Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies

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EISSN : 2710-1401
Total articles ≅ 12
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, Wesley Bvirwa, Godfrey Nyamushamba
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.2.2

Abstract:
Body measurements are important criteria in the selection of elite animals for breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship, accuracy of prediction of body weight from body measurements, and identifying multicollinearity from three beef breeds. Four classes of stock (bull, cows, steers, and heifers) were considered. Correlation, simple, and multiple linear regression models were fitted with body weight (BW) as the dependent variable and body length (BL), heart girth (HG), height at wither (HW), muzzle circumference (MC), and shank circumference (SC) as the independent variables. The BW of the animals ranged from 218 to 630 kg, the least being heifers and bulls were the heaviest. The pairwise phenotypic correlations showed a high and significant positive relationship between BW and body dimensions (r = 0.751- 0.96; P<0.01). However, negative correlations were observed between BW with BL and MC of r = -0.733 and -0.703 and -0.660, -0.650, for cows and heifers, respectively. Regressing BW on BL, HG, and HW measurements gave statistically significant (P<0.01) equations with R2 ranging from 0.60 to 0.79. Collinearity, as portrayed by high variance inflation factors (VIFs), tolerance values, and low eigenvalues, was evident in four of the variables. It was concluded that the regression model was useful in BW prediction for smallholder farms and the relationship between BW and other body measurements was influenced by breed and class of stock. It is recommended that ridge regression or principal component regression be used in cases where multicollinearity exisists.
, Theodora Mv Nainggolan, Tiurmaida Nainggolan
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 36-49; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.2.4

Abstract:
This study aims to determine: To determine the development of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) production over the last 5 years, to determine the availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) for the development of Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica, for knowing the relationship between the availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) in the previous year to the production of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica), and to determine the business sustainability index of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) viewed from the economic, social aspects and the environment in the research area. The research was conducted in Purba District, Simalungun Regency, where the sample size was 25 Arabica coffee farmers. Data analysis used qualitative descriptive analysis, OLS (Ordinary Least Square), and sustainability index. The Arabica coffee production development index from 2015-2019 decreased from the total production of 555.98 tons to 497.51 tons or the index value decreased by 75The availability of production factors (land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, and labor) for the Arabica coffee development index in the study area is available with an average value of 21.17. , fertilizers, pesticides, equipment and manpower) the calculated F value = 0.566 0.05. In partial land area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and labor have an effect on Arabica coffee production. the average (79.27) is categorized as very sustainable.
, Olfa Boussadia, Hanem Grissa, Rania Aydi Ben Abdallah, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Mejda Daami-Remadi
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 21-35; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.2.3

Abstract:
In this study, the aerobic composting in windrows of five mixtures of organic materials was compared. Composting temperatures rose to 60-67°C within 7 to 22 days and stayed above 45°C for 4-5 months before declining. Decomposition after 223 days was 40-43% for organic materials and 23-25% for carbon. The pH values decreased during the composting process and became neutral at maturation. Electric conductivity dropped to 3.6-5.22 mS/cm after 170 days. Dry matter increase to 96.2-97.8% within 182 days of composting and dropped to 70.13-73.87% at maturation. Bulk density increased from 0.20-0.26 g/cm3 to 0.34-0.55 g/cm3 and varied depending on composts. Porosity and water retention decreased during composting. Nutrient contents varied over composting times and wastes. Composts' phytotoxicity, evaluated on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds, decreased by 0.2-13.2% and 63.2-81.3% after 30 and 220 days of composting, respectively. Benefits of composting organic wastes into agriculturally valuable final products was discussed.
, Ahmed Algouti, Abdellah Algouti, Mohamed Ifkirne
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.2

Abstract:
This study aims to apply the process of the analytical hierarchy in geographic information system to the study of water erosion in the southern part of the Azilal region, Morocco. This method is an important tool to be used in the planning and management of natural risks; it has allowed us to obtain a multi-factorial sensitivity map to water erosion. This sensitivity map of erosive soil conditions in the study area shows that 6% of the area is (less) exposed to erosion risk while 85% of the mapped area is moderately exposed to erosion risk and only 8% of the mapped area is highly exposed to water weathering factors. Visually, the high-risk zones correspond to the area around ‘’Oued Lakhdar’’ and its tributaries.
, Ahmed Algouti, Abdellah Algouti
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.1

Abstract:
In this paper, we present the sedimentological, stratigraphic and paleogeographic aspect of the Upper Cretaceous red formations (Senonian series) of Timstiguite region (Central High Atlas of Morocco). The formations were measured bed by bed and sampled in a very detailed way. An exoscopic analysis of the quartz grains was carried out by a systematic prospecting of the grains relief and theirs surface characteristic, this led us to characterize their origin and consequently to determine the different paleoenvironnements. The clay sediments of these formations seem to be a favorable prospect in point of view: evolution of the clay and non-clay sediments in this central basin of the High Atlas will depend mainly on the conjugation of tectonic, eustatic, climatic and other influences. The senonian thickness is more important than other sub basins (Albban and Imider) where it shows a very reduced thickness. The Senonian of Timstiguite corresponds to a succession of detrital and evaporitic carbonate facies, which confirms a coastal depositional environment with passages of some periods of marine emersions.
, Tabit Abdelhalim, Algouti Ahmed, Algouti Abdellah, Farah Abdelouhed, Goulma Mariam, Elbadaoui Kamal
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 85-94; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.9

Abstract:
The Feija watershed is located in southeast Morocco. It is the main tributary of the middle Draa valley. It covers an area of 2089.3 km². The Feija watershed dominated by an arid climate. The economic development in the Feija basin is essentially based on agriculture, which requires pumping a considerable amount of groundwater resources. These waters are being overexploited because of the fast growth in the agricultural sector and the influence of adverse climatic conditions. The present study concerns a hydrogeological synthesis of the Feija groundwater, in particular the influence of topographical, climatic, hydrological and geological factors that interact to create a complex system with uncontrolled agricultural consumption. To this effect, and to determine the recharge and discharge rates of the groundwater, the contribution of remote sensing and GIS presents a major role in assessing and monitoring the condition of the groundwater and faced the water stress characteristic of this study area.
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 79-84; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.8

Abstract:
The fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis is an economically important pest that requires management for the sustainability of agriculture in South Africa. This pest has spread from the country's Northern parts within a decade, where it has completely established and spread to other neighbouring provinces. The pest spreads at various rates due to different factors given biotic and abiotic factors. Understanding factors that influence pest prevalence will assist with practical management strategies. Temperature is one of the factors that assist the invasive potential of B. dorsalis. KwaZulu Natal province is among the hotspot provinces in the country besides Limpopo and Mpumalanga. Trap catches in Northern KwaZulu Natal, uMkhanyakude and King Cetshwayo districts show that the seasonal populations of B. dorsalis are continuously present all year round, even with the application of management options to reduce pest populations. Host availability plays a significant role in the invasion and total outcompeting of other native fruitflies e.g. Ceratitis punctata.
, Ahmed Algouti, Abdellah Algouti, Mohammed Ifkirne, Abdellatif Rafik
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.4

Abstract:
In recent decades, the Bouregreg Chaouia region has been subject to urban growth and a reduction in agricultural land in this region, which has changed its environmental variables and made it vulnerable to climate change. This work raises the spatiotemporal monitoring of land use and certain environmental parameters (vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature from 1987 to 2015 by exploring intelligent spatial data in the region. The remote sensing products were computed from Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Oli/TIRS images obtained during the dry seasons 1987, 2000 and 2015. The results showed a reduction in NDVI vegetation index (∼0.86 in 1987 to ∼0. 56 in 2000 to ∼ 0.54 in 2015) and with an increase in surface albedo (0.51 in 1987 to 0.52 in 2000 to 0. 69 in 2015), temperature (∼67°C in 1987 to 54°C in 2000 to 40°C in 2015) and to understand the impact of urbanization on the variation of environmental parameters, the evolution of the built-up area has been followed as a determining factor. However, it recorded 3.27% surface area in 1987 to 7.45% in 2000 to 28.18% in 2015. Indeed, the contribution of new technologies (GIS and remote sensing) is essential for better management and monitoring of the impact of urban expansion on the state of the environment. The results obtained remain so promising and highlight the contribution and feasibility of intelligent spatial data to assess the evolution of the urban environment on a large scale.
, Ahmed Algouti, Abdellah Algouti, Abdelhalim Tabit, Hadach Fatiha, Zahra Mourabi
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 54-61; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.6

Abstract:
The present work deals with the sedimentological, lithostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental study of the red (Senonian) series of the two sections Asfalou and Anmitar located in the district of Imini, Asfalou. These areas are semi-arid zone in the south of the High central Atlas-Morocco. Different analysis was performed such as a sedimentological, lithostratigraphic analysis of the facies to recognise sedimentary structures and textures encountered. Also, the collection of samples for exoscopic analysis of quartz grains was conducted, and the analysis of clay procession was done. In general, all the sedimentation was spent in a continental environment (fluvial or flooded) with some rare marine upwellings that are marked by the installation of dolomite bars.
, Ahmed Algouti, Abdellah Algouti, Abdelhalim Tabit, Hadach Fatiha, Zahra Mourabi
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 44-53; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeas.2021.2.1.5

Abstract:
The sedimentological study of the red formations (Senonian series) represents a challenge and an exciting subject that needs to be explored. This paper will present the sedimentological, stratigraphic, and paleogeographic aspects of the Upper Cretaceous of the ARG N'SIDIALI OR BOURK, Central High Atlas Morocco. In this region, a marker section was realized bed by bed and sampled in a very straightforward way in order to study stratigraphy, to describe, to interpret and to characterize the sedimentary environment of the senonian succession in the ARG N'SIDIALI OU BOURK region, more particularly the analysis of the clays by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has allowed understanding the depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous formations. Therefore, the Senonian of ARG N'SIDIALI OU BOURK corresponds to continental lagoon deposits. It is characterised by sedimentation in the continental environment (fluvial or flooded), with some rare marine ascents marked by the installation of whitish sandstone bars.
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