EISSN : 2744-1636
Published by: Research and Development Academy (10.37868)
Total articles ≅ 13
Latest articles in this journal
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id190
Nucleic acid analogues are used in protein synthesis, as their effects on gene expression are confirmed, and play a crucial and important role during transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in the cell. Due to the many remaining challenges associated with genetic engineering, current research mainly focuses on new materials such as peptide nucleic acids [PNA] and locked nucleic acids [LNA]. PNAs and LNAs have been developed to mimic the chemical characteristics of DNA and RNA and to show improved properties. They represent synthetic DN/RNA analogues in which the phosphodiester backbone is replaced with unchanged aminoethylglycine units, being very resistant to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases. This review summarizes the application of nucleic acid analogues in the inhibition of gene expression in bacterial genomes, as well as the usage in the development of high-performance affinity biosensors.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id192
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique used for the detection of specific DNA sequences within the chromosome. It relies on the complementary binding between the fluorescently labeled probe and the target sequence. This paper describes how this method was first developed, and the basic principle and the procedure behind it. Furthermore, it covers the basic applications of FISH, including its use in microbiological diagnostics, diagnosis of solid tumors, diagnosis of hematological malignancies, evaluation of sperm and diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, along with its applications in plants.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 37-41; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id194
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic approach for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. CGH allows researchers to scan whole genomes for changes in DNA copy numbers. Starting in 2004, the array CGH became an irreplaceable method for the detection of gene mutations in people with congenital and developmental abnormalities, such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic characteristics, developmental delay, or several congenital deformities without an obvious syndrome pattern. This review focuses on the evolution of array CGH technology and its use in molecular diagnostics and its advantages over older cytogenetic tools. This review further highlights special arrays developed in the past decade which detect small intragenic copy number changes as well as large DNA segments for the region of heterozygosity.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id191
Advances in technology opened many doors, increased opportunities in various research fields, and helped create tools and devices required for many analyses. One of them is microarray technology. It is widely used in numerous research areas including infection biology, detection of small noncoding RNAs, microarray-based gene expression profiling, and many more. Microarray implementation in molecular diagnostics and their use as diagnostic devices are considered a step closer to precision medicine. Further advances in microarray technology can potentially help with the identification of new pathogens, improvement in medicine, and better drug delivery.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id182
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women and the second largest cause of mortality in the entire population worldwide. This review investigated how breast cancer is patho-physiologically associated with obesity which is defined by body mass index ≥30 kg/ and metabolic syndrome which leads to type 2 diabetes in pre and postmenopausal women. It also addressed the controversy relating the definition of BMI. The biological markers in breast cancer currently in use are ER, PR, HER2, uPA, and PAI-1. This study looked into future of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, such as exosome by altering interaction of distant cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment and the breast cancer progress.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id178
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of some phytochemicals by using an H2O2 scavenging assay. Betaine, Allantoin and Nicotinamide were put to the test. Even though hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not intrinsically reactive, it can be transformed into the extremely reactive and harmful hydroxyl radical (HO), which is then able to interact with nucleotides in deoxyribose nucleic acid and in that way trigger breakage of the strand resulting in carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, etc. Antioxidants aid in the protection of cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species that are known to induce oxidative stress. Excessive production of these reactive oxygen species in the human body is associated with many chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, etc. The effective way to minimize levels of oxidative stress is the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, phytochemicals are able to act as antioxidants, and in that way play a vital role in the prevention of disease caused by oxidative stress. The ability of a compound to scavenge H2O2 is a good predictor of its potential antioxidant function. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay was determined using the Ruch et al., 1989 method, and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. In conclusion, our samples had marvellous H2O2 scavenging activity and possessed good antioxidant capability, and were compared with the ascorbic acid (vitamin c) as standard natural antioxidant/ as reference antioxidant. The samples were also able to scavenge H2O2 in a concentration-dependent way, according to our results
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id179
Viruses are extremely small obligate molecular parasites that can be seen only with an electron microscope. In plant pathology there are the organisms named plant viral vectors whose task is to transmit pathogens. Transmission of vector can be mechanical and insect that present two pathways which allow the spreading of plant virus particles. Plant virologists with other association in molecular biology and plant pathology nominated top 10 viruses based on scientific and economic importance. This paper reviews the current standing of most known antiviral defense mechanism called RNA silencing and most known molecular diagnostic method in plant pathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id180
DNA molecule is found in every cell in a living organism and function as an instruction manual for growth, development, as well as any other processes that happen. As the cell divide, it needs to copy its DNA. During the copying, an error can occur, which can lead to a disease. However, there are different error repair mechanisms that are searching for an error, and repairing it. This study focused on 2 proteins involved in DNA repair mechanism, RPA32B and RPA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Throughout multiple in silico approached, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, 3D visualisation, combination and interaction, we confirmed that the RPA2 and RPA 32b are involved in DNA replication, meiotic recombination and DNA repair mechanism.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id112
The Bosnian and Herzegovinian market lacks data about the percentage of genetically modified soy products placed on the domestic market. There has been research on the issue of the presence of GMO products in our domestic market, but neither of the results is used as a reference for this occurrence. Therefore, this research topic tends to contribute to this issue, by examining genetically modified soy in processed food. The sample of seven products containing soya is examined by the methods of DNA isolation and real-time PCR for CP4 EPSPS. The results showed positive results for the presence of CP4 gene in certain products without an appropriate label. This mislabeling was confirmed since a couple of samples were labeled as GMO-free but contained CP4 gene, indicating GMO product.
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id116
Felis Catus is a small carnivorous mammal and it is considered to be the only domesticated species among Felidae family. The purpose of this work is to genetically characterize cat breeds from Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare them to one unknown completely different cat. To achieve this, samples of 20 cats that belong to the European Shorthair Cat (ESH) breed have been collected, plus the target subject. Further, for the genetic microsatellite characterization, the DNA material was isolated from each cat, in order to compare them to the sample taken from an unknown cat breed that will be referred to as the subject of this research. Genetic diversities within and between populations were be analyzed using 5 microsatellite markers. The obtained results showed that the subject cat genetically differs from other ESH breed cats, where the observed heterozygosity patterns within the cat breeds showed minimum but expected genetic variety among the analyzed cat species.