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ISSN / EISSN : 1412-5439 / 2656-7369
Current Publisher: IAIN Jember (10.35719)
Total articles ≅ 21
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I Mustofa Zuhri
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 19-32; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.44

Abstract:
Pada zaman era globalisasi lembaga pendidikan Islam harus lebih menekankan pada kualitas sumber daya manusianya karena guru adalah salah satu komponen utama bagi keberhasilan proses belajar mengajar di sekolah. Mutu sekolah, khususnya mutu anak didik, mau tak mau berkaitan dengan mutu guru-gurunya yang langsung terlibat dengan anak didik di kelas. Namun, pada kenyataannya, terdapat banyak keluhkan tentang kualitas guru khususnya di lembaga pendidikan Islam. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya strategi yang komprehensif bagi guru menjadi tenaga pendidik yang berkualitas, profesional, berkomitmen serta memiliki semangat ibadah. Penelitian ini fokus mengkaji strategi pengembangan mutu guru MAN 3 Jember. Kajian penelitian ini menggunakan perspektif fenomenologis terhadap studi kasus. Hasil penelitian ini adalah bahwa untuk mengembangkan kualitas guru, para pimpinan MAN 3 Jember perlu (1) untuk membuat, menyusun, dan merumuskan visi, misi, dan tujuan lembaga khususnya pengembangan mutu guru; (2) untuk membangun komitmen yang bernilai ibadah; (3) untuk membangun sikap dan kedisiplinan; (4) untuk merubah pola pikir dan untuk membangun karakter positif guru. Kata kunci: Lembaga pendidikan Islam, kualitas guru, proses belajar dan pengajaran, MAN 3 Jember In the era of globalization, Islamic educational institutions have to emphasize the quality of their human resources. The teacher is one of the main characters for the success of the teaching and learning process. The quality of schools, especially the students quality, is inevitably related to the teachers concerned the students in the classroom. However, in reality, there are many complaints about teacher quality, especially in Islamic educational institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to have a comprehensive strategy for teachers to become qualified, professional, committed educators who have the spirit of worship. This study focuses on the assessment of teacher quality development strategies in MAN 3 Jember. This study uses a phenomenological perspective on a case study. As a result, for developing teacher quality in MAN 3 Jember is (1) compiling, compiling, and formulating the vision, mission, and objectives of the institution, to realize teacher quality; (2) building a commitment that has worship values; (3) building attitude and discipline; (4) changing the mindset also building the positive character of the teacher. Keywords: Islamic Educational Institutions, Teacher Quality, Teaching and Learning Process, MAN 3 Jember
Ahmad Halid
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 1-18; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.43

Abstract:
Lembaga pendidikan Islam mencapai kesuksesan kerja bisa melalui membangun orang-orang (kepribadian) secara fundamental yaitu mengubah pola pikir tentang bagaimana tenaga kerja dan sikap hubungan kerjasama dengan baik. Dua hal ini berarti mencapai kesuksesan kerja dengan bekerjasama dengan orang lain disertai dengan iman dan amal baik, justru bukan dengan cara mengganti tenaga kerja lama dibuang dan tenaga kerja baru difungsikan atau berusaha membatasi ruang lingkup kegiatan mereka, pengawasan ketat pada mereka dan dekti kepada mereka. Itu cara-cara kuno yang tidak produktif. Dengan demikian budaya kerja yang menghasilkan keunggulan kompetitif (competitive advantage) yang berkelanjutan (sustainable) adalah manajemen yang menggunakan budaya kerja “amanu”. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan analisis pada temuan. Pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi, interview dan dokumentasi. Keampuhan budaya kerja “amanu” baik secara teori maupun praktik telah terbukti menghasilkan keunggulan competitive yang berkelanjutan dalam suatu lembaga pendidikan Islam atau perusahaan.
Abdul Mu’Is
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 33-44; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.45

Abstract:
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan perencanaan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi pengembangan sumber daya manusia di Pondok Pesantren As-Syafaah. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus. Bentuk data dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari informan dan dokumen pendukung. Analisis data dilakukan dalam beberapa tahap menurut teori Miles, Huberman dan Saldana, yaitu kondensasi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan atau verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) analisis kebutuhan pengembangan sumber daya manusia analisis kualitas dan kuantitas, (2) pelaksanaan pengembangan sumber daya manusia dilakukan melalui rekrutmen, program pendidikan dan pelatihan, dan pembentukan budaya pesantren; (3) evaluasi pengembangan sumber daya manusia dititikberatkan pada perubahan sikap dan perilaku dalam menjalankan peran dan tanggung jawab. Kata kunci: manajemen, SDM, pesantren The aim of this is to describe the planning, implementation and evaluation of human resource development at As-syafaah Islamic boarding school. This study used a qualitative approach with case study design. The form of data in this study is primary data and secondary data obtained from informants and supporting documents. Data analysis is carried out in several steps according to Miles, Huberman and Saldana theory, which are data condensation, data display, and drawing conclusions or verification (conclusion drawing and verification). The results shown that (1) analysis of human resource development needs quality and quantity analysis, (2) implementation of human resource development is carried out through recruitment, education and training programs, and the formation of Islamic boarding school culture; (3) evaluation of human resource development is emphasized on changing attitudes and behaviors in carrying out roles and responsibilities
Moh. Nasrul Muttaqin, Agus Miftakus Surur; Dkk
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 77-90; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.50

Abstract:
Qira’ah Sab’ah jika dikaitkan dengan ayat-ayat Al-Qur’an, maka sangat erat kaitannya. Jadi dengan adanya maqam-maqam Qira’ah Sab’ah, ayat-ayat Al-Qur’an dapat dilantunkan dengan berbagai macam lagu. Dengan adanya pelatihan dan bimbingan khusus diharapkan dapat membawa peningkatan pemahaman peserta pada maqom Qiro’ah Sab’ah. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kualitatif dikarenakan penelitian bersifat induktif, berdasarkan pembelajaran tertentu dan kemudian dapat digunakan dalam pembelajaran serupa. Penyampaian maqam Qiro’ah Sab’ah. Dalam pelatihan tilawah, penyampaian Qiro’ah Sab’ah dilakukan oleh pelatih tilawah melalui proses latihan rutinan tilawah. Usaha untuk mempermudah menghafal maqam Qiro’ah Sab’ah yang diajarkan sebelumnya, maka peserta mencatat dengan menggaris bawahi ayat al-Qur’an dan ditulis jenis maqam yang digunakan disamping ayat al-Qur’an tersebut, kemudian mereka juga merekam suara lantunan ayat al-Qur’an yang disampaikan oleh pelatih tilawah. Pelaksanaan olah vokal pada pelatihan olah vokal, yakni dengan dibentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil terlebih dahulu, kemudian mereka menjawab jenis dari kelompok terkait maqom yang diujikan oleh pelatih. Terkait metode demonstrasi yang digunakan dalam pelatihan tilawah diawali dengan latihan melantunkan ayat al-Qur’an dengan menggunakan berbagai macam maqom qiro’ah sab’ah baru kemudian peserta tilawah menirukan ayat al-Qur’an yang dilantunkan oleh pelatih dengan menggunakan maqom Qiro’ah Sab’ah. Kata kunci: Maqam, Qiro’ah Sab’ah, Kerohanian, Tilawah Qira'ah Sab'ah if it is related to the verses of the Al-Qur'an, it is very closely related. So with the existence of maqam-maqam Qira'ah Sab'ah, the verses of the Al-Qur'an can be sung with various kinds of songs. With special training and guidance, it is hoped that it can bring an increase in participants' understanding of maqom Qiro'ah Sab'ah. The approach used is a qualitative approach because the research is inductive, based on certain learning and can then be used in similar learning. In tilawah training, the delivery of Qiro'ah Sab'ah is carried out by the recitation trainer through the process of practicing the recitation routine. In an effort to make it easier to memorize the maqam Qiro'ah Sab'ah that was taught previously, the participants took notes by underlining the verses of the Koran and writing the type of maqam used in addition to the verses of the Koran, then they also recorded the sound of the chanting of the verse al. -The qur'an conveyed by the recitation coach. The implementation of vocal processing in vocal training, namely by forming small groups first, then they answer the types of groups related to the maqom tested by the trainer. Regarding the demonstration method used in recitation training, it begins with the practice of chanting the verses of the Koran using various kinds of maqom qiro'ah sab'ah, then the recitation participants mimic the verses of the Qur'an chanted by the trainer using the maqom Qiro'ah Sab'ah.
Abdul Haris, Abdulloh Dardum
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 91-114; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.51

Abstract:
Kajian tentang dinamika dan kiprah politik kiai selalu menarik untuk terus dikaji dari berbagai sudut pandang berbeda. Pada kontestasi Pilpres 2019, beberapa kiai NU struktural maupun non struktural di Jember terlibat aktif dalam memenangkan pasangan calon no urut 1, Jokowi dan Ma’ruf Amin. Penelitian ini ingin mengungkap makna politik dalam perpsektif kiai NU Jember, serta motivasi dan bentuk keterlibatan mereka dalam kontestasi politik praktis (Pilpres 2019). Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Secara operasional penggalian data dalam peneilitian ini dilakukan dengan cara pengamatan, wawancara mendalam terhadap para informan yang sudah ditetapkan, dan dokumentasi. Data yang didapatkan setelah itu dianalisa melalui dua tahap, yaitu selama proses pengumpulan data di lapangan dan setelah data tersebut terkumpul dengan langkah; 1) reduksi data, 2) penyajian data, dan 3) penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa 1) Mayoritas kiai NU Jember memaknai politik sebagai perjuangan untuk mewujudkan kemashlahatan umat. Politik juga dimaknai dengan upaya untuk menjaga aqidah umat dari faham atau ideologi yang berseberangan dengan NU. 2) Ada dua motivasi yang mendorong keterlibatan kiai NU Jember dalam politik praktis, yaitu orientasi dakwah dan orientasi ideologis. 3) Bentuk keterlibatan kiai NU dalam politik praktis (Pilpres 2019) di Kabupaten Jember dilakukan dengan beberapa cara, diantaranya memberikan dukungan melalui edaran/maklumat, konsolidasi sesama kiai dan instruksi secara langsung kepada para santri, wali santri, dewan guru/asatidz, alumni dan simpatisan pesantren. The dynamics and political work of the kiai are always interesting to be studied from various points of view. In the 2019 presidential election contest, several structural and non-structural NU kiai in Jember were actively involved in winning the candidate pair number 1, Jokowi and Ma'ruf Amin. This research intends to reveal the political meaning from the perspective of the kiai NU Jember, as well as their motives and forms of involvement in practical political contestation (Pilpres 2019). This research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Operationally the data mining in this research was carried out through observation, in-depth interviews with the informants who had been assigned, and documentation. The data obtained after that were analyzed in two stages, namely during the data collection process in the field and after the data was collected by steps; 1) data reduction, 2) data presentation, and 3) concluding. The results of this study indicate that 1) The majority of NU Jember kiai interpret politics as a struggle to achieve the benefit of the people. Politics is also interpreted as an effort to protect the aqidah of the people from opposing ideologies or ideologies. 2) There are two motivations that encourage the involvement of the Jember NU kiai in practical politics, namely dakwah orientation and ideological orientation. 3) The form of involvement of NU kiai in practical politics (2019 Presidential Election) in Jember Regency is carried out in several ways, including providing support through circulars/announcements, consolidation of fellow kiai and direct instruction to students, guardians of santri, a board of teachers/asatidz, alumni and pesantren sympathizers.
Shoni Rahmatullah Amrozi
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 61-76; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.46

Abstract:
Artikel ini membahas perbedaan pandangan Clifford Geertz dan Mark R. Woodward tentang keberagamaan orang Jawa. Kedua pandangan ini menjadi rujukan bagi para intelektual yang mendalami kajian tentang agama (Islam) di masyarakat Jawa. Geertz mengkategorikan kelompok agama dalam masyarakat Jawa (Abangan, Santri, dan Priyayi) berdasarkan penelitiannya di Mojokuto (Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur). Sementara itu, Mark R. Woodward meneliti keberagamaan orang Jawa di Yogyakarta. Woodward menganggap Yogyakarta sebagai pusat budaya masyarakat Jawa dan dianggap mampu mengkolaborasikan Islam dan budaya lokal. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa Geertz menilai bahwa keberagamaan orang Jawa terkait dengan ketaatan dan ketidaktaatan. Sementara itu, Woodward melihat keberagamanan ini sebagai salah satu bentuk tafsir terhadap Islam oleh masyarakat Jawa.. Kata Kunci: Islam Jawa, Abangan, santri, priyai This article examines the different views of Clifford Geertz and Mark R. Woodward about Javanese religiousness. Both of their studies, even today, have become references for intellectuals who study religion (Islam) in Javanese society. Geertz categorized the religious groups in Javanese society (Abangan, Santri, and Priyayi). Geertz's (the 1950s) view have based on his research in Modjokuto (Pare, Kediri, East Java). Meanwhile, Mark R. Woodward researched Javanese religiousness in Yogyakarta (the 1980s). Woodward observed Yogyakarta as the cultural centre of Javanese society. It is considered capable of collaborating between Islam and local culture. The article concludes that Geertz assessed that Javanese religiousness was related to religious obedience and disobedience. Meanwhile, Woodward sees this diversity as a type of interpretation of Islam by the Javanese community.
Arif Zunaidi
Published: 2 March 2021
Fenomena, Volume 20, pp 45-60; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v20i1.49

Abstract:
Sebagai tokoh yang memiliki nama besar, Abu Yusuf memiliki karya fenomenal dalam bidang pajak, yaitu kitab Al-Kharaj. Kitab yang ditulis atas permintaan Khalifah Harun Ar-Rasyid ini digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam pengelolaan pajak. Sebagai salah satu sektor penting dalam penerimaan negara, pajak seharusnya tidak mendzolimi masyarakat dari besaran presentasenya. Tujuan dari penulisan ini adalah untuk mengetahui sejarah penulisan kitab Al-Kharaj dan isi kitabnya. Selain itu, tulisan ini juga untuk mengetahui konsep pajak yang ditulis Abu Yusuf dan utilitasnya dengan ekonomi saat ini. Metode yang digunakan dalam penulisan ini adalah metodologi pemikiran tokoh yang dilacak dari sikap, tulisan atau pun tanggapan pada suatu kasus fenomena yang terjadi pada masa itu. Untuk mengetahui latar belakang pemikiran Abu Yusuf tidak bisa mengesampingkan beberapa faktor yang ada, baik faktor internal maupun faktor eksternal yang menjadi pemicunya. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa pemikiran Abu Yusuf tentang pajak menjadi salah satu konsep yang dilaksanakan hingga saat ini. Konsepnya dipakai dan diaplikasikan dalam menentukan presentase penerimaan pajak oleh negara. Konsep Al-Kharaj digunakan dalam sektor penerimaan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan (PBB), bea cukai. Kata kunci: Abu Yusuf, Kitab Al-Kharaj, Pajak, Pendapatan Negara As a well-known figure, Abu Yusuf has written a phenomenal work in taxation studies, namely al-Kharaj. This book which written at the request of the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid is used as a guide in tax management efforts. As one of the important sectors in state revenue, taxes should not deceive the public from their percentage. The article aims to find out the context of Al-Kharaj and its contents. Therefore, this study seeks to reveal the thoughts of Abu Yusuf and his background which were traced through his attitudes, writings, and responses to a case that occurred at that time. In addition, the paper is also to find out the tax concept initiated by Abu Yusuf and its practice in economic conditions' today. The results of this study found that Abu Yusuf's thought about taxes is one of the concepts that is still used today. This concept is applied in determining the percentage of tax revenue by the state. The Al-Kharaj concept is also used in the land and building tax (PBB) and customs revenue sectors.
Mukhtar Mukhtar
Published: 28 October 2020
Fenomena, Volume 19, pp 214-247; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v19i2.42

Abstract:
This study aims to describe the implementation of mastery learning (complete learning) in Islamic Religious Education learning (both planning, implementation, evaluation, learning outcomes and follow-up) in SMA Negeri 2 Bogor; also to provide a clear explanation of the implications of mastery learning on students' achievement of Competency Standards (SK) in Islamic Education learning. This research is a qualitative field research. The approach used is descriptive qualitative and data collection uses the method of observation, interviews, documentation and triangulation. The data analysis used was descriptive analytical and interpretive. The results show that SMA Negeri 2 Bogor has implemented the mastery learning strategy as an effort to achieve SK in learning (PAI), especially - more intensively - since the implementation of the CBC in 2004 and KTSP in 2006, but the implementation has not been maximal. and needs further improvement. Implementatively, the mastery learning strategy pays close attention to individual differences, marked by the existence of follow-up programs in the form of remedial, enrichment and acceleration programs, which of course become necessary being. so that students achieve competency completely. The implication is that the achievement of SK depends on the achievement of Basic Competence (KD), and the achievement of KD is very dependent on the achievement of indicators, and vice versa. The completeness is based on the Minimum Completeness Criteria (KKM) that have been determined in Islamic Education learning, so that students have competence and performance that can be measured (measurable) and can be observed (observable) as an indicator of successful learning completely.
Subakri Subakri
Published: 23 October 2020
Fenomena, Volume 19, pp 197-213; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v19i2.41

Abstract:
The phenomenon of character education in Indonesia has existed along with the realization of the 2013 Curriculum. Character education was implemented even before the 2013 curriculum was implemented in schools. Character education is a school-based effort that helps a person or group of people care, understand, act seriously to apply ethical values. The purpose of character education is to help students develop optimal potential in various matters related to morality, citizenship, courtesy and ethics, behavior, being healthy, critical, success that will meet social norms and can be accepted in society both at home and globally. . Which one day the nation's children will become human beings with quality and noble character. With character education, students can apply character values ​​such as religious, responsible, democratic, honest, trustworthy, leadership, fair and polite in their attitude. Character education that is integrated in the 2013 Curriculum creates the next generation who is ready to face future challenges whose goal is that students have better abilities in the ability to observe, ask (interview), reason, and communicate (present) what they get or know after receive subject matter. The 2013 curriculum which is based on character and competence lies in the core competencies of K-I 1 which includes spiritual attitudes; K-I 2 includes social attitudes; KI-3 includes knowledge, and KI-4 skills
Pasmah Chandra, Debby Sulistia
Published: 21 October 2020
Fenomena, Volume 19, pp 176-196; doi:10.35719/fenomena.v19i2.40

Abstract:
The case of intolerance in the educational environment has recently become increasingly unsettling. This problem threatens the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). For that we need a special approach or pattern in preventing the development of intolerance in the educational environment. Tolerance education must be strengthened, especially in the school environment. Tolerance education is actually practiced in the learning process and outside the classroom so that it becomes school culture. Tolerance education must be broad, not only covering internal tolerance of Muslims but also between religious communities. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of cultivating tolerance through multicultural-based social interactions among Muslim and non-Muslim students. This type of research is field research (field research) with a qualitative approach with Muslim and non-Muslim student respondents in Elementary School (SD) N 13 Argamakmur. Based on the results of the study, it is known that the application of the value of tolerance carried out by teachers in schools, especially Islamic religious education teachers in the learning process through an attitude that is able to understand the differences by placing in the position of each student, is able to generate mutual respect between one another. The habituation process that is pressed directly and intensively can create positive habits towards students. Students can view each other positively even though they have a religion, ethnicity, race, ethnicity and customs that are different from others.
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