Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology
EISSN : 2723-5106
Current Publisher: Galaxy Science (10.11594)
Total articles ≅ 8
Articles in this journal
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 92-99; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.07
Soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi cause serious losses in agricultural products. The antagonistic fungi for the control of plant diseases have increased efficiency and use of space has emerged as an alternative to other methods for the protection of agricultural products. One of the fungi used for this purpose is Trichoderma species. In this study mu-tant isolates of Trichoderma spp. were used. The resistance and pro-tease enzyme activities of mutant isolates against abiotic factors such as temperature, drought and salinity were investigated. Mutant iso-lates of Trichoderma sp. were showed differed in tolerance to differ-ent abiotic stress factors. Protease enzyme activity produced by iso-lates was influenced by the tested abiotic factors. In the medium con-taining 30% PEG, the highest protease activity was determined in Tm13 isolate. Indigenous Trichoderma strains produced proteases in high temperature, drought and saline conditions. This indicates that isolates may be promising candidates in agricultural production.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 54-63; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.03
Endophytic bacteria are beneficial microorganisms living in the tis-sues system of various parts of a plant, including fruits, leaves, twigs, and roots. The bacteria are stated as forming colonies without caus-ing any damage to the plant. Thus, this study aimed at isolating endo-phytic bacterial from the leaves, barks, and fruits of Kasturi plant (Mangifera casturi), screening its endophytic bacteria, determining the potential of those endophytic bacteria, identifying 16S rRNA and analyzing potential growth of the bacteria. The isolated endophytic bacteria appeared to show potential activity against pathogenic bac-teria Propionibacterium acnes with disc-diffusion methods. Besides, the observations on bacterial activities showed isolate L2, S2 and F4 isolated from leaves, bark and fruits, respectively, as the most potent producers of antibacterial compounds. Technically, those activities were indicated by the formation of clear zones. Molecular identifica-tion was investigated by applying PCR amplification on 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, the isolate L2 was identified as Enterobacter clo-acae with 99% sequence similarities; however, isolates S2 and F4 were identified as Escherichia coli. Therefore, these findings sug-gested that the identified strains would contribute to any further searches for new sources of anti-acne substances.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 100-117; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.08
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a member of Meliaceae family, a fast-growing tropical evergreen plant whose products were found effective against economically important insect pests and diseases. All parts of this plant particularly leaf, bark, and root extracts have the biopesticidal activities. Azadirachtin, a biopesticide obtained from neem extract, can be used for con-trolling various insect pests in agriculture. It acts on insects by repelling them, by inhibiting feeding, and by disrupting their growth, and reproduction. Neem-based formulations do not usually kill insects directly, but they can alter their behavior in significant ways to reduce pest damage to crops and reduce their reproductive potential. The neem is considered as an eas-ily accessible, eco-friendly, biodegradable, cheap, and non-toxic biopesticide which control the target pests. Thus, this re-view highlighted the extract, byproducts and roles of neem that can be used as potential biopesticide in agriculture.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 38-45; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.01
A field experiment was conducted at college of Agriculture, UAHS, Shivamogga during kharif 2015 to study the effect of date of sowing and hybrids on growth and yield of Maize (Zea maysL.). The experi-ment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial concept and replicated thrice. There were eight treatment combinations which includes four dates of sowing (15thJune, 30thJune, 15thJuly and 30thJuly) and two hybrids (PAC-740 and CP-818). Crop sown on 15thJune recorded significantly higher plant height (201.03 cm), number of green leaves (3.03), leaf area (992.49 cm2), LAI (0.74), total dry matter (305.65 g), cob length (22.16 cm), kernels cob-1 (670.93), kernel yield cob-1(230.95 g), test weight (43.08 g), kernel yield (7632.57 kg ha-1), stover yield (9512.56 kg ha-1) andhar-vest index (44.52 %)as compared to other sowing dates. Among the hybrids CP -818 recorded significantly higher plant height (191.85 cm), number of green leaves (2.72), leaf area (954.32 cm2), LAI (0.71), total dry matter (277.65 g), cob length (19.81 cm), kernels cob-1 (541.88), kernel yield cob-1(207.71 g), test weight (39.16 g), kernel yield (7060.72 kg ha-1), Stover yield (8839.98 kg ha-1) and harvest in-dex (44.44%) as compared to PAC-740. The interaction between dates of sowing and hybrids are non-significant.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 74-85; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.05
This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, soil solarization, and biofumigant on southern blight dis-ease of carrot incited by Sclerotium rolfsii isolate CS 5. A series of in-vitro and in-vivo trials laid out to select a virulent isolate of S. rolfsii against the carrot variety New Kuroda and evaluated the mustard, cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli leaf extracts for choosing an effec-tive biofumigant against test pathogen. Mustard was the most effec-tive in inhibiting the radial growth, and sclerotia formation (80.37 and 83.37%) of S. rolfsii (isolate CS 5) at 40% level of concentration followed by cabbage leaf extract (62.22 and 68.69%). On the contrary, a total of 10 isolates of T. harzianum were screened against the test pathogen on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium for choosing a dominant isolate of T. harzianum. The isolate Th-6 was found as the most active in inhibiting the radial growth (84.44%) of S. rolfsii fol-lowed by Th-1 (75.56%). In the application of T. harzianum, biofumi-gation, and soil solarization, the treatment appeared to be the most superior in reducing pre- and post-emergence mortality of carrot during secondary field trials. The lowest southern blight disease inci-dence (10.77%), and disease severity (12.78%) were found at the same treatment. Subsequently, the yield of carrot was increased 155.18% which might be due to the reduction of carrot disease as well as the addition of organic materials in the soil.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 86-91; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.06
Several fungal pathogens showed resistance against pesticides, plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles have been recognized as effective against them. The present research work was an attempt to synthesize silver nanoparticles by using fleshy stem and leaves ex-tract of Brassica compestris L. from silver nitrate, which reduces it to synthesized silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesized AgNP’s were char-acterized by different techniques like UV-visible spectrophotometry and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and fungal inhibi-tory activity by well diffusion method. The colour change of solution indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-visible spectro-photometer showed the peak between 415 to 455 nm for fleshy stem and leaves extract of B. compestris and Field Emission Scanning Elec-tron Microscope analysis revealed that spherical shaped nanoparti-cles with size 20-65 nm. These synthesized nanoparticles showed in-hibitory activity against fungi, Alternaria lini, a linseed blight patho-gen which causes linseed blight disease in Linum usitatissimum L. The 30 μl concentrations of silver nanoparticles had showed significant inhibition to growth of A. lini. These findings may suggest AgNP’s syn-thesized by B. compestris used against plant pathogenic fungi.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 46-53; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.02
Inflammation is the immune system's main response to infection and irritation. African leaf (Gymnanthemum amygdalinum) is one of the medicinal plants that can be used as anti-inflammatory because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. Flavonoid compounds have an anti-inflammatory effect that can regulate arachidonic acid metabo-lism by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooksigenase activi-ties. This study aims to obtain scientific information and the potential of African leaf extract as an anti-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo test. In this study, in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity tests were carried out. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the ability of African leaf extracts to prevent protein denaturation and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by observing the reduction of edema in the soles of rats induced by carrageenan by giving three lev-els of doses of African leaf extract. The results showed that the African leaf extract at a concentration of 8273.91 mg L-1 was able to inhibit 50% denatured protein (IC50), while in the in vivo test African leaf had the potential as an anti-inflammatory with the most effective percent-age of inhibition at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 which is 85.20%. African leaf have the potential of approximately 2 times greater than the positive control of diclofenac sodium which is 45.70%.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 1, pp 64-73; doi:10.11594/jaab.01.02.04
Mapping the spatial distribution of soil fertility in a particular area gives an idea about the nutrient content in the soil which plays an im-portant role in fertilizer recommendation, sustainable soil manage-ment, integrated plant nutrient management, landuse planning, and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM). A study was carried out to assess the soil fertility status of the Rapti Municipality, Chitwan, Ne-pal. A total of 120 soil samples was collected based on land use, slope, and aspects with the useof Google Earth Pro (GEP) and ArcGIS. Based on the soil test report spatial variation of soil texture, soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, and potassium of the study area was prepared. The majority of the study area (57.11%) has sandy clay soils. The soil pH was very strongly acidic to slightly alkaline with pH values ranging from 4.8 to 8.0. Soil organic matter (1.94-3.75%), total nitrogen (0.097-0.187%), available phosphorous(51.03-270.10 kgha-1), and available potassium (169.87-358.68 kgha-1) in the soil are within the range of medium to high in the study area. To maintain this nutrient status, the use of organic manure, reduced use of chemical fertilizers, and different soil management practices should be adopted in this area.