Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology

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EISSN : 2723-5106
Published by: Galaxy Science (10.11594)
Total articles ≅ 24
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Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 114-123; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.06

Abstract:
Citrus peel is an important source of essential oils (EOs). However, these EOs are not invested, although the annual production of citrus is high in Syria. The current study aimed to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of some citrus peel EOs, namely: lemon (Citrus limon), orange (C. sinensis), grapefruit (C. paradisi), mandarin (C. reticulata) and bitter orange (C. aurantium). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (gas chromatograph type: Agilent 7890A, auto sampler type: Agilent 7683B coupled to mass spectrometer, type Agilent 5975C, using DB–1 capillary column. EOs. concentration 1: 10 v/v in chloroform, injection volume 1 µl, split ratio 1: 80), was used to identify the chemical composition of the EOs, which were extracted by hydrodistillation technique, and chemical composition was expressed as Mean ± SD of three replications using SPSS V17 software. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was used to determine the antibacterial activity against five Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis) and five Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. luteola). Limonene formed the vast majority of EOs (between 62.16 and 95.26% in lemon and orange EOs, respectively), but there were other active components, such as α–Pinene and β–Pinene. Lemon EO was the most effective one, with MBC values ranged between 4 μl.ml–1 (against Bacillus cereus) and 50 μl.ml–1 (against Serratia liquefaciens). Pseudomonas luteola (a Gram-negative bacterium) was the most sensitive species to citrus EOs (MBC values ranged between 4 and 50 μl.ml–1 for lemon and orange EOs, respectively); while S. liquefaciens (a Gram-negative bacterium) was the most resistant bacterium (MBC values were 50 and 150 μl.ml–1 for lemon and mandarin EOs, respectively) among all species studied in the current research.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 70-75; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.01

Abstract:
The yield loss as a result of weed infestation is a major problem in maize fields. Hence, this research meant to examine the impacts of weed chemical control on maize growth and yield. The design of experiment was randomized complete block, and comprised 10 treatments viz., T1 (Control, weedy check), T2 (Weed free), T3 (Atrazine 1.5 kg ha-1 pre-emergence), T4 (Atrazine 750 g ha-1 + Pendimethalin 750 ml ha-1 pre-emergence), T5 (Atrazine 1.5 kg ha-1 followed by 2,4-D amine 0.4 kg ha-1 at 25 days after sowing as Post-emergence), T6 (Halosulfuron 67 g ha-1 at 25 DAS), T7 (Atrazine 1.5 kg ha-1 pre-emergence followed by Halosulfuron 90 g ha-1 25 days after sowing), T8 (Tembotrione 120 g ha-1 Post-emergence at 25 days after sowing), T9 (Pendimethalin 1000 ml ha-1 pre-rise fb Atrazine 750 g ha-1 + 2,4-D amine 0.4 kg ha-1 at 25 days after sowing as Post-emergence) and T10 (Atrazine 1.5 kg ha-1 pre-emergence followed by Tembotrione 120 g ha-1 Post-emergence at 25 days after sowing) with 3 replicates. The results showed that among other treatments, T10 recorded highest number of kernels per row (36.18), number of kernel cob-1 (499.12) and kernel weight cob-1 (136.97 g). A higher plant height (172.19 cm), leaf area (396.6 cm2 plant-1), dry matter accumulation (211.37 g plant-1), kernel yield (6.7 t ha-1) and stover yield (11.6 t ha-1) were found with weed free check plot which is on par with T10 treatment which brought about a higher value of plant height (162.93 cm), dry weight accumulation (205.7 g plant-1), leaf area (384.3 cm2 plant-1), kernel yield (6.5 t ha-1) and stover yield (11.4 t ha-1). In the meantime, T9 treatment reasonably increased kernel yield (6.2 t ha-1) and stover yield (11.0 t ha-1). It shows that application of herbicides as pre-emergence followed by post-emergence, such as T10 treatment could be a good method for weed control in maize fields.
S. Chaterjee, , M. M. Hossain, M. R. Amin, M. T. Rubayet
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 124-137; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.07

Abstract:
Chitosan is a biodegradable natural compound that has a great potentiality in agriculture for controlling plant diseases. An attempt was made to control Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae under inoculated field condition and increase the growth and yield of brinjal by chitosan. Before setting the experiments in the field, preliminary laboratory experiments were carried out to select virulent isolate and effective dose of chitosan against the mycelial growth of the selected pathogen. F. oxysporum f. sp. melongenae isolate F-1 was found to be the most virulent on brinjal in pathogenicity test. Chitosan @ 1.0% concentration was appeared to be the highest inhibitory to the test pathogen at in vitro condition. Additionally, seed treatment with 1.0% chitosan for 12 hrs resulted in the highest increased in germination and seedling growth of brinjal. The field experiment was conducted following Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments. No treatment was given in T1, the pathogen was inoculated in T2 and seed treatment and soil amendment with 1.0% chitosan was done in T3 and T4, respectively, in test pathogen inoculated condition. Application of 1.0% chitosan as a seed treatment (T3) or soil amendment (T4) significantly reduced pre- and post-emergence seedling mortality, incidence and severity of Fusarium wilt as well as enhanced germination percentage, plant growth and yield of brinjal. On the contrary, pre-emergence and post-emergence seedling mortality, disease incidence and severity of Fusarium wilt were highest in treatment T2 where the soil was inoculated with pathogen without chitosan. Therefore, chitosan could be used against this vascular disease as an alternative to inorganic fungicides and augment yield.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 96-104; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.04

Abstract:
Evaluation of the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of traits is an essential task in any plant improvement program. Twenty maize genotypes were replicated twice in a randomized complete block design on a research plot of Prithu Technical College, Deukhuri Dang of Nepal from June 2017 to September 2017 to determine genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance for different agronomic traits. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in the traits tassel length, ear height, days to fifty percent tasseling, days to fifty percent silking, kernels’ rows ear-1, kernels row-1 and grain yield. The highest GCV (31.53%) and PCV (39.20%) were recorded on grain yield. Grain yield and ear height recorded high heritability along with high genetic advance as a percent of mean (GAM). Tassel length and kernels row-1 showed high heritability integrated with moderate GAM and moderate heritability integrated with moderate GAM respectively. Further, grain yield showed a significant and positive correlation with plant height, tassel length, ear height, cob length, cob diameter, kernels’ rows ear-1, and kernels row-1. Thus the selection of ear height, tassel length and kernels row-1 is suggested as they performed better in terms of both heritability and GAM than other traits and they also recorded a significant and positive correlation with yield.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 105-113; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.05

Abstract:
Organic farming used fermented fruit and plant juices as foliar fertilizers to enhance crop production. However, the usage is usually limited to sole fruit or plant fermentation with chemicals and other growth enhancers. The use of various fruits, plants, fish products, and Cyanobacteria with Mycorrhizal fungi combinations to enhance white-glutinous corn has not yet been explored. This trial investigated the different fermented fruits (FFJ), plants (FPJ), fishes (FAA), and commercial Cyanobacteria with Mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizocote) in single-use or combination with NPK to enhance the growth, yield, and Return on Investment (ROI) of cultivating white-glutinous corn. The application was 2 tbsp L-1 water for single use of fermented biofertilizers while 1 tbsp L-1 water for fermented foliar with NPK combinations. The results showed that the height of corn was not significant among treatments in 30 and 60 days after planting (DAP). However, corn treated with Rhizocote alone was the tallest in 45 DAP and had longer days to reach 50% corn tasseling. White-glutinous corn treated with Rhizocote + NPK had the highest number of ears. The rest of the treatments yielded a comparable number of ear sizes ranging from 1.27 to 1.37 cm. The highest yield of marketable green ears accounted for 7.45 t ha-1 with Rhizocote + NPK, while the lowest was observed when the white-glutinous corn was fertilized alone with FFJ at 2.93 t-ha. The Rhizocote + NPK obtained the highest R.O.I. of 263.68% compared to other treatments. Thus, the recommendation is to use 1.00 tbsp L-1 water commercial Rhizocote + recommended NPK for a productive and profitable white-glutinous corn. More investigation using different agri-fishery products fermentation at higher concentrations are needed in culture of white-glutinous corn for green ear production in various planting season.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 138-149; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.08

Abstract:
A significant concern with the food security issue worldwide is indigenous peoples and their food resources. The indigenous peoples of Papua are still very dependent on rice, a heavily imported commodity. During the global pandemic, the indigenous peoples of Papua faced the issue of food supply and food resilience. Simultaneously, Indonesia has the largest sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) palm-growing areas, accounting for over half (51%) of the 2.3 million hectares of sago worldwide, and about 90% of sago is estimated to be in Papua and Maluku. Indigenous food crops such as sago are exceptionally resilient to adverse local environments, highlighting their crucial role in ensuring food and nutrition security, particularly during a natural disaster. However, despite sago’s multiple uses and benefits, it is still poorly evaluated as a food resource by the government, with consumption at relatively low levels. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art regarding indigenous peoples and their food resources, focusing on why sago is essential, not only for the indigenous peoples of Papua but also for the possibility of introducing sago to the world.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 76-81; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.02

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate levels of copper in three commonly edible fruits, namely, Lycopersicon esculenta (tomato), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) traded in Dar es Salaam city. Also, the study scrutinized risk associated with heavy metal intake in the fruits. The fruits were collected from Buguruni Market, one of the biggest markets in the city, and thereafter, were processed, and analyzed to determine copper levels. The average daily intake and human health risk indices were calculated based on the obtained copper levels. The findings revealed that the mean levels and average daily intake in L. esculenta (0.3267 mg kg-1, 0.0279 mg kg-1 person-1) and C. lanatus (0.2523 mg kg-1, 0.0216 mg kg-1 person-1) did not differ considerably (p = 0.05) from each other while the two fruits had significantly higher values than C. sativus (0.1610 mg kg-1, 0.0137 mg kg-1 person-1). The copper levels and average daily intake values were below WHO/FAO and Tanzania Bureau of Standards permissible limits. The human health index (HRI) was in the order: L. esculenta > C. lanatus > C. sativus and all the values were less than unit, suggesting that there is no health risk from consuming the fruits. Concerning copper levels, the study concludes that the fruits are safe for human consumption.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 82-95; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.02.03

Abstract:
A resilient and sustainable agriculture must be able to meet the needs of food for people while taking into account the state of the ecosystem. Aims of this study is to develop a suitable management strategy to be applied to the agricultural landscape in the upstream of Jeneberang watershed in order to form a resilient agroecosystem. This research is a descriptive-analysis research. In this study, information was collected regarding the development of agricultural and agroecosystem activities in the upstream of the Jeneberang watershed. The data used were derived from primary data and secondary data. Primary data obtained from interviews and distributing questionnaires to respondent farmers, as well as field surveys. Meanwhile, secondary data retrieved from literature studies and data from various related agencies. Several strategies for managing agricultural landscapes towards resilient agroecosystems in the upstream Jeneberang watershed are as follows: diversify agricultural crops and agricultural activities in the upstream Jeneberang watershed; combine the use of environmentally friendly technology to make it suitable for the land; build good communication among the community; and develops agrotourism or ecotourism activities.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 41-52; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.06

Abstract:
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of saline intrusion on agricultural activities, thereby proposing adaptation and mitigation measures for local people. Salinity was measured at 15 locations on the main and tributary rivers in Ke Sach district, Soc Trang province, Vietnam from January to September 2020. The method of direct interview with farmers was used to evaluate the knowledge and effects of saline intrusion on agricultural production. Salinity measurement results showed that salinity intrusion oc-curred and lasted from February to the end of May during the dry season (the Winter-Spring rice crop). During the rainy season (June-September), due to the large amount of water, salinity was only be-tween 0.01 and 0.1‰. However, the research has found significant effects in the Summer-Autumn rice crop due to the accumulation of salinity in the soil from the Winter-Spring rice crop, which reduces the rice yield by 10-30%. The interview results revealed that more than 80% of the farmers were aware of the effects of saline water intrusion. Local authorities also regularly organize seminars to disseminate basic knowledge to the community to minimize the risks and impacts of saltwater intrusion. The proposed temporary solutions include rainwater storage, maintenance of saline prevention sluices, construction of more water regulation canals, financial support, and strengthening of salinity monitoring stations. In order to adapt to the long-term salinity conditions, local authorities need to focus on researching changing cropping patterns, crop structure, using new rice varieties that are able to adapt to drought and salty conditions. Besides, there will be technical assistance, capital for people to adapt well to the saline intrusion situation.
Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Volume 2, pp 61-69; https://doi.org/10.11594/jaab.02.01.08

Abstract:
The desert locust [Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal)] (Orthoptera: Acrididae) is one of the world’s most dangerous and destructive migratory pests. It is a highly voracious and polyphagous insect. Its swarms can travel hundreds of kilometers per day and infest areas covering millions of square kilometers, resulting in substantial crop losses. We synthesize published research data and reports on the life cycle, behavior, phases, and damage of the desert locust, as well as its possible management practices, in this study. There are diffi-culties involved in estimating locust populations because locust swarms are highly mobile. Cultural control, baiting, dusting with insecticide, and spraying liquid insecticides (chemical or biological) using ultra-low volume (ULV) application are all options for control-ling locust swarms. Improved knowledge on pest biology, as well as more efficient monitoring and control strategies, are essential com-ponents of an effective management strategy.
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