Geomatics and Environmental Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 1898-1135 / 2300-7095
Total articles ≅ 278
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Israa H. Mohammed, Tariq N. Ataiwe, Hisham Al Sharaa
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 5-19; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.4.5

Abstract:
The processing of GPS observations in precise positioning is complex and requires professional surveyors since it must be carried out after each static measurement. In GPS network adjustment, the obtaining of the correct coordinates of the determined point is possible after determining the components of GPS vectors and aligning the networks of these vectors, while PPP requires the availability of precise products for the reference satellites orbits and clock. For that reason, surveyors can take advantage of free online GPS data processing. In this paper, the authors compare the results obtained from different sources of free online GPS data processing (AUSPOS, OPUS, CenterPoint RTX, APPS, MagicGNSS, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, and SCOUT) in terms of their accuracy, availability, and operation. This is then compared with free GPS processing software (gLAB and RTKLIB), and finally with commercial software (TBC Trimble Business Center). The results show that online processing services are more accurate than offline processing software, which indicates the strength of their algorithms and processes. The CSRS-PPP online service had the best results. The difference between the relative solution of AUSPOS and OPUS, and CSRS-PPP is insignificant.
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 59-80; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.4.59

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a combined supply and demand shock to the financial and housing market but also an unusual negative shock in terms of the health of society (households) and national economy. The fall in housing demand was initially assumed together with price decreases as a consequence of the uncertainty of the health of society, significant falls in stock markets and corporate solvency. However, the results of research in selected Polish cities do not indicate such a significant market recession. This article examines the housing price dynamics and forecasting in Polish cities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The TRAMO/SEATS and ARIMA models were used for the decomposition and forecasting of dwelling time series. The Polish housing market, represented by selected local housing markets, still shows a growing trend despite the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020. The housing market may slow down in 2021, but the strong forecasted growth trends in Warszawa and Poznań suggest that there will be no significant price decline in Poland in the near future.
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 21-43; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.4.21

Abstract:
Our ecosystem, particularly forest lands, contains huge amounts of carbon storage in the world today. This study estimated the above ground biomass and carbon stock in the green space of Bilbao Spain using remote sensing technology. Landsat ETM+ and OLI satellite images for year 1999, 2009 and 2019 were used to assess its land use land cover (LULC), change detection, spectral indices and model biomass based on linear regression. The result of the LULC showed that there was an increase in forest vegetation by 12.5% from 1999 to 2009 and a further increase by 2.3% in 2019. However, plantation cover had decreased by 3.5% from 1999–2009; while wetlands had also decreased by 9% within the same period. There was, however, an increase in plantation cover from 2009 to 2019 by 2.1% but a further decrease in wetlands of 4.3%. Further results revealed a positive correlation across the three decades between the widely used Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) with other spectral indices such as Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Differential Moisture Index (NDMI) for biomass were: for 1999 EVI (R2 = 0.1826), NDMI (R2 = 0.0117), for 2009 EVI (R2 = 0.2192), NDMI (R2 = 0.3322), for 2019EVI (R2 = 0.1258), NDMI (R2 = 0.8148). A reduction in the total carbon stock from 14,221.94 megatons in 1999 to 10,342.44 megatons 2019 was observed. This study concluded that there has been a reduction in the amount of carbon which the Biscay Forest can sequester.
, , , Magdalena Idzikowska
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 45-58; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.4.45

Abstract:
Tide gauge observations provide sea level relative to the Earth’s crust, while satellite altimetry measures sea level variations relative to the centre of the Earth’s mass. Local vertical land motion can be a significant contribution to the measured sea level change.Satellite altimetry was traditionally used to study the open ocean, but this technology is now being used over inland seas too.The difference of both observations can be used to estimate vertical crustal movement velocities along the sea coast. In this paper, vertical crustal movement velocities were investigated at tide gauge sites along the Adriatic Sea coast by analyzing differences between Tide Gauge (TG) and Satellite Altimetry (SA) observations. Furthermore, the estimated vertical motion rates were compared with those from nearby GNSS measurements.The study determines the practical relationships between these vertical crustal movements and those determined from unrelated data acquired from the neighbouring GNSS stations. The results show general consistence with the present geodynamics in the Adriatic Sea coastal zone.
, , Olha Pakharenko, Alla Pryshchepa
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 5-21; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.5

Abstract:
The paper examines the impact of highways of urban significance on surrounding areas. The authors substantiated the size of the road‑effect zone. In order to determine the quantitative extent of the impact of highways on surrounding areas, the scholars applied the data regarding the selling prices of land plots with various designated purpose, i.e. the estimated money value of land is the indicator of determining the road‑effect on surrounding areas. Since a great number of factors affects the value of these land plots, in order to determine the road‑effect for highways, the authors developed economic and statistical models for expert value of land plots with various designated purpose using the method of multiple regression analysis. After substituting different values of distances to a highway within the road‑effect zone in the model, the researchers established the patterns of change in the value of land plots with various designated purpose and calculated the adjustment factors that can be used in the pecuniary valuation of land plots. The value of such coefficients for residential construction land is 0.85–1.00; for commercial land it is 1.00–1.17; and for industrial land it is 1.00–1.01.
, Stoyan Stoyanov, , Tsvetelina Atanasova, Patrycjusz Ostrowski
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 99-113; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.99

Abstract:
The article explores the issue of the function of shopping centres, in particular the analysis of the impact of their presence on society and the local development of cities and regions. Regarding the empirical aspect, the examples of Poznań (Poland) and Varna (Bulgaria) will be presented. As a result of similar socio‑economic conditions and joining the European Union at almost the same moment, all comparative studies reflecting preferences and market reactions seem both viable and interesting. In addition, the two cities chosen for the studies occupy a similar place in the hierarchy of the settlement network in their countries. They are large, well‑developed centres that attract the attention of investors from various segments of the real estate market. The research is part of the modelling of preferences of shopping centre customers areas, which in particular supports the investment decisions of developers operating in the analysed real estate market, and at the same time permits a diagnosis of social satisfaction. A derivative of the research is also the reconstruction of the effects of the functioning of large‑scale shopping malls in two Central‑Eastern European countries.
Maksymilian Leśniewski, , , David Garcia Castro, , Tomasz Pilawka,
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 39-53; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.39

Abstract:
Sustainable Development Goals require holistic actions, including activity at the intersection of urban planning and environmental engineering. Turning our cities towards transit‑oriented development might help in reducing pollutant emissions caused by individual transportation modes that rely on crude oil. This research presents how the use of geospatial network analysis can support local decision makers in the evaluation of potential public transport accessibility by citizens in the case of a Central European city – Wrocław (Poland). The obtained results indicate differentiation in access to railway stations and stops, which results from pedestrian path networks and the number of entrances to railway stations. The visualization of serve area shows which parts of the city are excluded from comfortable access to public transport and in that way high‑ light where future actions should be taken.
Kouther Hasheem Rasn, Qutaiba Abdulwahhab Nsaif, ,
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 129-140; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.129

Abstract:
Floods are a great concern for people and infrastructure, and this is an issue which has increased in several regions around the globe in recent years. This study aims to evaluate flood risk areas and create a flood risk map using integrated remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) in the Wasit governorate – eastern Iraq. Specifically, GIS‑based multi‑criteria analysis (MCA) was used to map flood hazard areas using a four‑criteria layer which is as follows: flow accumulation, slope, rainfall, and elevation. These four layers are standardized and combined using the overlay approach in ArcGIS software and a final map was produced. The study area was divided into five zones based on the results map, namely: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the flood risk area. The resulting map indicates that over 60% of the study area is likely to experience a high and very high level of propensity of flooding. This study could be useful for government planners and decision‑makers to predict potential flooding areas and enhance flood management plans.
, , Olena Malashevska
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 115-127; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.115

Abstract:
The study is dedicated to land reallotment in the course of land use alteration in Ukraine. The case of the development of an individual residential block in an agricultural area is considered. The issue of the alteration of the spatial characteristics of land plots and changes in their designated use have been highlighted. The objective of the article is the substantiation of land reallotment at the level of an individual residential block on agricultural land which is privately owned by a number of landowners. The preconditions for the development of land reallotment in a rural‑type settlement in the suburban area of a big city have been substantiated. Alternative approaches to land reallotment have been suggested. A comparative analysis of the suggested approaches and their practical approbation have been carried out. The change of land plot spatial characteristics in the course of reallotment by means of various reallotment scenarios has been analysed. Land plot value after reallotment in each scenario has been specified. The practicability of each approach depending on the initial conditions has been substantiated. The research can be used in the course of rural settlement development planning, the coordination of measures on land use type alteration with landowners and land users, with private landowners or the implementation of local community initiatives.
, Johnson O. Ayoade
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 15, pp 55-80; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2021.15.3.55

Abstract:
This paper is aimed at analyzing the phenomenon of shoreline retreat in the locality of Rufisque from 1978 to 2018 mainly using geospatial data and field visits. A set of Landsat images from different dates at 10 year intervals was then acquired through the United States Geological Survey platform and shoreline change analysis was run using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. In addition to that desktop work, interactions with local residents allowed the determination of ongoing adaptation strategies actually in place to cope with coastal erosion. The study showed that Rufisque is subject to serious rates of erosion reaching −19.48 m/year from 1978–1988, close to −8 m/year from 1988–1998, −5.88 m/year from 1998–2008 and −6.67 m/year from 2008–2018. Beside that coastal erosion, it has been noticed that the coastline also experienced in some of its parts cases of accretion reaching 4.94 m/year for 1988–1998, 7.29 m/year from 1998–2008 and 7.68 m/year during the period 2008–2018. In terms of surfaces, Rufisque’ shoreline respectively lost 156.81 ha (1978–1988), 80.55 ha (1988–1998), 6.94 ha (1998–2008), 12.93 ha (2008–2018) and in the same note gained 2.86 ha (1988–1998), 32.51 ha (1998–2008) and 19.16 ha (2008–2018) attesting to the fact that the coastline is subject to both spatiotemporal changes. Finally, this study also reveals that while authorities’ reaction is taking place at much lower pace, local communities are actually using their ingenuity to put in place strategies to tackle coastal erosion.
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