Educational Challenges

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EISSN : 2709-7986
Total articles ≅ 20
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, Albina Khomenko, Daria Vereshchak, Danilo Poliakov
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 74-85; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.07

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the current problem of distance learning. In the theoretical field, various aspects of the functioning of distance education are considered on the example of the analysis of the works of leading scientists in this field. The main aims of this research are: to analyze some of the best educational systems in the world (including distance learning) – systems of the USA and the UAE; to describe the main features of distance education in the USA and the UAE; to make some proposals, based on the experience of these countries, to optimize the system of distance education in Ukraine; to analyze the opportunities of their implementation and adaptation in Ukrainian education institutions. The theoretical basis of the study was open sources of information and educational portals of leading higher education institutions in the UAE and the United States. The methodology is the following. The theoretical framework of the study presents the leading experience of implementing distance learning of students in the context of state and educational policy of the represented countries. A comparative analysis of educational systems in the UAE and the United States is done within the framework of the introduction of distance learning. The study presents the research results, they are the proposals for optimizing the process of distance learning in Ukraine based on the experience of the UAE and the United States. The main ones are: development of criteria, requirements and recommendations for distance learning based on the following indicators: a) the amount of educational material; b) course duration; c) duration of the lesson d) technical requirements (e.g., the availability of a headset, a stable Internet connection, etc.); providing students and pedagogical staff with the necessary material and technical resources and checking the compliance of material and technical support with the educational requirements; establishment of centers for quality control of the distance learning process. The conclusions present the prospects of the study: developing of future comparative studies of distance learning systems; finding the most effective ways to make distance learning process better; elaborating and reasoning new approaches of teaching in the conditions of distance learning; setting up new platforms, applications, videos and so on in order to provide the process of distance learning; finding perspective directions of developing distance education and so on.
Iryna Gavrysh, Svitlana Dotsenko
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 28-40; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.03

Abstract:
The purpose of the research is to determine the effective tools for the critical thinking development for primary school pupils. Methodology. The retrospective analysis of the primary education systems development in Ukraine and in highly developed countries was used, the primary school is determined to be the initial stage of the pupils’ critical thinking development. The material of the study is primary school educational programmes, branches of education, and existing academic subjects, it indicates the necessity to develop and implement the particular subject, and its aim is to develop critical thinking and the abilities to express one’s own opinion, assess risks and solve problems. According to the State Standard of Primary Education the key competencies require the following skills: creativity; initiative; the abilities to justify one’s position logically, to manage emotions constructively, to assess risks, to make decisions, to solve problems, to cooperate with others. Results. The article clarifies that critical thinking is a type of thinking aimed at solving problems, namely studying the argument line (hypotheses, criteria, definitions, arguments, facts, etc.), analyzing alternative solutions; forecasting and assessing consequences. It is proved in practice that inventive problems serve as an effective way to develop critical thinking. The basis of such problems is the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS). It is determined that an inventive problem contains a cognitive contradiction, its solving promotes the pupils’ critical thinking development. The authors’ subject ‘Eureka’ for pupils of 2-4 classes is offered. Its aim is to develop pupils’ critical thinking, creative and inventive abilities, and also primary skills to carry out natural science researches. The results of the subject approbation are given. Conclusions. Primary school pupils’ critical thinking development can be achieved through the introduction of a range of new subjects at the initial stages of education. The aim of such subjects is to teach pupils to solve inventive problems.
Tetiana Svyrydova
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 121-131; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.11

Abstract:
The article deals with the results of the recent scientific research concerning training of experts for homeschooling in general and its today’s challenges in particular. Canada has been chosen as a target country due to its specific attitude towards homeschooling and its significant experience in specialist and/or teacher training for homeschooling. The urgency of the problem has recently aggravated because of the present-day situation with covid-19 worldwide restrictions in education and subsequent increase in the number of homeschooling families that need expert advice from certified specialists. The purpose of the article is to highlight the actual state of homeschooling specialist training in Canada in order to decide on a possibility to apply the experience of Canada in those counties which face similar challenges. To conduct the scientific results such methods as a continuous sampling method and a data classification method were used. The present research resulted into revealing current challenges in the realm of teacher training for homeschooling in Canada along with possible ways of overcoming of all the revealed difficulties with the help of various institutions that provide pedagogical education or practical support within the process of specialist training for homeschooling. The article considers acquiring skills and knowledge necessary for organizing family (home) education from colleges, institutes, universities, teacher training courses, associations, homeschooling support groups, etc. Some relevant educational programs provided by these establishments are under consideration as well. Thus, the following conclusions were inferred from the results of the research: the system of Homeschooling Specialists’ Training in Canada is highly-developed and well-prepared to cope with the difficulties connected with the Present-day Challenges.
Natalia Koval
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 64-73; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.06

Abstract:
The relevance of the undertaken research consists in considering psycholinguistics an interdisciplinary field, which studies the interrelation between mind and language. It is important to perceive learning foreign language as an act of cognition, experience, and creativity in the psycholinguistic aspect of studying. Psycholinguistics concerns with the study of the cognitive process that supports the acquisition and use of language. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the importance of psycholinguistics approach and cognitive science for learning a foreign language in the context of psycholinguistic approach and cognitive methods for learning second language, based on achievements of the “Scientific School of A.V. Khutorsky”. Methodology is of an overview-analytical nature with an attempt to apply cognitive techniques to learning. Our observations on the psycholinguistic approach and the cognitive methods are based on the “Myth of Niels Bohr and the barometer question” by Alexander Calandra. Results. The analysis made it possible to determine how the logic of reflections has been explored from the lens of psycholinguistics and how the range of cognitive methods can be enlisted to learn a foreign language. It turns next to an overview of cognitive techniques used in psycholinguistics as applied to study. The verbal presentation of the idea is not only a form of compressed thought or interactive, creative cognition, but it also has a literary quality and makes use of a range of devices in a way. In the article, the solution formation reflects the features of transforming mental representations about the multidimensional space of life. Conclusions. According to the research, the paper concludes that cognitive methods are the ability to create judgments that are paradoxical in form and deep in content, perceived as deviating from the norm, and humor also presupposes the presence of the inverse ability to perceive such judgments in their entirety and depth and emotional brightness.
Olha Bashkir, Violetta Panchenko, Olha Osova, Anastasiia Zhytnytska
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 15-27; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.02

Abstract:
The article grounds the relevance of the special preparation of students of pedagogical universities for pedagogical improvisation based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature and the ways in which future teachers acquire professional knowledge and skills. Having analyzed the content of the educational programs of psychology and pedagogy we proved that no purposeful training of future teachers for pedagogical improvisation has been organized. It caused the need for developing an appropriate technique. The purpose of the article is to develop a technique to form future teachers’ readiness for pedagogical improvisation in the process of studying psychological and pedagogical disciplines. Methodology. The research was conducted with the application of theoretical (analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature to define a conceptual-categorical apparatus; grounding the technique of forming future teachers’ readiness for pedagogical improvisation) and empirical methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing, observation, conversation, dialogue, methods of expert evaluation, self-assessment analysis of learning outcomes, content of educational programs of psychological and pedagogical disciplines). In the course of the research the following results were achieved: the essence of the concepts «readiness for pedagogical improvisation», «learning technique» was defined; structural components of readiness for pedagogical improvisation were singled out; surveys, interviews and questionnaires were conducted among the future teachers to identify their level of readiness for pedagogical improvisation. Moreover, the research contributed to the development of a technique to form future teachers’ readiness for pedagogical improvisation, which led to the gradual formation of students’ skills to improvise. The conducted research allowed us to draw the conclusion that the readiness for pedagogical improvisation is a stable individual quality that integrates the values, knowledge, skills, which should be formed in several stages. Motivational-targeted stage was aimed at stimulating the development of positive motivation for improvisation; content and procedural stage that provided for acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills of pedagogical improvisation; evaluation-reflexive stage involving evaluation and correction of personal and professional development, content, forms and methods of training.
Liudmyla Holubnycha, Tetiana Besarab
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 41-50; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.04

Abstract:
The manuscript presents general scientific basics of researches on history of pedagogy. They are connected with methodology and historiography. As studying history of any science is always significant because it helps to clarify the state of the problem under research as well as contributes to improving the scientific level of the author's investigation it is very important to make this investigation in a proper methodological way in order to avoid errors in the work of the researcher. Thus, the paper is topical. The purpose of the article is to determine the methodology of historiographical investigation of researches on history of pedagogy. The objectives of the study are to clear up the methodological principles of the mentioned research, methods of their knowledge and means of historiographical research in this area. The methodology used in the study is presented by general theoretical methods such as analysis and synthesis of related researches together with narrative method. They helped to receive and present the results as well as to make the conclusion. The results of the study show that any research of the historiography of pedagogical history should be based on scientific methodology. Tools for such researches are methodological principles (historicism, systematics, objectivity, comprehensiveness, and continuity), methods (analysis, synthesis, methods of typology and comparison, as well as bibliographic method) and means of knowledge (information technology, computers, office equipment, information computing devices). The conclusions allow asserting that mastering the methodological tools is a necessary condition for improving the scientific level of historiographical research on the history of pedagogy.
Anna Shevchuk
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 102-111; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.09

Abstract:
The paper investigates the peculiarities of teaching foreign languages by means of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In the course of a comprehensive study the most effective for the development of students’ linguistic and communicative competence, the following types of ICT were singled out and analysed: Internet-based project work, online correspondence by e-mail, chat, blogs, wikis and podcasts and training programs. The aim of the article is to identify the peculiarities of teaching foreign languages by means of ICT The theoretical, empirical and statistical methods have been used to reach the purpose. To check the effectiveness of applying ICT in teaching foreign languages empirical (diagnostic) methods such as testing, observation and discussion were used. The pedagogical experiment with the fourth-year students of Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of Economics was conducted. The pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of developing foreign language activity by means of ICT. The statistical methods helped to evaluate the results of the research. Using ICT is really helpful to increase students’ language competencies and, respectively, it provides the development of foreign language communicative competence in general. Conclusion: ICT creates a new environment and opportunities for foreign language acquisition; they have become an important educational tool successfully used in foreign language teaching.
Hakan Uşakli
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 6-14; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.01

Abstract:
The aim of this manuscript is to introduce the program of social-emotional learning. Developed by the Centre for Healthy Minds (CHM) this program is called the Kindness Curriculum (CHM, 2017). Founded by the world renowned neuroscientist Dr. Richard J. Davidson, the Centre for Healthy Minds offers a kinder, wiser, more compassionate world. Methodology. Qualitative research method was used in this study. The methods of documentary research, observation and interview were also applied. The Kindness Curriculum was employed as a documentary study. The target audience and the object of observation were primary school children aged 6 to 7, the teachers were interviewed. Results. The mission of the centre is to cultivate kindness and relieve suffering through the scientific study of the mind. There are some social-emotional training programs, but the program developed by the centre is free. This program has been used by preschools and some researchers. The study involves the adaptation of the Kindness Curriculum to Turkish culture. The program contains twenty-four lessons in eight topics. These lessons include short stories, songs and entertaining games. The program can be conducted by one specialist both in preschool institutions and in primary classes. During the adaptation process, the program was translated into Turkish by two specialists and they controlled the entire translation process, which balanced the adaptation of the program by 80%. The benefits of the program for Turkish children have been studied by three psychologists. The program was used as a pilot research in the first grade of primary school. Conclusions. There are many positive results of the program application implemented by teachers. Schools are encouraged to add this program to their curriculum, and there is a need for more experimental research on the usefulness of the proposed program.
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 86-101; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.08

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to analyze the impact of concept mapping on the level and quality of assimilation of learning material in higher mathematics in the process of independent study. Methodology. Based on a review of the main provisions of modern theory of learning and generalization of research results presented in scientific papers on the scope of application of concept maps in the learning process, such a training experiment was conducted. For students of the two experimental groups on a certain topic of the discipline “Higher Mathematics” were offered to build conceptual maps in addition to the common teaching methods. It considered as an independent creative task. In the other two groups, which were under control, students had to study the same topic of the discipline, using traditional methods. Results. It was determined that the results of the colloquium composed of students of experimental groups were significantly higher than those of students of control groups who did not use mapping as a method of learning during independent work. The average score obtained by students of experimental groups for the colloquium was almost 80 points, while for students of control groups it was only 72 points. Using Student’s test, the significance of the difference between the values of the sample averages of these indicators proved. If we compare the average scores for different types of tasks, the most significant was the difference in the performance of heuristic tasks, which reflect the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to solve practical problems of economic content. Conclusions. The positive influence of the use of concept mapping in independent work of students established, which proves the thesis about the feasibility of using concept mapping as a learning tool. Further introduction of concept maps in the educational process should be based on the development of complex theoretical and practical, as well as competency-oriented tasks.
Tetiana Sobol
Educational Challenges, Volume 26, pp 112-120; doi:10.34142/2709-7986.2021.26.1.10

Abstract:
This article purpose is to concern the importance of applying a communicative approach to learning a foreign language by future interpreters and translators. The communicative approach creates situations that are as close as possible to the peculiarities of the real process of communication. Therefore, the object of this study can be considered the didactic process of communicative competence formation of future interpreters and translators. This approach is aimed at paying more attention to the functions of language, lexical and grammatical units, which contributes to the development of communicatively oriented mastery of educational material by future interpreters and translators. The author has established the fact that thanks to a communicative approach, future interpreters and translators will be able to master foreign language communicative competence, which is necessary for orientation in the cultural aspect of a foreign language. There was used the methodology of interdisciplinary research such as analysis of scientific sources and educational materials. It confirmed that a foreign language communicative competence includes a system of knowledge and skills necessary for the effective use for a foreign language in professional and intercultural spheres. It is especially important for interpreters and translators, who must always know the language situation and know the cultural specifics of a foreign nation. Therefore, the result of this study can be considered as the following. The most effective way to achieve this goal is audiovisual reproduction of the linguistic and cultural situation, because standards of foreign language samples can come to our mind and can stay in long-term memory only with audio and visual perception. In addition, image and visual support is important not only for the semantic understanding of individual words or expressions, but also for the correct transmission of all content. Conclusion: the audiovisual method of learning a foreign language is one of the most effective for the foreign language communicative competence formation for future interpreters and translators.
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