Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual

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Fredrick Vega Lozada
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 141-169; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.veg

Abstract:
Non-consensual pornography is an act of violence that undermines the dignity, reputation and honor of people. This research presents some of the existing legal alternatives to face these acts of violence with intellectual property law, specifically with copyright. This research is based on the legal system of the United States of America, the United States Copyright Law of 1976, the Electronic Non-Theft Act of 1997, The Communication Decency Law of 1996, The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 and the exceptions and clarifications presented by the jurisprudence. The investigation concludes that there are alternatives available to victims of these acts of non-consensual pornography. However, to make North American copyright remedies accessible to victims, it is recommended to amend some of the current Acts analyzed.
Luis Vásquez Leal
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 207-233; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.vas

Abstract:
Technological advances in artificial intelligence are making rethinking the current system of co-pyright protection. The present research work seeks to carry out an approach to the analysis on who owns the copyright works generated by artificial intelligence. It is discussed whether current legislation allows the so-called algorithmic authorship and the different scenarios involved in determining authorship are evaluated on this type of works. It is debated whether the authorship rests with the programmer, the system user or the person commissioning the work. It is conclu-ded that there is currently no express legal solution and therefore, a regulation must be sought according to the new technological challenges based on the consensus of the different actors that make life in the world of intellectual property.
Juan Guillermo Moure Pérez, Camila Andrade Martínez, Juan Carlos Camacho
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 75-107; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.mou

Abstract:
Over the last decade, different proposals have emerged in Colombia and around the world re-garding food labeling conditions. The purpose of these measures has been focused on preventing non- communicable diseases (NCD), by providing clearer nutritional information to consumers regarding the food they consume on their diet. For this purpose, many proposals include the imposition of warning stamps on the label of food products that are “high in” sodium, sugar, or saturated fat, as well as other limitations on the use and marketing of the brands that identify their products.Therefore, this document aims to analyze the relevance and proportionality of the proposals in relation to the desired purposes, particularly with regard to the legitimate rights of trademark owners and consumers. In the conclusion, it will be determined that the interest in promoting regulations to reduce diseases related to poor eating habits, without an adequate evaluation of the environment in which these measures are intended to be applied, can: (i) generate undesirable and contradictory consequences with the ultimate goal of reducing diseases; (ii) impair other individual rights; and, (iii) act unjustifiably to the detriment of the industrial property rights of the trademark owners.
Freddy Arias Mora
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 35-74; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.ari

Abstract:
This work analyzes in detail the possibility of granting protection through invention patents to human stem cells in Costa Rica. It was determined that, in the case of stem cell applications in Costa Rica, there have been multiple resolutions by the Patent Office, in some it has not been alleged that there is a patentability exception on stem cells, but in others it has been indicated that they are discoveries, that they are second uses, that they are inventions whose commercial exploitation must be prevented to protect public order, morality and the health or lives of people or animals. Also consisting of treatment methods in humans. The application of patentability exceptions contained in the Costa Rican regulations and the possibility of applying these excep-tions to stem cells are punctually analyzed. Each of the patentability requirements is analyzed to establish the possibilities and conditions that applications for stem cells should meet, so that they can be considered capable of being protected by patent in Costa Rica. It is concluded that, according to the Costa Rican legal framework, it is possible to obtained patents for stem cells from human beings.
Jesús Gómez Montero
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 249-254; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.mon

Abstract:
Marca solicitada: MESSI (figurativa) vs. Marca oponente MASSI.Inexistencia de riesgo de confusión.Norma jurídica aplicada: Artículo 8.1 b) Reglamento de la Marca de la Unión Europea (RMUE).Compatibilidad entre marcas cuando a pesar de ser visual y fonéticamente similares, al menos una de ellas posee un significado conceptual claro que lleva al público a diferenciarlas y no incurrir en confusión.Relevancia derivada de la circunstancia de que la marca solicitada constituye el apellido de un célebre futbolista de fama mundial.
Vanessa Chávez Zárate
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 109-140; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.cha

Abstract:
The objective of this article is to analyze, describe and compare the legal framework for alterna-tive dispute resolution between trademarks and .MX domain names, which is subject to a series of international administrative rules, so that they are known, understood, and differentiate the existing legal norms, and at the same time promote the defense of trademark rights against abuse due to the registration and use of domain names in Mexico.The article has been divided in two parts: a substantive part and an adjective part. The first part, the substantive law, is based on the application of the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy regar-ding domain names and its variant, the Dispute Resolution Policy regarding domain names for .MX, for conflict resolution by domain names in the alternative or extra jurisdictional adminis-trative route, through alternative methods of conflict resolution or controversies in intellectual property matters, which are applied by the conflict resolution the service providers that are accre-dited by the Internet Corporation to the Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The second part, the adjective law, is made up of the procedural administrative rules, which are applied in the case of conflicts over .MX domains and trademarks, this is a series of regulations that establish the procedure that is based on the indicated policies, the regulation of the provider and the regu-lation of the alternative mechanism used in the solution to these conflicts, the Expert decision.The study of the legal norms, which are applied in the Mexican case by .MX domains, is relevant, to expand their knowledge, share their content and establish recommendations for the defense of trademark rights in the alternative route.
Miguel A. Rapela
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 9-33; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.rap

Abstract:
The knowledge requirements and the need to generate new inventions in both products and processes of modern plant breeding are highly demanding and on the frontiers of science. There is no self-sufficient technological capacity in the public or private sector capable of completely dominating such undertakings. In this general framework, the processes of open innovation, both public/private, public/public and private/private, are key to success.Despite the opportunities generated by open innovation processes applied to modern plant bre-eding, an increase in the innovation rate is not detected, as measured by the average increase in crop productivity. One possible explanation for this fact is that the genetic basis on which mo-dern plant breeding is being supported has been significantly narrowed by a lack of utilization or underutilization of genetic resources.Intellectual property rights are part of the variables of this complex equation and their applica-tion leads to three hypotheses that were tested against four real cases of open innovation applied in modern plant breeding in Argentina.In no case it was observed that the suppression of intellectual property rights has been considered a tool to promote innovation (hypothesis #1). On the contrary, what was observed is that the innovation was oriented towards those products or processes capable of being managed in an innovative way by some current intellectual property system, although protection is limited by the speed of technological advance. An alternative solution (hypothesis #3), is that the legal fra-mework to promote development should be reformulated in an integral way to adapt it to the de-velopments of modern plant breeding under open innovation processes. The decision for one or the other alternative is critical since the innovation rate resulting from the crops will depend on it.
Jesús Gómez Montero
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 237-242; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.gom

Abstract:
Marca solicitada: FACK JU GÖTHE.Norma jurídica aplicada: Artículo 7.1 f) Reglamento de la Marca de la Unión Europea (RMUE).El análisis para comprobar si una marca es contraria a las buenas costumbres debe realizarse teniendo en cuenta la percepción que el público tiene de ella, valorando todas las circunstancias, incluida –cuando coincide con el nombre de una película– la referente a la aceptación social de su título y la valoración que de este haga el público pertinente.La libertad de expresión, en cuanto derecho fundamental que debe garantizarse, ha de ser tenida en cuenta a la hora de valorar si una marca es contraria o no a las buenas costumbres.
Jesús Gómez Montero
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 243-247; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.gome

Abstract:
Marca: DAVIDOFF.Norma jurídica aplicada: artículo 9.2 b) del Reglamento de la Marca de la Unión Europea 207/2009 (RMUE) que se corresponde con el actual 9.3.b) del RMUE 2017/1001.No existe infracción de marca cuando quien almacena o tiene en depósito los productos con infracción de marca no tiene el propósito de comercializarlos u ofrecerlos por su cuenta siempre que desconozca la existencia de la infracción.
Martín Ugalde
Revista Iberoamericana de la Propiedad Intelectual, Volume 13, pp 171-205; doi:10.26422/ripi.2020.1300.uga

Abstract:
At the beginning of 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a Pandemic. It is not necessary to do an exhaustive analysis to notice the important health, economic and legal consequences that it has had.In particular, Patent Law plays an important role in this regard, the possibility of a vaccine being patented in the country with the current ordinance of Law No. 24,481 and its amendments, and that the human right of property that the holder has on it, has a strong impact on the incentive to technical and scientific development. A right that cannot be analyzed in isolation, but in the context of the health emergency that is prevailing worldwide today and the public interest in the protection of another human right such as public health.The aforementioned technical development encouraged by the patent system is part of the in-terest not only of the legal community, but of society as a whole. In this paper we will analyze the context of the pandemic and Intellectual Property Law, the historical evolution in Argentine legislation regarding the possibility of patenting pharmacological products and procedures, the requirements that the vaccine must meet to be considered patentable matter in terms of the law, the procedure to be followed before the INPI for its patenting, the rights that the law grants to the owner of the vaccine patent and its framing in the Compulsory License in the context of a health emergency of Art. 45 of the Patent Law.
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