ACS Bio & Med Chem Au

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2694-2437 / 2694-2437
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 7
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Articles in this journal

Erica K. Sinner, , Craig A. Townsend
Abstract:
While bioinformatic evidence of cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes has existed since the naming of the radical SAM superfamily in 2001, none were biochemically characterized until 2011. In the past decade, the field has flourished as methodological advances have facilitated study of the subfamily. Because of the ingenuity and perseverance of researchers in this field, we now have functional, mechanistic, and structural insight into how this class of enzymes harnesses the power of both the cobalamin and radical SAM cofactors to achieve catalysis. All of the early characterized enzymes in this subfamily were methylases, but the activity of these enzymes has recently been expanded beyond methylation. We anticipate that the characterized functions of these enzymes will become both better understood and increasingly diverse with continued study.
Kevin R. Trabbic, Kristopher A. Kleski,
Abstract:
We have developed a novel antigen delivery system based on polysaccharide-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) expressing Dectin-1. AuNPs were synthesized de novo using yeast-derived β-1,3-glucans (B13G) as the reductant and passivating agent in a microwave-catalyzed procedure, yielding highly uniform and serum-stable particles. These were further functionalized with both a peptide and a specific glycosylated form from the tandem repeat sequence of mucin 4 (MUC4), a glycoprotein overexpressed in pancreatic tumors. The glycosylated sequence contained the Thomsen–Friedenreich disaccharide, a pan-carcinoma, tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA), which has been a traditional target for antitumor vaccine design. These motifs were prepared with a cathepsin B protease cleavage site (Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly), loaded on the B13G-coated particles, and these constructs were examined for Dectin-1 binding, APC processing, and presentation in a model in vitro system and for immune responses in mice. We showed that these particles elicit strong in vivo immune responses through the production of both high-titer antibodies and priming of antigen-recognizing T-cells. Further examination showed that a favorable antitumor balance of expressed cytokines was generated, with limited expression of immunosuppressive Il-10. This system is modular in that any range of antigens can be conjugated to our particles and efficiently delivered to APCs expressing Dectin-1.
Agneta J. Laurent, Niels Bindslev, , Lars Terenius
Abstract:
With the increasing popularity of nonalcoholic beer, the association between beer drinking and alcohol intake is lost. In the present study, we show that nonalcoholic beer can stimulate the expansion of neuron-like cell lines and neuroepithelial stem cells in culture, yielding an effect comparable to that of alcoholic beer. One ingredient in beer is hops, which is derived from the flower of hop plants. The female flower contains humulones, which are transformed into iso-α-acids during wort boiling and give beer its bitter taste. In this study, we tested the effects of these iso-α-acids and/or alcohol on the proliferation of neuron-like cells and neuroepithelial stem cells in culture. Iso-α-acids enhanced cell expansion, showing a bimodal dose–response curve with peaks around 2–30 nM and 2–5 μM, of which nanomolar concentrations are relevant in beer drinking. The more lipophilic trans-iso-α-acids, found to a greater extent in beer foam, are even more potent. Our results indicate that iso-α-acids, acting via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors could be responsible for the observed effects. Altogether, our results indicate that nonalcoholic beer with ingredients such as iso-α-acids stimulate the proliferation of neuroepithelial stem cells.
Lisa Barbaro, Alice L. Rodriguez, Ashlyn N. Blevins, Jonathan W. Dickerson, Natasha Billard, Olivier Boutaud, Jerri L. Rook, Colleen M. Niswender, P.Jeffrey Conn, Darren W. Engers, et al.
Abstract:
In the course of optimizing an M1 PAM chemotype, introduction of an ether moiety unexpectedly abolished M1 PAM activity while engendering a “molecular switch” to afford a weak, pure mGlu5 PAM. Further optimization was able to deliver a potent (mGlu5 EC50 = 520 nM, 63% Glu Max), centrally penetrant (Kp = 0.83), MPEP-site binding mGlu5 PAM 17a (VU6036486) that reversed amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. A pronounced “magic methyl” effect was noted with a regioisomeric methyl congener, leading to a change in pharmacology to afford a potent (mGlu5 IC50 = 110 nM, 3% Glu Min), centrally penetrant (Kp = 0.94), MPEP-site binding NAM 28d (VU6044766) that displayed anxiolytic activity in a mouse marble burying assay. These data further support the growing body of literature concerning the existence of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) allosteric privileged structures, and the value and impact of subtle methyl group walks, as well as the highly productive fluorine walk, around allosteric ligand cores to stabilize unique GPCR conformations.
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