Qubahan Academic Journal

Journal Information
EISSN : 2709-8206
Published by: Qubahan Organization for Development (10.48161)
Total articles ≅ 50

Latest articles in this journal

Jayson A. Dela Fuente, Angelo P. Alop
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 14-24; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a84

Recidivism is an offense committed by a person who at the time of his trial for one crime has been previously convicted by a final judgment of another crime. From this perspective, the researchers are interested to explore the lived experiences and untold stories of repeat offenders. The study focuses on three parts; the informants’ experiences in the pillars of the criminal justice system; the impacts of incarceration on the lives of the offender; and the reasons for reoffending. A qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach was used in the conduct of the study through an in-depth interview with the informants. The sample informants which comprises of ten recidivists and inmates of selected city jails Negros Occidental, Philippines participated in the interview through purposive sampling using the inclusion criteria set by the researchers. The data was collected using audiotaping of interviews. Audiotapes were then transcribed where data from transcriptions were analyzed to describe the richness of the informants’ experiences. Out of the transcribed and analyzed data, six major themes emerged. The Cry of the Suspect, Light within the Darkness, You Reap what you Sow, Blessing in Disguise, Many are Bad Associates But Few are Good Mentors, and Corruption of the Mind. Key findings from the study suggest coordination and cooperation among the pillars of the criminal justice system come up with a very comprehensive and sustainable rehabilitation program with proper and effective implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Thereby, recommendations for change are provided in the emerging themes to address the phenomenon.
Zemar Kh. Hamid, Farhad H. Abosh
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a86

د ڤێ ڤه‌كه‌لینێدا به‌حسێ ڕۆلێ كوردا د ئاڤاكرنا دام وده‌زگه‌هێت خێرخازى و زانستیدا ل وه‌لاتێ حیجازێ د چه‌رخێن(6-9مش/12-15ز) ڕۆلێ وان یى گرنگ د چالاكرنا بزاڤا ئاڤاكرنیدا بده‌ینه‌ دیاركرن . ئه‌ف ڤه‌كولینه‌ ژ دوو پشكا پێك دهێت ، پشكا ئیكێ گریداى ڕۆلێ ده‌ستهه‌لاتدارێت كورد ژ سولتان و میر و شاها د ئاڤاكرنا دام و ده‌زگه‌هێت خێرخازى و زانستیدا دڤى ماوه‌یدا هژمره‌كا هه‌را زورا ده‌ستهه‌لادارێت كورد ل جیهانا ئیسلامى ا زور كاریت ئاڤاكرنى ل حیجازێ كرین و ب تایبه‌ت ل حه‌ره‌مێن پیروز. پشكا دووێ، تایبه‌ته‌ ب ڕۆلێ كه‌سانێت نورمال كورد وه‌كو خودان پوست و پله‌ێت بلند ژ مینا وه‌زیر و دادوه‌ر و بازرگان و ئاكنجیت كورد ل حیجازێ د ئاڤاكرنا دام و ده‌زگه‌هێت خیرخازى و زانستیدا . د ڤه‌كولیندا ئه‌م شیان بگه‌هین چه‌ندین ئه‌نجاما ژ گرنگترین وان: ده‌ستهه‌لاتدارێن ئه‌یوبی ژ سولتان و میرو شاها رۆله‌كى مه‌زن دبینن د ئاڤاكرن و نیژه‌نكرنا مزگه‌فت و قوتابخانا و ریباتا و كولان و پاقژ كرنا بیر و كانیت ئاڤێ و چێكرنا جهێن بهێن ڤه‌دانى وه‌كو خانا ل سه‌ر رێكێت حه‌جاجا زێده‌بارى چاككرنا رێكیت حه‌جاجا.
, Rumana Akter, Foyj Ullah Khan, Shakhera Khanom, Anayat Ullah Khan, Ayesha Shiddika Afsana
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 25-31; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a74

Background: In Bangladesh, the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) reported the first COVID-19 positive patients in the country on March 8, 2020. The world health organization (WHO) declared a COVID-19 epidemic on March 11, 2020. The aim of this study was related to the situation and relation of tests, infested, recovered and death of people against COVID-19 of Bangladesh. The study was carried out from 8 March 2020 to 30 April 2021 (N=419 days) to observe the status of Bangladesh towards rampant COVID-19. Methods: The data of this research was collected from IEDCR, Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), and cross-checked with different newspapers and online news portals. Correlations were made using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The total tests, infection, recovered and died were 5357294, 747761, 669995 and 11250; respectively in Bangladesh. The tests of COVID-19 were 1482, 69252, 244064, 460528, 409503, 362113, 397452, 389452, 436862, 454892, 424034, 392403 and 722848 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The infestation of COVID-19 was 49, 7616, 39486, 98330, 92125, 73070, 50457, 44205, 57248, 58948, 21629, 11077 and 128555 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The recovered of COVID-19 was 25, 135, 7904, 34845, 76517, 69452, 71600, 48658, 56099, 70367, 22285, 17140 and 150816 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The death of COVID-19 was 6, 163, 472, 1198, 1264, 1125, 970, 666, 718, 938, 568, 277 and 2237 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The maximum number of people infested and death in April, 2021. The positive correlation found between infested with tests and recovered with tests of April, 2021 by people where (R2= 0.5289, p<0.012 and 0.0000006 p<0.05) and the negative correlation found between tests with date and death with tests (R2= 0.2567, p<0.01 and 0.3614, p<0.01). All the Spearman correlation positive with moderate to strong relation between the variables at the 0.01 level in two-tailed and the total number was n=419. The mean Spearman correlation for tests was 0.31 (range 0.553 to 0.634), for infested was 0.35 (range 0.611 to 0.880), for recovered was 0.796 (range 0.634 to 0.799), for death was 0.808 (range 0.553 to 0.880). March to December 2020 and January to February 2021, not much less than April 2021. Conclusions: More people infested and died in April, 2021 than previous year. This study also indicated that there is moderate to strong relation among tests, infested, recovered and death with COVID-(2020-2021).
Zeravan Yahya Ali, Hakim Abdulhakim Zubair
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a89

دڤێ ڤەکولینێ دا ئاماژە ب بەلاڤبوونا ناسناڤ وزاراڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی ل وەلاتێن مسروشامێ دسەردەمێ ئەیوبی ومەمالیکێن دەریایی دا(570-784مش/1174-1382ز)هاتیە کرن . ئەڤ ڤەکولینە لسەر دوو پشکان هاتیە دابەشکرن،پشکا ئێکێ گرێدایە ب ناسناڤێن کوردان ئەوێن ل وەلاتێ مسروشامێ بەلاڤبووین، ئەڤجا هندەک ژوان ناسناڤا گرێداینە ب باژێرودەڤەرو هوزو بنەمالەێن کوردان ڤە.پشکا دووێ گرێدایە ب چەند زاراڤ وپەیڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی کو ل وان وەلاتان بەلاڤ بووین و هاتینە بکارئینان. دڤێ ڤەکولینێ دا ئەم شیان بگەهینە چەند ئەنجامەکا کو بومە خویادبیت:پشتى کوردان وتایبەت بنەمالا کوردێن ئەیوبی دەستهەلات وەرگرتی هژمارەکا مەزن ژ کەسایەتێن کورد وکو ژ چەند هوزو بنەمالەیا پێک دهات مشتەختی وان وەلاتان بون ودگەل خوە چەندین زاراڤ وپەیڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی برن کو بەرى دەمێ ڤەکولینێ ئەو زاراڤ وناسناڤ وئیدیەمە هەبونا وان یاکێم ودەگمەن بویە.
Kazheen Ismael Taher, Rezgar Hasan Saeed, Rowaida Kh. Ibrahim, Zryan Najat Rashid, Lailan M. Haji, Naaman Omar, Hivi Ismat Dino
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a72

Semantic web and cloud technology systems have been critical components in creating and deploying applications in various fields. Although they are self-contained, they can be combined in various ways to create solutions, which has recently been discussed in depth. We have shown a dramatic increase in new cloud providers, applications, facilities, management systems, data, and so on in recent years, reaching a level of complexity that indicates the need for new technology to address such tremendous, shared, and heterogeneous services and resources. As a result, issues with portability, interoperability, security, selection, negotiation, discovery, and definition of cloud services and resources may arise. Semantic Technologies, which has enormous potential for cloud computing, is a vital way of re-examining these issues. This paper explores and examines the role of Semantic-Web Technology in the Cloud from a variety of sources. In addition, a "cloud-driven" mode of interaction illustrates how we can construct the semantic web and provide automated semantical annotations to web applications on a large scale by leveraging Cloud computing properties and advantages.
Ayad Abdulrahman
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a79

Due to the daily expansion of the web, the amount of information has increased significantly. Thus, the need for retrieving relevant information has also increased. In order to explore the internet, users depend on various search engines. Search engines face a significant challenge in returning the most relevant results for a user's query. The search engine's performance is determined by the algorithm used to rank web pages, which prioritizes the pages with the most relevancy to appear at the top of the result page. In this paper, various web page ranking algorithms such as Page Rank, Time Rank, EigenRumor, Distance Rank, SimRank, etc. are analyzed and compared based on some parameters, including the mining technique to which the algorithm belongs (for instance, Web Content Mining, Web Structure Mining, and Web Usage Mining), the methodology used for ranking web pages, time complexity (amount of time to run an algorithm), input parameters (parameters utilized in the ranking process such as InLink, OutLink, Tag name, Keyword, etc.), and the result relevancy to the user query.
Anand Kumar Singh
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 10-13; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a71

Export of medical instruments in midst of life-threatening pandemic crisis has increased significantly. However, the urgent supply of medical products faces the challenge of unprecedented protectionist restrictions introduced by several developed nations. These restrictions, introduced to avoid shortage of medical products in domestic market of such exporting countries, threaten the lives and livelihood of million others in immediate and urgent need of goods. The article examines the legality and effect of these restrictions under the extant WTO framework. Lastly, the article also highlights the necessity of international cooperation between nations to overcome partisan policies of self-interest and the imporatnce of collective efforts in this fight against a common threat.
Mohammed H. Ramadhan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a78

—Service composition is gaining popularity because a composite service can perform functions that an individual service cannot. There are multiple web services available on the web for different tasks. The semantic web is an advanced form of the current web in which all contents have well-defined meanings due to nature, allowing machines to process web contents automatically. A web service composition is a collection of web services that collaborate to achieve a common goal. They reveal the established methods for web service composition in both syntactic and semantic environments. In this study Initially, we identify the existing techniques used for the composition. We classified these approaches according to the processing of the service descriptions, which can be syntactic or semantic-based service processes. We have reviewed more than 14 articles in this domain and concluded the merits of the methodologies applied for the implementation of web service composition.
Hariwan Yousuf Ibrahim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 44-61; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a81

شهدت الدول الربية اعقاب الستينات من القرن العشرين حركات و انقلابات و ثورات غيرت مجرى الاوظاع السياسة في المنطقة، حيث قامة بعض الدول بانقلابات على انظمتها الطاغية مثل مصر و سوريا والعراق، حيث كانت هذه الانقلابات لها دوافع سياسية و اجتماعية تمثلة في تغير انظمة حكمها. كما كانت ثورة 1962 في اليمن، كان متغيراً سياسياً حدث ضدة نظام الائمة في اليمن خاصة الامام بدر بن احمد الذي لم يكن سياسة و نهجة حكمه يختلف كثيرا عن سياسة والده و جده الامام يحيى، حيث سعى الى سياسة الاضطهاد والتعسف في ادارت سلطتهم، و استغدام سياسة الجهل والتخلف وانقطاع عن العالم الخارجي، حيث كانت المنطقة تشهد الى الانفتاح و التطور التي سبقتهم اليها دول الغربية. كانت لهذا الثورة مواقف دولية متقلبة بين مؤيد و معارض لها، و كانت هذا المواقف لها تأثير كبير على سلطة الثوار و مدىَ قوة حكمها، لان الدول المعارضة لم تعترف بسلطة الثوار، ولم يكتفوا بذلك بل دعمة الجهات المعارضة لها، كما عملت المملكة العربية السعودية بدعم الموالين للامام بالمال والسلاح من اجل القظاء على سلطة الانقلاب لاعتبارها تهديداً مباشراً لسلطتها في المملكة، بينما تدخلت مصر عسكرياً...
Asaad Khaleel Ibrahim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a75

The internet has become a vital component of the twenty-first century as technology has advanced. The number of new technologies emerging in tandem with the qualities supplied by the Internet is rapidly increasing. The World Wide Web (WWW), which is commonly referred to as the world's largest information environment, is a vital virtual environment in which internet users may trade, read, and publish information using a Web browser. Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and Web 3.0 technologies have all been seen and are still being observed in this review paper. However, there is no clear definition for Web 4.0, which is a 4th generation web technology, in the literature. Web 4.0 has multiple dimensions, as seen by the first examples that have appeared. Big data, augmented reality, machine-to-machine communication (M2M), cloud computing, and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, as well as smart agents, will be able to integrate in the future years. Web 4.0 is a web technology revolution that includes a new internet of things (IoT) that interacts with a variety of models. The goal of this study is to clarify the notion of Web 4.0, which is viewed as an intelligent and symbiotic (human-machine interaction) network with massive interfaces and linkages, as well as to contribute to the literature by studying its many dimensions and investigating its links with new generation technologies.
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