Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 41-52; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.06
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of saline intrusion on agricultural activities, thereby proposing adaptation and mitigation measures for local people. Salinity was measured at 15 locations on the main and tributary rivers in Ke Sach district, Soc Trang province, Vietnam from January to September 2020. The method of direct interview with farmers was used to evaluate the knowledge and effects of saline intrusion on agricultural production. Salinity measurement results showed that salinity intrusion oc-curred and lasted from February to the end of May during the dry season (the Winter-Spring rice crop). During the rainy season (June-September), due to the large amount of water, salinity was only be-tween 0.01 and 0.1‰. However, the research has found significant effects in the Summer-Autumn rice crop due to the accumulation of salinity in the soil from the Winter-Spring rice crop, which reduces the rice yield by 10-30%. The interview results revealed that more than 80% of the farmers were aware of the effects of saline water intrusion. Local authorities also regularly organize seminars to disseminate basic knowledge to the community to minimize the risks and impacts of saltwater intrusion. The proposed temporary solutions include rainwater storage, maintenance of saline prevention sluices, construction of more water regulation canals, financial support, and strengthening of salinity monitoring stations. In order to adapt to the long-term salinity conditions, local authorities need to focus on researching changing cropping patterns, crop structure, using new rice varieties that are able to adapt to drought and salty conditions. Besides, there will be technical assistance, capital for people to adapt well to the saline intrusion situation.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 61-69; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.08
The desert locust [Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal)] (Orthoptera: Acrididae) is one of the world’s most dangerous and destructive migratory pests. It is a highly voracious and polyphagous insect. Its swarms can travel hundreds of kilometers per day and infest areas covering millions of square kilometers, resulting in substantial crop losses. We synthesize published research data and reports on the life cycle, behavior, phases, and damage of the desert locust, as well as its possible management practices, in this study. There are diffi-culties involved in estimating locust populations because locust swarms are highly mobile. Cultural control, baiting, dusting with insecticide, and spraying liquid insecticides (chemical or biological) using ultra-low volume (ULV) application are all options for control-ling locust swarms. Improved knowledge on pest biology, as well as more efficient monitoring and control strategies, are essential com-ponents of an effective management strategy.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.03
A multilocational field trial was conducted to investigate the effect of some plant extracts (Bolanite aegyptica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Citrus aurantium) and a synthetic antibiotic (Streptomycin) on the incidence and severity of angular leaf spot on five cotton geno-types namely SAMCOT-8, SAMCOT-9, SAMCOT-10, SAMCOT-11 and SAMCOT-12 in Yola and Jalingo, both located in the northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. The experiment was carried out on a split-plot design having three replications with cotton genotypes on the main plots and plant extracts on the sub-plots. Data collected on the incidence and severity of the disease were analysed using the Generalized Linear Model procedure and means separation at 5% level of probability by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Findings of the study revealed that Streptomycin and Bolanite aegyptiaca were able to reduce the disease incidence by 18.12% from 58.69% in Yola at 13 WAS. In Jalingo however, B. aegyptiaca was found to have re-duced the disease severity from 52.12% to 19.69% at 13 WAS. SAMCOT-8 consistently recorded lower incidence and severity means in Yola and Jalingo of 47.96%; 59.12% and 40.82%; 39.70% while SAMCOT-12 recorded higher means of 53.29%; 59.82% and 48.03%; 46.70% respectively.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.01
Drought is a disaster around the world accumulating salt and ero-sion in lands. Presently, a research was conducted to determine the morpho-physiological response in bread wheat under normal and stress irrigations. This experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Hy-derabad, Pakistan, for two consecutive years during the Rabi season of the year 2011-12 and 2012-13. Stress was imposed by withhold-ing irrigations at three different growth stages of the plant, i.e. T1: normal irrigations applied, T2: stress at tillering stage, and T3: stress at the booting stage. The progenies Sarsabz x Khirman and Sarsabz x TD-1 contributed the highest heritability% (81.0% and 85.5%) for osmotic potential (-MPa) at stress at booting stage. For grain yield spike-1(g), the progeny Kiran-95 x Khirman showed maximum her-itability as 84.37 in T3. However, the progeny TD-1 x Imdad proved to be the best combiner progeny indicating highest heritability per-centage (91.0%) among the progenies for grain yield at booting stress.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.02
Many plants have the potential to be medicinal from the herbaceous group. Herbaceous plants have short, small steam and have a wet trunk because they contain many water and non-woody. This research aims to inventory species of herbaceous plants that can be medicinal plants and other uses in three different locations. The results showed that 12 species were found in the slope area, 340 individuals. The highest number of SDRn of 29.26% was Nephrolepis biserrata (SW.) Schott. In the ramp, the area has been found of 11 species of herbaceous, 215 individuals. The highest number of SDRn of 34.81% was Phrynium pubinerve Blume. In a hill, area has been found 16 species of herbaceous, 542 individuals. The highest number of SDRn of 38.72% was Phrynium pubinerve Blume. Dominance index (C) in three locations research was 0.26, 0.23 and 0.31. Similarity index (ISs) in three locations was 60.87% (slope-ramp: high), 59.26% (slope-hill: medium) and 57.14% (ramp-hill: medium). There were 11 species as medicinal plants, 17 species as ornamental plants, and 2 species as crafts.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.04
Smallholder agriculture of the Asian continent faces a significant challenge of declining soil productivity and an acute shortage of ag-ricultural labor. Reduced tillage and crop residue mulch application is an integrated approach to preserving soil health and addressing the labor crisis to maintain farm sustainability. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of strip planting and increased residue mulching on mustard and mungbean's productivity and profitability in northern Bangladesh during 2015 and 2016. Mustard cv. BARI Sharisha 14 and mungbean cv. BARI Mungbean 6 was grown follow-ing (i) Conventionally Tilled broadcasting method (CT) and (ii) Strip Planted line seeding (SP) with two levels of crop mulch (i) no-mulch and (ii) 50% mulch. The CT was done by a two-wheel tractor with four plowings and cross plowing followed by leveling. In SP, single tillage, seeding, fertigation, and field leveling were done simultane-ously by a Versatile Multi-crop Planter machine. Results reveal that mechanized seeding of mustard and mungbean in SP with 50% resi-due mulching fetched 62% higher profit than broadcasted CT with-out residue through producing 24% higher seed yield. This practice reduced the land preparation costs by 68%, in association with re-ducing the labor and fuel requirements by 30%. Hence, it could be concluded that the mechanized seeding of mustard and mungbean with the retention of 50% of crop residue is profitable to the con-ventionally broadcasted seeding process.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.05
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a high nutritious and mineral-rich vegetable, which occupies a prominent place as a salad and vegeta-ble. It is being used in many ways in the daily diet of humans and widely cultivated worldwide. The decrease of agricultural land, ad-verse environmental conditions and continuous increase of popula-tion, the demand of nutritious food is a matter of great concern to the world. Protected cultivation is a very effective tool to solve this problem because in this cultivation the productivity of crops is very high as compared to open field conditions. High value crops suc-cessfully grown in protected cultivation, specially vegetables (cu-cumber, tomato, Capsicum etc.) which are highly susceptible to the numerous pests and pathogens, including phyto-parasitic nema-todes (specially root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp.). With this view, present trial was taken to estimate the avoidable losses caused by Meloidogyne incognita infecting cucumber in poly-house situated on farmer’s field with the application of phorate at 2 kg a.i. ha-1 over check. Results exhibited that application of chemical treatment significantly reduced number of galls per 5 g roots, egg masses per 5 g roots, eggs & juveniles per egg mass and final nema-tode population 79.03, 81.10, 30.91 and 56.54%, respectively. Avoidable yield losses were recorded to the tune of 66.84% on cu-cumber by M. incognita in poly-house.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.07
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuberous crop from the Sola-naceae family which is a source of starch and food to many in Nige-ria, however, its production is being hampered in field and storage by bacterial pathogen which causes rot of the stored tubers. To this end, the study aimed at screening potatoes from different stores within Ibadan for the evaluation and diversity of bacteria pathogens responsible for rot in potatoes. Damaged stored potato samples were collected from different locations in Ibadan for studies, these samples were isolated for bacterial pathogen and characterized bio-chemically and observed under the microscope for identification. Three genera of bacteria were observed to be responsible for potato rot in the study and they include Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pseu-domonas syringae and Ralstonia solanacearum. Of all the isolated bacteria, Pectobacterium carotovorum has the highest occurrence with a frequency of 60%, while Pseudomonas syringae has a fre-quency of 33% and Ralstonia solanacearum has a frequency of 27%. The pathogenicity of the isolates were tested and this revealed that Pectobacterium carotovorum is the most virulent with a severity score of 4.3, while Ralstonia solanacearum follows with a score of 3.3 and a score of 2.7 was recorded for Pseudomonas syringae, while the control had a score of 0. The diversity and differences shown in the isolated bacteria indicated that potato rot is a serious disease which is caused by different bacteria and need an integrated ap-proach for its control from the field of harvesting to the storage house.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 92-99; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.01.02.07
Soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi cause serious losses in agricultural products. The antagonistic fungi for the control of plant diseases have increased efficiency and use of space has emerged as an alternative to other methods for the protection of agricultural products. One of the fungi used for this purpose is Trichoderma species. In this study mu-tant isolates of Trichoderma spp. were used. The resistance and pro-tease enzyme activities of mutant isolates against abiotic factors such as temperature, drought and salinity were investigated. Mutant iso-lates of Trichoderma sp. were showed differed in tolerance to differ-ent abiotic stress factors. Protease enzyme activity produced by iso-lates was influenced by the tested abiotic factors. In the medium con-taining 30% PEG, the highest protease activity was determined in Tm13 isolate. Indigenous Trichoderma strains produced proteases in high temperature, drought and saline conditions. This indicates that isolates may be promising candidates in agricultural production.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.01.02.03
Endophytic bacteria are beneficial microorganisms living in the tis-sues system of various parts of a plant, including fruits, leaves, twigs, and roots. The bacteria are stated as forming colonies without caus-ing any damage to the plant. Thus, this study aimed at isolating endo-phytic bacterial from the leaves, barks, and fruits of Kasturi plant (Mangifera casturi), screening its endophytic bacteria, determining the potential of those endophytic bacteria, identifying 16S rRNA and analyzing potential growth of the bacteria. The isolated endophytic bacteria appeared to show potential activity against pathogenic bac-teria Propionibacterium acnes with disc-diffusion methods. Besides, the observations on bacterial activities showed isolate L2, S2 and F4 isolated from leaves, bark and fruits, respectively, as the most potent producers of antibacterial compounds. Technically, those activities were indicated by the formation of clear zones. Molecular identifica-tion was investigated by applying PCR amplification on 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, the isolate L2 was identified as Enterobacter clo-acae with 99% sequence similarities; however, isolates S2 and F4 were identified as Escherichia coli. Therefore, these findings sug-gested that the identified strains would contribute to any further searches for new sources of anti-acne substances.