Geomatics and Environmental Engineering

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ISSN / EISSN : 1898-1135 / 2300-7095
Total articles ≅ 304
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Noushin Sanjaranipour, , Mansour Momeni, Jamal Ghodousi, Akramolmolok Lahijanian
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 111-125; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.111

Abstract:
Performance management is one of the most significant strategies in promoting the efficiency of organizations and is highly sensitive. It is important to check the efficiency of combined cycle power plants because of their major contribution to power generation and air pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the economic and environmental efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPPs). The inputs and outputs required to evaluate the performance of the power plants were determined according to expert opinions. Then, the 7-year statistics and information of the Qom, Neishabour, Shahid Rajaee, Yazd and Kerman power plants were collected as the desired CCPPs in Iran. The Window Data Envelopment Analysis (WDEA) method was used for evaluating the efficiency of the power plants. The 3-year window length showed that most of the power plants were efficient. Only the Rajaee, Neishabour and Yazd power plants were ineffective in some years. The mean efficiency of the power plants in the 4-year window length showed that the plants were efficient from 2008 to 2010.
, Lahsen Ait Brahim, Abderahman El Mahsani, Abdellah Abdelouafi
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 77-93; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.77

Abstract:
Landslides are one of the natural hazards that many countries around the world are facing. In Morocco, the Rif regions are the most affected by these phenomena. Each year they cause enormous damage to the road network and infrastructure, especially in our study region, the province of Larache.The study region is subject to several opening up and road construction projects, which is why it is necessary to predict and identify the most vulnerable areas beforehand, in order to propose measures and techniques which are adequate for protection and reinforcement.The main goal of this study is to develop a susceptibility map to ground movements using a multi-criteria spatial assessment approach, and in order to reduce subjectivity, we have used a method for analyzing such complex decisions, which is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) implemented in the geographic information system (GIS). Seven factors have been considered as conditioning factors in the occurrence of landslides, which are: lithology, fracturing density, slope, aspect, land use, density of the hydrographic network, and altitude. To verify the results obtained, we performed a correlation analysis of ground movements, already inventoried and verified in the field, with the susceptibility classes that were calculated. This analysis is accompanied by a statistical study.
, , Bogusław Gabryś
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 177-196; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.177

Abstract:
The new Water Law Act, which entered into force on 1 January 2018, has introduced numerous changes regarding the management of land covered by water. One of the most important changes concerns the procedure for determining the course of the shoreline. According to the previous act, the shoreline was determined ex officio during the modernisation of the land register survey. After the change in the legal regulations, it is no longer obligatory. The natural change in the course of the shoreline results in a change in the extent of ownership rights and the need to define the legal status of the land adjacent to the water, as flowing waters and the land beneath in Poland belong exclusively to the State Treasury. The problem of the undetermined legal status of private land occupied by water is significant because the land covered with flowing water is not subject to civil turnover. Without performing a demarcation procedure between the land occupied by a watercourse and the adjacent land, the owner cannot sell the property. The lack of the obligation to determine the course of the shoreline during the modernisation of the land register survey results in the aggravation of the problem of the undetermined legal status of land under water. This work analyses the boundaries of plots occupied by the watercourse in two provinces (Świętokrzyskie, Śląskie) where the land register survey was modernised after the entry into force of the new Water Law Act. The aim was to determine the scale of the problem of the land use Wp (flowing water ) occurring on private land.
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 39-58; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.39

Abstract:
Building detection in Ashwa’iyyat is a fundamental yet challenging problem, mainly because it requires the correct recovery of building footprints from images with high-object density and scene complexity.A classification model was proposed to integrate spectral, height and textural features. It was developed for the automatic detection of the rectangular, irregular structure and quite small size buildings or buildings which are close to each other but not adjoined. It is intended to improve the precision with which buildings are classified using scikit learn Python libraries and QGIS. WorldView-2 and Spot-5 imagery were combined using three image fusion techniques. The Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix was applied to determine which attributes are important in detecting and extracting buildings. The Normalized Digital Surface Model was also generated with 0.5-m resolution.The results demonstrated that when textural features of colour images were introduced as classifier input, the overall accuracy was improved in most cases. The results show that the proposed model was more accurate and efficient than the state-of-the-art methods and can be used effectively to extract the boundaries of small size buildings. The use of a classifier ensample is recommended for the extraction of buildings.
, , , Omar Saadi, , Fouad El Marzkioui, Mhamed El Mousaoui
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 95-110; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.95

Abstract:
Soil erosion is a major factor leading to dams’ siltation and reducing their storage capacity. This study mapped the hot spots of soil erosion areas to predict the soil erosion/siltation in the Ghiss basin/dam (northeastern Morocco). In this context, various data has been prepared in the geographical information system for the estimation of soil erosion by integrating the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The result of this study revealed that soil loss rate ranges between0 and 19 t∙ha−1∙yr−1. Therefore, the hot spots in the soil erosion area are to be found upstream, potentially leading to dam siltation over time. To avoid Ghiss dam siltation, we suggest terrace farming and reforestation in the soil erosion area hot spots.
, Olena Malashevska
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.5

Abstract:
The article highlights the problem of natural agricultural-land afforestation with insufficient forest cover of the area. The article purports to substantiate land consolidation aimed at the rationalisation of agricultural and forest land management in such conditions. The authors identify the main approaches to the issue of natural agricultural land afforestation. The afforested areas of agricultural land are suggested for redesignation as a forest resource as a result of a swap and reallotment of land plots. As an example, consolidation of available land, in the conditions of natural afforestation, has been accomplished based on a number of land masses in Chernihiv Oblast’, Ukraine. Resulting from the project implementation, better configuration and improved layout of agricultural land plots have been achieved, while the length and placement of country lanes have been optimized. The reforested agricultural areas within the specific land mass have been redesignated as a forest resource. The advantages and disadvantages of natural afforestation in land consolidation are identified in contrast to alternative approaches.The research findings can be used by territorial communities in the upgrade of land management practices, laying out and redesign of landscape parks and other nature conservation areas that include areas of business activity.
, Sachin S. Panhalkar, Abhijit S. Patil
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 61-75; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.61

Abstract:
Land use land cover (LULC) classification is a valuable asset for resource managers; in many fields of study, it has become essential to monitor LULC at different scales. As a result, the primary goal of this work is to compare and contrast the performance of pixel-based and object-based categorization algorithms. The supervised maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) technique was employed in pixel-based classification, while multi-resolution segmentation and the standard nearest neighbor (SNN) algorithm were employed in object-based classification. For the urban and suburban parts of Kolhapur, the Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV image was used, and the entire research region was classified into five LULC groups. The performance of the two approaches was examined by comparing the classification results. For accuracy evaluation, the ground truth data was used, and confusion matrixes were generated. The overall accuracy of the object-based methodology was 84.66%, which was significantly greater than the overall accuracy of the pixel-based categorization methodology, which was 72.66%. The findings of this study show that object-based classification is more appropriate for high-resolution Resourcesat-2 satellite data than MLC of pixel-based classification.
, Giridhar M.V.S.S
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 21-38; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.21

Abstract:
The interaction of Deep Learning (DL) methods with Geographical Information System (GIS) provides the opportunity to obtain new insights into environmental processes through the spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions as well as data integration. The two technologies may be connected to form a dynamic system that is incredibly well adapted to the evaluation of environmental conditions through the interrelationships of texture, size, pattern, and process. This perspective has acquired popularity in multiple disciplines. GIS is significantly dependant on processors, particularly for 3D calculations, map rendering, and route calculation whereas DL can process huge amounts of data. DL has received a lot of attention recently as a technology with a plethora of promising results. Furthermore, the growing use of DL methods in a variety of disciplines, including GIS, is evident. This study tries to provide a brief overview of the use of DL methods in GIS. This paper introduces the essential DL concepts relevant to GIS, the majority of which have been published in recent years. This research explores remote sensing applications and technologies in areas such as mapping, hydrological modelling, disaster management, and transportation route planning. Finally, conclusions on contemporary framework methodologies and suggestions for further studies are provided.
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 127-155; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.127

Abstract:
Topological properties of objects should be maintained and preserved to concisely represent objects. However, the implementation of 2D topological rules requires the decomposition of 3D objects into lower dimensions to determine topological relationships. This results in 2D topological relationships although the connected objects are in 3D. Hence, accurate representation of 3D connectivity in 3D models is limited. 3D topological rules can be implemented to include topological connectivity in 3D space. This paper implemented an extension of the 27-Intersection Model (27-IM) called the 36-Intersection Model (36-IM) to represent 3D topological adjacencies of two objects in 3D space. This resulted in a 12 × 3 intersection matrix or 36-IM that represented the intersections in terms of dimension and number of separations. Six cases were tested, consisting of “meets”, “disjoint” “intersects at a line”, “intersects at a point”, “contains”, and “overlaps”. The resulting 36-IM matrices provided an accurate representation of how the objects in 3D space were related and their dimension of intersections. The formalisms of the 36-IM matrices were also interoperable which allowed the interpretation of 36-IM using the 9IM and DE-9IM to determine general topological relationships. By examining the intersection of interiors, boundaries and exteriors of 3D objects without object decomposition, 3D topological relationships can be determined as well as the dimension and manner of intersection.
, Vladyslav Tymoshevskyi, Vadym Poliakh
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, Volume 16, pp 157-176; https://doi.org/10.7494/geom.2022.16.2.157

Abstract:
The role of shelterbelts within an agricultural landscape is changing significantly. In the past, shelterbelts have been encouraged and established to reduce soil erosion and increase crop yields. Land reform (land privatisation) and advances in production technology led to increases in agricultural holding size. This requires a revision of policy concerning shelterbelt management in rural communities, especially since there is no recent research on community perceptions regarding the adoption and retention of shelterbelts. The specific objective of this research was to identify the public costs, benefits and obstacles from the adoption and retention of shelterbelts. In the summer of 2019, a survey was conducted of territorial communities (hromadas) in Ukraine. It was observed that many of the benefits of shelterbelts were classified as noneconomic. Therefore, these benefits are more difficult for the leaders of hromadas to recognise within their management decisions. The costs to hromadas were identified and strongly affected management decisions but the actual monetary costs were not identified. Shelterbelts have the potential to mitigate climate change yet most hromadas do not recognise the social and environmental benefits of shelterbelts within their management decisions.
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