Journal of Banking and Financial Economics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2353-6845 / 2353-6845
Published by: University of Warsaw (10.7172)
Total articles ≅ 66
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, Tampere University
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2021, pp 25-43;

This paper studies the effect of central banks’ targeted refinancing operations on bank lending. It utilizes data from the European Central Bank’s targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTROs) together with monthly bank level balance sheet data from multiple countries. The effect of targeted policy is identified utilizing the institutional setting that provides natural instrumental variables and a proxy for credit demand. Unlike previous papers, this paper studies the effects on corporate loans and loans for consumption separately. The cumulative effect of TLTROs on participating banks’ stock of corporate loans is estimated to be significant (about 20 per cent). However, the effect on lending for consumption is found close to zero. Furthermore, the positive effects on corporate loans are found to be driven by crisis countries suggesting that the effectiveness of monetary policy depends on the economic conditions. The paper also finds some evidence that the effect on government bond purchases is negative. This result is very different from the earlier results regarding non-targeted liquidity operations.
Kay Chung, International Monetary Fund, Michael G. Papaioannou
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2021, pp 59-87;

This paper analyzes the effects of including collective action clauses (CACs) and enhanced CACs in international (nondomestic law-governed) sovereign bonds on sovereigns’ borrowing costs, using secondary-market bond yield spreads. Our findings indicate that inclusion of enhanced CACs, introduced in August 2014, is associated with lower borrowing costs for both noninvestment-grade and investment-grade issuers. These results suggest that market participants do not associate the use of CACs and enhanced CACs with borrowers’ moral hazard, but instead consider their implied benefits of an orderly and efficient debt resolution process in case of restructuring.
Mahmut Zeki Akarsu, Warsaw University
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2021, pp 14-24;

The political system always has a significant impact on economic indicators. Currency exchange is one of the indicators, which is influenced directly or indirectly by political developments. Investors and economic agents make investment decisions by not only economic outcomes but also political developments. Turkey is one of the countries, which can be an example of a domestic currency losing value significantly due to undemocratic political actions since the 2017 referendum. Therefore, in this study, the impact of the new presidential system on the Turkish Lira is investigated using the Bayesian structural time-series model in R software. According to the literature search, this study is the first article that analyzes how much the Turkish Lira decoupled negatively from peers and how badly the Turkish presidential system harms the Turkish Lira. According to the result, the undemocratic and unorthodox economic and political implementations cause the Turkish Lira to have dropped sharply and have decoupled negatively from other currencies significantly.
, SGH Warsaw School of Economics
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2021, pp 5-13;

After last global financial crisis from a decade ago, financial market have been experiencing significant increase in number of regulations. This was especially visible in the banking sector, in which number of post-crisis new regulations amounted to thousands per year. It was not only challenging for banks, that have been spending increasingly more financial resources on compliance, but also for supervisory entities that have to keep track of compliance for every entity on financial market. Due to the fact that supervisory process relies mostly on manual process, it can be both time consuming and inefficient. This is why, not only banks have been exploring new technologies in compliance with regulations (Reg Tech), but also supervisory authorities have been doing the same with the aim of increasing their efficiency (Sup Tech). The research paper aims to test hypothesis, which is as follows: – Sup Tech is becoming an innovative tool for banking supervision and is expected to have increasingly larger role in banking supervision For the purpose of the paper, the following methods have been applied: critical analysis of literature and research papers as well as descriptive method and comparative analysis of presented data.
Ahmed L. M. Ahmed, Cracow University of Economics
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2021, pp 44-58;

This paper aims to assess the current condition of the Egyptian banking sector, based on the past reforms of the 2000s. This analysis is based on data from the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE), data from the Egyptian banking sector and the literature review. The main fi nding is that despite many changes in the political and economic scene that drove the country into a crisis, the Egyptian banking sector was able to work well in the post-2008 period, achieving high growth rates. This study contributes to the academic literature on factors infl uencing fi nancial development in emerging counties, based on the analysis of the Egyptian banking.
Tamon Asonuma, International Monetary Fund, Michael G. Papaioannou, Eriko Togo, Bert van Selm
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 2/2020, pp 47-67;

This paper examines the causes, process, and outcome of Belize’s 2016–17 sovereign debt restructuring – its third episode in last 10 years. As was the case in the earlier two restructurings, in 2006–07 and in 2012–13, the 2016–17 debt restructuring was executed through collaborative engagement with creditors outside an IMF-supported program. While providing liquidity relief and partially addressing long-term debt sustainability concerns, the restructuring will need to be underpinned by ambitious fiscal consolidation and growth-enhancing structural reforms to secure durable gains and avoid future debt distress situations.
Joanna Rachuba, University of Szczecin
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 2/2020, pp 21-37;

Past financial crises and recessions have revealed the importance of the economy’s condition for the loan quality. Macroeconomic determinants of the non-performing loans have been attracting considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this paper is to organize and summarize studies examining the role of GDP growth and its impact on bank loan quality. This approach reveals the research problem which is to specify if there exists a statistically significant relationship between economic growth and the level of non-performing loans. It is equally important to determine the direction of this link. By appealing to common knowledge, the research hypothesis states that an increase in economic activity results in improving loan quality. To verify the hypothesis, the analysis of the relevant literature and the methods of verbal as well as tabular description have been applied. Empirical results on the link between the macroeconomic environment and the level of non-performing loans appear to be quite conclusive. It has been found that an economic expansion generally improves the loan quality. This broadly proven relationship is in line with many studies which confirm the borrowers’ increased willingness to repay debts in a favourable economic environment. Far less frequently, the macroeconomic activity leads to future bank losses. Additionally, some studies do not provide any statistically significant effect of GDP growth on the loan quality.
, Bialystok University of Technology, , Warsaw School of Economics
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 2/2020, pp 5-20;

The aim of the paper is to assess the condition of commercial banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange after the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. The consolidated results for Q1 and Q2 2020 were used focusing on selected evaluation areas such as: capital adequacy, profitability, liquidity, credit portfolio quality as well as operational efficiency. The authors concluded that as a result of the credit crunch and the retention of previously earned profits, almost every medium (except for mBank SA) and every large bank experienced an increase in capital adequacy ratios. Moreover, the profitability of the banking sector eroded in each group of banks, with the rule that ROE is higher in the group of medium and large banks compared to the small ones. With the exception of Idea Bank SA all banks during the pandemic experienced an improvement in liquidity ratios. There was reported an increase in the cost of risk, with the greatest augmentation in small banks. It is maintained that the larger the bank the lower cost of risk. In almost every institution, the risk is mitigated by an increase in the degree of coverage by provisions for impaired receivables. In small banks there was noticed a deterioration in operational efficiency. In medium and large banks, despite a sharp drop in profits and additional costs associated with the pandemic, the process of efficiency improvement was reinforced.
Qamarullah Bin Tariq Islam, University of Rajshahi
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 2/2020, pp 38-46;

This paper analyzes the causal relationship between liquidity and profitability for public and private commercial banks in Bangladesh. The augmented Dickey-Fuller test of stationarity is carried out first. As they are found to be integrated of the same order, the Engle-Granger test of cointegration is applied. Finally, the Granger causality test is applied to check if there is any causal relationship between liquidity and profitability for public and private commercial banks in Bangladesh from 2001 to 2019. Another aim of the paper is to see if there is any difference in the causal relationship between these two bank typologies. The results show that there is unidirectional causality from profitability to liquidity for public banks while no causal relationship is evident for private commercial banks in Bangladesh. The findings further confirm that different bank typologies behave differently in Bangladesh and hence policy makers should keep this in mind during policy formulation.
Onyeiwu Charles, University of Lagos, Gideon Ajayi,
Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, Volume 1/2020, pp 5-22;

This study examines the impact credit risk management has on the profitability of commercial banks in Nigeria. The main objective of this material is to show how credit risk parameters are related to the expected performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Using the regression analysis, relationship was drawn between credit risk parameters (which include capital adequacy ratio and non-performing loan ratio) and the profitability ratio (return on average asset, in particular) of five big Nigerian banks. Mixed research methodology was adopted in that primary data were sourced via questionnaires and secondary data were used via annual report of selected banks. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis shows that there is a strong relationship between credit risk parameters and returns of the bank implying that credit risk management has a strong impact on the profitability of commercial banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that banks’ capital should be matched with their total risk exposure and if there is an imbalance, new capital requirements are necessary. Insider-related interests in loan applications should be closely monitored by the regulators to ensure continuous performance of the loan facility. Also, there should be an extant profiling of loan defaulters whether individuals or corporate entities.
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