Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine

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EISSN : 2413-7014
Total articles ≅ 45
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Olatunde Olayanju, Victory Edem, Chika Okwor, Gabriel Odok, Nnaemeka Awah
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i2.217

Abstract:
Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased prevalence of oral diseases for which reactive oxygen species have been implicated. The saliva contains protective antioxidants which statutorily curtail these destructive oxygen molecules. A functional compromise of the antioxidants may precipitate oxidative stress leading to the increased oral disease susceptibility. However, salivary markers of oxidative stress have not been sufficiently studied in the diabetics. Methods: A total of 166 adults were recruited for this study. They comprised of 95 Type 2 diabetic patients and 71 healthy non-diabetic controls. About 3 ml of unstimulated saliva samples were collected from participants and processed, levels of salivary H2O2, NO and MDA were measured using spectrophotometry method and compared between the two groups. Data was analysed using t-test, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) with statistical significance set at p<0.05. Results: Salivary H2O2 (p=0.024) and NO (p=0.002) were significantly higher in the diabetic patients when compared to the healthy non-diabetic control group. Binary logistic regression showed that patients with Type 2 diabetic mellitus are more likely to have elevated salivary H2O2 (OR= 1.013; p=0.025) and NO (OR=1.016; p=0.003) levels. ROC analysis showed statistically significant performance of salivary NO levels in distinguishing between T2DM patients and healthy controls. Conclusions: Higher levels of oxidative stress markers including salivary H2O2 and NO in the diabetic groups could be a pointer to the characteristic high prevalence of oral diseases in diabetes mellitus, given that oxidative stress predisposes to disease vulnerability. This calls for increased attention to oral health in diabetes management to minimise co-morbidity.
Ibrahim Fouad, Mohamed Madi, Sabah Lamlom, Idress Attitalla
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.202

Abstract:
Antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat to prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavors, and improve color stability. Synthetic antioxidants have been confirmed for their toxicological and carcinogenic effects. Thus, the food industry now chooses natural products over synthetic ones. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Rosemary extract (R.E.) and vitamin E on the quality of fried fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during chilling and frozen storage. Fillets of Nile tilapia were treated with (R.E.) 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and Vitamin E 0.1% then stored for 5,10 and 15 days at 4±1°C and for three months at -18±2°C. Then chemical tests including Peroxide value (PV), Thio-barbituric acid (TBA), Tri-methylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) and Total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) were done to evaluate the preservative effect of (R.E.) and vitamin E during storage. The TBA and PV increased in all treatments due to lipid peroxidation. Results showed that TMA-N,TVB-N, value of (R.E.) and vitamin E treated samples were significantly lower than those of the control samples (P
Yim Szeto, Charlton Chan
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 29-31; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.211

Abstract:
Objectives: Thalassemia with frequent blood transfusion was considered under oxidative stress because of the chance of iron overload. Patients with thalassemia trait with no blood transfusion might also suffered from oxidative stress because of increased iron metabolism. This pilot study was to investigate if patients of alpha or beta thalassemia trait and received no blood transfusion were suffered from oxidative stress in term of DNA damage in peripheral leucocytes. Method: Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage of 20 normal subjects, 8 alpha and 12 beta thalassemia patients who did not received blood transfusion. The baseline and UV-mediated DNA damages of peripheral white blood cells were measured. The degree of DNA damage was quantified by visual scoring under light microscope after staining with Giemsa stain. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) comet score for normal baseline samples was 8.3 ± 6.1 whereas 105.4 ± 15.7 and 69.8 ± 20.3 for alpha and beta thalassemia respectively. While the comet scores were 71.9 ± 19.6, 193.1 ± 21.8 and 211.8 ± 51.6 for normal, alpha and beta thalassemia samples respectively in UV-treated samples. Results showed that both alpha and beta thalassemia patients had higher leucocytic DNA damage in baseline and oxidative stressed samples. Conclusion: Our data suggested thalassemia patients were under oxidative stress even no iron over loaded through transfusion.
Olatunbosun Arinola, Temiloluwa Olaiya, Victory Edem, Sheu Rahamon
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 44-48; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.215

Abstract:
Background: Asthma is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and an alteration in the levels of antioxidants activities in the lung and blood. The increased production of the superoxide anion radicals contributes to airway remodelling and disease severity. Physiologically, the effect of increased free radical generation is eliminated by corresponding activities of a network of antioxidants. Presently, there is the dearth of information on the steady-state concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid (UA) in children with asthma. The serum and urinary levels of NO and UA in children with asthma were thus determined in this study. Methodology: Fifty children consisting of 25 children with asthma and 25 age-matched apparently healthy children without asthma were enrolled into this study. Serum and urinary levels of NO and UA were determined using standard methods. Results: Serum levels of NO and UA were significantly higher while the urinary levels of NO and UA were significantly lower in children with asthma compared with the controls. There was no significant correlation between the serum ad urinary levels of NO and UA in children with asthma. Also, gender differences were not observed in the serum and urinary levels of NO and UA in children with asthma. Conclusion: Children with asthma have elevated serum levels of NO and UA accompanied with suboptimal urinary excretion. Therefore, children with asthma might benefit from routine renal function assessment owing to damages that can result from systemic accumulation of UA with concomitant reduction in its urinary excretion.
Lawrence Ajala, Oladejo Ogunlowo, Mathew Okafor, Stella Ezem, Olayemi Ogunlowo, Adebayo Adeleke
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.214

Abstract:
Sensitivity study of Cnestis ferruginea pulp extract with respect to the reference commercial antibiotics was tested against four bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Trichoderum rubrum, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans) strains isolated in man with a view to elucidating the inhibitory potency of the plant pulp’ extract using an agar well diffusion assay. The investigation discovered that the extract had 71% inhibitory activities against the microbial isolates tested either in sterilized or non-sterilized form and in the two different concentrations examined, which compared favourably with reference antibiotics used. The optimal performance of the pulp extract against the test organisms could be due to the presence of the metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, and polyphenols found in ample form in the extract. This study has revealed the possible utilization of Cnestis ferrugineain the treatment of wound, urinary infections and in the management of oral-related infections.
E.A.U Ofodile, L Odatuwa-Omagbemi, A.T. Oladele, G.O Alade
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 9-13; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.204

Abstract:
Although spices are added to food in small quantities for their flavour and aroma, they also have impact on the health of consumers. This study aimed at ascertaining the nutritional and elemental composition of the most preferred forest spices used amongst Itsekiri ethnics in Delta state, Nigeria. The most preferred spices were determined through questionnaire administration to 143 users and sellers. Crude protein, fat, fibre, ash and moisture content were analyzed using the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Elemental analysis was done using PIXE accelerator to detect the heavy metals (Mg, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn & Cu) in the five most preferred local spices. One way ANOVA was used to separate the means of the elements while mean comparison was done with LSD. The five most preferred spices include Monodora myristica, Xylopiaa ethiopica, Parinari excelsa, Aframomum subsericeum and Ighereje (Itsekiri local name). Xylopiaa ethiopica had the highest Crude protein (16.83%) while Parinari excelsa had the lowest percentage crude protein (11.67%). Monodora myristica had highest moisture content (10.8%) while Xylopia aethiopica had the lowest (6.52%). Elemental analysis revealed magnesium as the highest in concentration for Ighereje (3079.03ppm). Silicon and manganese were found to be higher in Aframomum subsericeum with 1488.2ppm and 148.9ppm respectively. Overall, the spices were found to contain significant nutrients required for good health. However, the concentrations of some elements in the spices per 1 kg samples were higher than the WHO/FAO maximum permissible daily limit which could make the spices not safe for daily consumption. But very little quantity are needed as flavourant (usually below 50g/family NOT individual), therefore consumption of the forest spices may be deemed safe for consumption.
Ganiyu Arinola, Fabian Edem, Temitope Alonge
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 24-28; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.210

Abstract:
Respiratory burst function resulting in the release of reactive oxygen species from leucocytes is one of the key mechanisms of innate immune system to prevent the establishment of intracellular pathogens in the host cells. Previous studies on COVID-19 patients concentrated on adaptive immunity while study on respiratory burst functions is lacking. Respiratory burst mediators levels [nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] and respiratory burst enzymes activities [Catalase (CAT), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)] were quantitated in the plasma Mean plasma NO level, MPO activity and H2O2 level were significantly decreased while SOD activity was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients at admission compared with control. Mean plasma NO level significantly decreased while MPO activity was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients at discharge compared with control. Plasma NO level, H2O2 level and MPO activity were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients at discharge compared with COVID-19 patients at admission. In COVID-19 patients that spent ?10days in admission, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly increased compared with the levels of NO and H2O2 in COVID-19 patients that spent <10days in admission. In male COVID-19 patients, NO level and MPO activity were significantly increased compared with MPO activity in female patients. In COVID-19 patients ?40years of age, NO level was significantly decreased while MPO activity was significantly increased compared with COVID-19 patients <40yrs of age. In male COVID-19 patients, NO level and MPO activity was significantly increased compared with MPO activity in female patients. It could be concluded from this study that factors of respiratory burst which are components of the innate immune system are altered in COVID-19 patients and could be involved in the immune-pathogenecity of SARS-CoV-2; and that MPO coupled with NO may explain differential severities of COVID-19 among genders and age groups.
Tapas Kumar Sur, Avijit Hazra
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 14-17; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.201

Abstract:
Immumomodulatory actions of natural ingredients have been recognized from the time of early civilization. Though herbal medicines are equally used to treat deadly diseases, but till date there are lacks of evidences. In the present work, an herbal preparation IMT-03 was used to find out its immunostimulatory efficacy against chemotherapeutics. Although, most of the individual ingredients present in IMT-03 have been reported for their protective roles against chemotherapeutics, but there is no report in combination. Cyclophosphamide (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induces immunosuppression through myelosuppression. Pretreatment with of IMT-03 at oral the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in Cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive mice showed dose dependently and significantly (p<0.001) improvement in total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts. It also protect the general health of animals from chemotherapeutic induced serious adverse events like signs of sickness, lethargy, immobility, reducing food habit, infections in nostrils and pinna etc. Moreover, IMT-03 has the abilities to counter the macrophages surge during the LPS challenge. The test drug also showed safe up to the oral dose of 2 g/kg. In vitro studies revealed IMT-03 has polyphenols and also radical scavenging actions. There are several evidences that polyphenols can able to modulate cytokines and chemokines signaling pathways in immune cells. Therefore, it is assumed that polyphenols present in IMT-03 either modulate the inflammatory signaling pathways or protect from oxidative stress related DNA damage in myeloid tissues.
Oyedotun Oyeleke, Mutiat Bamigboye, Boyede Olowookere, Kehinde Alabi, Samuel Oladele, Johnson Oladele
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 18-23; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.209

Abstract:
Medicinal herbs have been known for their use as an alternative medicine in the management and treatment of different categories of diseases. The present study was designed to assess the phytochemical constituents present in methanol and ethylacetate leaves extract of Talium trangulare and its antioxidant potentials against free radicals comparatively. The functional groups of the phytochemicals were carried out using FTIR techniques while the phytochemical component of the extract was determined by standard methods. The comparative studies of antioxidant abilities of methanol and ethylacetate leaves extracts of Talium trangulare were evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, scavenging activities. These different antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidants compounds such as ascorbic acid and Gallic acid. The total phenolic content in ethylacetate extract is higher than what was obtained from methanol extract of Talium trangulare, however, methanol extract has higher tannins and flavonoids content. The methanol extract was found to have demonstrated high reduction capability and powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide as compared with the ethylacetate leaves extract. The results that was obtained in the present study clearly established the antioxidant potency of both ethylacetate and methanol leaf extracts of Talium trangulare. The methanol extract shows better antioxidant activities and more flavonoids and tannin than the ethylacetate extract. In conclusion, the methanol leaf extract of Talium trangulare has comparatively better in vitro antioxidant potentials with corresponding phytochemical content than ethylacetate extract.
B. Nyong, B. Jones, O. Ita, P. Ita
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 32-34; https://doi.org/10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.212

Abstract:
Methyl esters were produced by fungal degradation of soybean oil using banana leaves as surface. Analysis of the products also revealed medicinal compounds (Benzyl Benzoate obtained from the banana leaves used as surface for the fungal degradation of the soybean oil and 1, 2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid dioctyl ester obtained from the soybean oil impurities). Microorganism activity test was carried out on the medicinal compounds to confirm their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The result showed that both had antibacterial and antifungal activity as shown by the zones of inhibition and as a result can find useful applications in food processing and preservation as well as agriculture as pest/disease control agents.
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