Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis

Journal Information
EISSN : 2709-9555
Published by: SABA Publishing (10.48185)
Total articles ≅ 11

Latest articles in this journal

Mahdia Abarchah
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 3, pp 1-6;

Some scholars take it for granted that literature and linguistics are detached areas of education. Stylistics, however, as the study will show, is the field where literary criticism and linguistics could overlap and thus contribute to ameliorating the strategies of teaching literature. There are two streams of literary criticism: the textual approaches, such as Formalism and New Criticism, which highlight close reading of the given text. On the other hand, there are contextual disciplines, for instance, Marxist Criticism and Feminist Criticism, which draw on socio-political and ideological movements. Consequently, teachers vary in the way they interpret and instruct their students. Stylistics, nonetheless, is a field where different approaches could converge. It is not only a theory describing how one could read and understand a literary discourse but also a pedagogical method that could help students appreciate literature and encourage them to be involved in the interpretation procedure. The study will illustrate these points through the discussion of “foregrounding”—a stylistic device—in Gerard Manley Hopkins’ poem: “Pied Beauty”. Yet, however efficient in stylistics a teacher could be, he/she should respect certain limits.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 3, pp 21-32;

This study investigated interlanguage request performance by Moroccan learners of English (MLs) from a contrastive perspective. More specifically, it explored how MLs’ interlanguage requests converged or diverged from English Natives’ (ENs) requests in the use of strategy types and (in) directness. First, a contrastive pragmatic analysis of requests by Moroccan natives (MNs) and ENs is deemed necessary to provide native baseline data and establish MNs’ and ENs’ pragmatic norms of request performance. Second, an interlanguage request analysis is conducted to reveal the pragmatic features of MLs’ requests. The three sets of data for this study were collected via an open questionnaire as it serves the purpose of this investigation. The results revealed that MLs deviated from the ENs’ pragmatic norms of (in) directness, mostly by falling back on their native pragmatic norms, which bears testimony to pragmatic transfer. Requests do not seem to be conceived of in the same way by MNs and ENs, and MLs transferred their native request conception when performing in English. MLs used more direct strategies. The study predicts instances of cross-cultural misunderstanding and pragmatic failure in intercultural encounters between MLs and ENs, which is likely to cause undesirable cross-cultural clichés and stereotypes. The paper suggests some pedagogical implications to alleviate this problem among MLs. .
, Nawal Fadhil Abbas
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 3, pp 7-20;

The present study cognitive aims to investigate the negation phenomenon in American political discourse under Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) principles. The research sample includes two speeches given by Clinton and Trump in their election campaigns in 2016. Since the nature of the study follows the social-cognitive approach, the researcher adopted two models of analysis to achieve the study’s objectives: First, the theoretical framework of MST (developed by Fauconnier (1994), Fauconnier and Sweetser (1996) to examine meaning construction resulting from building different levels of negative mental spaces by two different genders the selected speeches. Second, pragmatic model to examine the role of gender from the functional perspective of negation, five pragmatic strategies here are adopted, namely, Speech Act, off-record, on-record, presupposition (based on the politeness model of Brown and Levinson, 1987), and violation of Grice’s maxims (1975). The study follows a qualitative method in the analytical interpretation of data to understand the negative impact of a contextual model and subjective model (personal ideology and knowledge) and quantitative analysis to find out the frequencies and the types of negatives. The findings show that both genders are biased to use negatives in their election campaigns to damage f each other’s face, and both similarly succeed in using pragmatic strategies within the scope of negative spaces, with some differences to mention.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 46-62;

The paper examined the discursive structure of waka chants as performed by Islamic clerics among the Yoruba Muslims at the event of fidāʼu. This attempt considers waka chants as pragmeme, with particular attention on the language and extra-linguistic cues deployed within the chants, and how the entire situational contexts which condition the waka chants regiment the language use. Eight documented waka chants in honour of some deceased Muslims in South-western Nigeria were sampled. The waka chants which were mainly in the Yoruba language as rendered by Muslim clerics were transcribed and translated to English language for the purpose of analysis. With insights from Mey’s theory of pragmeme, the paper ascertained that waka chants at the event of fidāʼu possess inherent pragmatic forces beyond their invocation to elucidate sermons and lives of a deceased Muslim. Such chants, this paper argues, perform socio-religious actions which are of immense benefits to the living.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 1-30;

Discourse analysis is a branch of study that encompasses a variety of varied, primarily qualitative methods to the investigation of the interactions that exist between language in use and the social environment. Language is often viewed by researchers in the subject as a sort of social practice that has an impact on the social world and vice versa. Many contemporary kinds of discourse analysis have been overtly or indirectly informed by Michel Foucault's theories of power, knowledge, and discourse, which are discussed below. As a result of Foucault's work, there has been an increased interest in investigating the role that language plays in the formation and maintenance of certain knowledge and the maintenance of inequitable power relations. In order to undertake discourse analyses, human geographers often draw on one of three major schools of discourse analysis: Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA), critical discourse analysis (CDA), or Gramscian techniques. There are several theoretical and methodological distinctions between these approaches. While different approaches have different strengths and weaknesses, they all provide researchers with an effective means of investigating and exposing semiotic features of power relations in specific sociospatial contexts. While there are no set procedures for these techniques, researchers have recognized certain essential investigative strategies that can be used to inform the performance of any type of discourse analysis project. These strategies are included below. A brief history of Critical Discourse Analysis is offered, along with a full examination of the numerous criticisms levied at CDA and its practitioners over the previous two decades, both by scholars working within the "critical" paradigm and by other critical critics. Reader response and integration of contextual aspects are discussed, as well as a range of objections directed at the underlying premises and analytical technique. Additionally, there is discussion of contentious issues, such as the negative focus of much CDA work and CDA's developing standing as a "intellectual orthodoxy" They highlight the major criticisms that have emerged from this overview and provide some ways to overcome these shortcomings.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 63-72;

It is not uncommon for people to take offence over what is said and how it is said. These actions often cause conflict and clash of interest in language use in society. Besides, scholars have decried the paucity of research on impoliteness. The paper therefore seeks to fill the gap in knowledge by conducting a research on impoliteness and maxim violations among undergraduates of Madonna University Nigeria, Okija campus. The study employed the obstructive observation method to observe instances of maxim violations and impoliteness among the students for a period of four months from November 2020 to February2021. Data for the study were collected through recorded language use of the students which were done as not to deter the students in their conversations. The recorded texts were later transcribed and analysed. Being a qualitative research, data for the study were analysed using a textual method. The analysis was done using Leechian politeness maxims. The paper concludes that studies on politeness and conversational maxim observance should be part of students’ curriculum in order to understand clearly how to avoid conflicts in language use in the university system.
, Ebenezer Oluseun Ogungbe, Moshood Zakariyah
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 31-45;

Film posters are complex forms of visual communication basically employed to promote films so as to seek for patronage from prospective viewers. Nollywood film poster designers or marketers employ a complex system of modes of multimodal communication to achieve their intended objectives. This study therefore investigates how these semiotic resources reveal the intention of the film poster designers and how other contextual variables influence the ability of the viewers to comprehend the messages embedded in film posters. The objectives of the study are to uncover the visual and linguistic semiotic resources in the film advertisement posters and their interaction. The study adopts a qualitative approach to the analyses of six randomly selected Nollywood film advertisement posters of three genres, namely: drama, thriller and comedy. Yuen’s Generic Structure Potential and Royce’s Ideational Intersemiotic Complementarity serve as the basis for the analysis of the selected texts. The study reveals that visual modes are more salient and frequently employed in the advertisement posters than the linguistic modes. However, both the visual and the linguistic modes offer complementary relationship for effective meaning-making in the selected Nollywood advertisement posters. The meanings derived are often contextual which appeal to the audience reasoning and sustain their interests. The study concludes by emphasizing the importance of the synergy of both linguistic and visual multimodal resources or modes of signification in the successful meaning-making and meaning-comprehension in the study of visual communication.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 26-39;

The present study aimed at exploring the strategies of disagreement and hedging devices used by native speakers of English. The study elicited the informants’ reactions when disagreeing with higher, equal, and lower status. The responses were analyzed using Brown and Levinson’s (1987) politeness model and Hyland’s (1998) hedging taxonomy. Discourse completion test data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings revealed that native speakers of American English used positive politeness strategies considerably with higher and equal status interlocutors (father, teacher, and friends). The respondents were concerned with saving their interlocutors’ positive face regardless of their social distance and power. The only significant difference, in terms of strategy selection, was identified in highly face-threatening contexts (accusation), where the informants opted for bald on record politeness strategies because of the seriousness of the interlocutor’s (supervisor) claims (plagiarism). The data showed also that native speakers relied on hedges considerably to mitigate their disagreements.
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 40-55;

English, as a communication tool, plays an extremely significant role in cross-cultural communication. While it is true that language users can mean exactly what they mean in their utterances, it is also true that they can have their utterances mean much more than what they say. Speakers of English speak indirectly, and using conversational implicatures is a way to be indirect. And as sentences often express messages above and beyond their literal meanings, it is not surprising that pragmatic errors are found in language learning process of EFL learners' communication. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the factors beyond misunderstanding or understanding of English conversational implicatures among Yemeni EFL university learners. It follows an empirical analytical-descriptive method consisting of a test and an interview. Randomly, 50% of the study population was selected as the study sample. They were 62 Yemeni EFL university learners. A multiple-choice discourse completion test ( MCDCT ) and a semi structure interview were used for collecting the study data. The test contained eleven types of conversational implicature The collected data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results reveal that different factors caused misinterpretation of conversational implicatures among Yemeni EFL learners. However, the differences in socio-cultural knowledge and indirectness are instrumental in the misunderstanding of conversational contexts in the study. While the familiarity of some conversational implicatures and formulaic pattern of others pose no challenge for the study subjects to interpret some of the test conversational implicatures. The study test conversational implicatures that are formulaic or familiar to the subjects are easy to grasp. Therefore, this study provides some recommendations that are expected to enable EFL university learners to develop their pragmatic competence regarding English conversational implicature and suggests a reconsideration of the existing methodologies on teaching English as a foreign language. Hence, this would ease the concern of EFL students about English conversational implicature, build up their confidence and enhance language learning.
Godwin Ayigbo Owojecho Godwin
Studies in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Volume 2, pp 56-66;

The evolution of social media has opened a new vista in digital communication across the world, Nigeria inclusive. Since the confirmation of the index case of Coronavirus in Nigeria, a lot of news on the subject which are largely considered by the World Health Organization to be false, had gone viral on the social media space. This study essentially examines some of those messages on WhatsApp that were circulated across Nigeria. Five WhatsApp messages collected between March – June, 2020 were analysed using the framework of Austin’s Speech Acts with insights from the Conversational Maxims of Grice’s Cooperative Principles. The main objective of this analysis is to unravel the communicative effects of language. Findings show that the writers of those WhatsApp messages carefully manipulate some linguistic features to make such messages perform some illocutionary acts as well as trigger some perlocutionary moves in the minds of the readers. This buttresses the fact that language is used to achieve both linguistic and non linguistic aims.
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