcare professionals and stakeholders to put in place structured diabetes care and prevention program for residents.
M.A. Kodiya, I.U. Jallo, A. Mohammed, M.A. Modu
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 206-216; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.205

Abstract:
Protecting the health of workers cannot be achieved without the workers having adequate knowledge of hazards in their workplace. Knowledge of these hazards can be affected by several factors. Discovering the factors that affect knowledge will help in instituting measures to ensure that the workers have adequate knowledge. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic determinants of health hazards awareness among welders in Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from 295 welders choosen through a systematic random sampling technique. The socio-demographic determinants measured include age, educational attainment, length of practice, type of training received and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, and inferential statistics of Chi-square. Data indicated 66.22% of the respondents as having a high awareness of health hazards associated with their work. In addition, the chi-square test revealed that awareness of health hazards was positively influenced by age of the respondents, educational attainment, length of practice (experience) and type of training received. There was no association between awareness of health hazards and the use of PPE in the study area. The study, therefore, recommends the need for the government to have a proper health education session for this economically viable group on the health effects of these workplace hazards as this will contribute to the reduction of work-related injuries, as most of the welders are after the economic benefit derived from the occupation while the health hazard is grossly disregarded.
E.A Ubuoh, F.U. Nwogu, E Biose
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 71-95; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.214

Abstract:
The study assessed the effect of wooden casket production on air quality at old market road in Owerri South Eastern Nigeria. The study was carried out in October, 2019, during morning, afternoon and evening periods of the day respectively. Priority air quality parameters sampled included: SO2, PM10, CO, NO2, TVOC, H2S, HCN and Cl2 alongside climatic variables at graded distances. Outdoor air quality was measured by digital air monitors hourly. Data collected were analyzed using ANOVA, SPSS v.20 software, and mean values separated using Duncan at p<0.05 significant level. Results were compared to Environmental standards, Air Quality Index (AQI) and Pollutant Standard Index (PSI). Ambient air qualities were significantly different (pevening (E)>morning (M) respectively. Air quality rating ranged between poor - D (PM10) to very poor - E (CO, NO2, SO2), implying the poor stage of atmospheric air in the study area. The mean results of the PSI showed that PM10 ranged from 133.96±0.75 - 138.5±1.25µg/m3, CO ranged from 183.25±1.2 - 297.59±6.47ppm while VOC ranged from 124.08±0.27-127.36±0.42ppm that fall within unhealthy and very unhealthy respectively. The results suggest that relocation of the industry and awareness creation on the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs) by casket workers to avert occupational health hazards at work.
A.E Odigie, E.A Uwagie-Ero, O.J. Okorie-Kanu, S.F. Usifoh, C.O. Okorie-Kanu
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 96-107; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.215

Abstract:
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged public health globally which causes the disease named, by the World Health Organization, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Edo State accounts for 3.07% of the total 245,856 cases in Nigeria. The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge and perception of residents in Edo state, Nigeria toward COVID-19. A sample size of 281 was calculated using the adjusted Cochran formula for infinite sample size using an assumed prevalence of 0.24. A structured questionnaire was designed using Google Forms and distributed through online platforms. Knowledge of respondents was assigned scores and ranked as either good or poor. A total of 307 responses were completed and returned. The mean age of respondents was 37.3 years with a median value of 36. The overall knowledge of respondents was adjudged to be poor in 34.9% (N = 107) and good in 65.1% (N = 200) of respondents respectively. Good knowledge of respondents was significantly associated with an accurate indication of COVID-19 etiology, its spread, natural reservoir, therapeutics, and age groups at risk of infection. The perception that COVID-19 could be a fatal disease with no cure was indicated by 39.7% (N=122) of respondents. The media may serve as a readily accessible source of information but may misinform, disinform and sway public opinions. With the unprecedented ease of information dissemination due to current advancements in technology in recent centuries, there is the need to scrutinize the various mainstream sources of information.
M.S. Kaleson, W.A. Istifanus, M.M. Suleiman, S.M. Panda
African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Volume 3, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.52417/ajhse.v3i1.194

Abstract:
Schistosomiasis is endemic and remains a life-threatening problem in Nigeria, especially among communities that come in frequent contact with water bodies. Information on the level of endemicity varies from place to place and is vital for control purposes. There is a paucity of such data for the Kiri reservoir and environs. A longitudinal study was undertaken in 7 communities surrounding the reservoir from 2018 to 2019 to assess the prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis. A total of 688 urine samples were assayed for schistosome ova using the sedimentation technique. Out of these, 296 (43%) were positive for Schistosoma heamatobium ova. Males were significantly more infected than females (p<0.05). Infection was also significantly higher in younger than older individuals (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of infection and distance from the reservoir, occupation as well as the level of education of individuals. With the observed level of endemicity, mass chemotherapy, provision of potable water and health education are advocated as mitigation measures that will reduce endemicity and curtail the further spread of the infection.
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