Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine

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EISSN : 2413-7014
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Ibrahim Fouad, Mohamed Madi, Sabah Lamlom, Idress Attitalla
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.202

Abstract:
Antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat to prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavors, and improve color stability. Synthetic antioxidants have been confirmed for their toxicological and carcinogenic effects. Thus, the food industry now chooses natural products over synthetic ones. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Rosemary extract (R.E.) and vitamin E on the quality of fried fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during chilling and frozen storage. Fillets of Nile tilapia were treated with (R.E.) 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and Vitamin E 0.1% then stored for 5,10 and 15 days at 4±1°C and for three months at -18±2°C. Then chemical tests including Peroxide value (PV), Thio-barbituric acid (TBA), Tri-methylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) and Total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) were done to evaluate the preservative effect of (R.E.) and vitamin E during storage. The TBA and PV increased in all treatments due to lipid peroxidation. Results showed that TMA-N,TVB-N, value of (R.E.) and vitamin E treated samples were significantly lower than those of the control samples (P
E.A.U Ofodile, L Odatuwa-Omagbemi, A.T. Oladele, G.O Alade
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 7, pp 9-13; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v7i1.204

Abstract:
Although spices are added to food in small quantities for their flavour and aroma, they also have impact on the health of consumers. This study aimed at ascertaining the nutritional and elemental composition of the most preferred forest spices used amongst Itsekiri ethnics in Delta state, Nigeria. The most preferred spices were determined through questionnaire administration to 143 users and sellers. Crude protein, fat, fibre, ash and moisture content were analyzed using the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Elemental analysis was done using PIXE accelerator to detect the heavy metals (Mg, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn & Cu) in the five most preferred local spices. One way ANOVA was used to separate the means of the elements while mean comparison was done with LSD. The five most preferred spices include Monodora myristica, Xylopiaa ethiopica, Parinari excelsa, Aframomum subsericeum and Ighereje (Itsekiri local name). Xylopiaa ethiopica had the highest Crude protein (16.83%) while Parinari excelsa had the lowest percentage crude protein (11.67%). Monodora myristica had highest moisture content (10.8%) while Xylopia aethiopica had the lowest (6.52%). Elemental analysis revealed magnesium as the highest in concentration for Ighereje (3079.03ppm). Silicon and manganese were found to be higher in Aframomum subsericeum with 1488.2ppm and 148.9ppm respectively. Overall, the spices were found to contain significant nutrients required for good health. However, the concentrations of some elements in the spices per 1 kg samples were higher than the WHO/FAO maximum permissible daily limit which could make the spices not safe for daily consumption. But very little quantity are needed as flavourant (usually below 50g/family NOT individual), therefore consumption of the forest spices may be deemed safe for consumption.
Hafida Rahal-Bouziane
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 106-113; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.57

Abstract:
Health is one of the greatest blessings a person can have, and it is priceless. Traditional medicine has always been and remains an important practice for human health. In all regions of the world, popular knowledge has acquired its own experiences in traditional medicine which are passed on from generation to generation and which have generated wonders in terms of innovation of effective traditional remedies which bear the fruit of the healing. After the release of the novel Covid-19 virus, several research studies have focused on the study of medicinal plants that fall under traditional Chinese or Indian medicine or others around the world, to try to put in place remedies against this virus. Chronic Diseases kill millions of people around the world every year. These diseases cause a weakening of the immune system in people who have them. As a result, health experts have classified those affected by these diseases as being among the most at risk in the event of contracting Covid-19. It is therefore obvious that preventing and combating chronic diseases helps to better cope with this Virus or others that may arise in the future. In this humble work, we have tried to make a small contribution that could help fight Covid-19. In the light of actual practices supported by bibliographic research, we try to recall some orientations of natural treatments against certain widespread chronic diseases namely: type 2 diabetes; arthritis and weak immune system (particular case of a low white blood cell count). The results of these treatments are very promising for healing and recovery; which opens doors of hope for those who are affected. Moreover, this subject deserves serious investigations through Research for a better consolidation of these therapies.
Alaa Alnaimat, Intesar Aljamaeen
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 114-119; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.125

Abstract:
In principle, nanoscience focus on the understanding of the structure, physical and chemical properties of nano size objects. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are both recent and active ongoing branch of science includes multi interdisciplinary sciences. On the other hand, nanotechnology considered as the invested outcomes of the obtained fundamental knowledge about nano objects in various commercial, industrial, environmental and medical sectors. All nano scale matters regardless of their nature referred to as nano-objects were the prefix ‘nano’ mean one millionth of millimeter size. Due to their nano size and high surface area, metal nanoparticles exhibits unique and novel physical and chemical properties compared to their macro scale counterparts. They are considered as very interesting and popular antimicrobial agent with wide spectrum activity against the variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Three main methods were routinely used for metal nanoparticles formation that are chemical, physical and biological approaches. As eco-friendly, cheap and safe synthesis approach without the use of toxic chemicals and free of resulted hazardous byproducts several extracellular and intracellular biological methods using bacteria, fungi, plants or their extracts were reported that known collectively as green nanotechnology
Umar Shittu, Idris Zainab-L, Umma Sada, Bashir Aliyu
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 120-123; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.126

Abstract:
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in children under the age group of five (5) years are serious infections, which prevent the normal breathing function in the child's system. The infection usually begins as a viral infection in which it enters the child's system through the nose to the trachea (windpipe) and down to the lungs. This study aimed to identify the distinctive risk factors associated with the respiratory tract infection in which later it can lead the infection to become acute and find out the easy ways toward preventing the infections. The study was performed within the period of six (6) months during the rainy season between the periods of April to September using the human subjects under age group of five (5) years. The data analysis was done in the Bioconductor R package, statistics p-value with associated B-value were obtained from the distribution of the moderated t-statistic after the adjustment for multiple testing with a significance level of ((? 0.05) using LIMMA method. Pvclust method was also used to generate thousands of bootstrap samples by randomly sampling elements of the data and then compute graphic hierarchical clustering on each bootstrap copy. Distinctive risk factors of (ARTI) were identified, such as malnutrition (MNT), indoor air pollution (IAP), Crowdy and dirty environment (CDE), and parental education (PE) which shows significant influence on the infection. But indoor air pollution (IAP) with the highest level of significant influence to the infections. It is recommended that parents having children should be enlightened by the health personnel experts through different media communication channels and other channels in order to avoid leaving in dirty, crowdy and unventilated environment and to feed from recommended diets with their children.
. Qurat Ul Ain, Ehsan Larik, Abid Saeed, Zubair Khosa, Muhammad Arif, Ambreen Chaudhry, Tamkeen Ghafoor
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 98-105; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.19

Abstract:
Background: The unprecedented outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) drastically spread worldwide. The study was aimed to articulate the findings of a descriptive and clinical characteristic, also to access the potential risk factors link with the spread of COVID-19. Method: The COVID-19 cases reported through April 30, 2020, were extracted from Balochistan’s COVID-19 Electronic Dashboard. All cases from March to April 2020 were included. The results of the laboratory finding as well as data acquired through COVID-19 Dashboard were cleaned; descriptive exploratory analysis and chi-square were calculated to demonstrate association using Epi- Info. Results: A total of 1381 patient records extracted and screened. Of these, 1218 suspected cases and 1049 confirmed cases contributed to the analysis. Among confirmed cases, 77% (811) were male. The most affected age group was 60 – 69 years (attack rate 1.90/10,000), mean age was 36 ±17.11 SD with age range 2 months-94 years. District Quetta 82% (864) and district Pishin 5% (55) remained the epicenter for high attack rates. Among confirmed cases, a total of 14 deaths occurred for an overall Case fatality rate of 1.33%. The epi surge was peaked around March 19, April 5, and April 24, 2020. Among high-risk personals, those who had contact with infected individuals’ showed a high association of 97% (323/333) than without any contact 87% (221/254). Those who had travel history showed a prevalence of 86% (87/101) than in those who did not 59% (60/104) while those admitted in hospital with comorbid conditions showed a prevalence of 70% (26/37) than in those who did not 13% (6/46). Conclusion: COVID-19 epidemic has spread rapidly in the province. A series of multidimensional public health interventions, a cost-effective surveillance system, and the adoption of safe working practice, awareness sessions are necessary to control the COVID-19 outbreak.
Sagir Masanawa, Hamza Abubakar
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 90-97; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.113

Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid intelligent system that consists of the sparse matrix approach incorporated in neural network learning model as a decision support tool for medical data classification is presented. The main objective of this research is to develop an effective intelligent system that can be used by medical practitioners to accelerate diagnosis and treatment processes. The sparse matrix approach incorporated in neural network learning algorithm for scalability, minimize higher memory storage capacity usage, enhancing implementation time and speed up the analysis of the medical data classification problem. The hybrid intelligent system aims to exploit the advantages of the constituent models and, at the same time, alleviate their limitations. The proposed intelligent classification system maximizes the intelligently classification of medical data and minimizes the number of trends inaccurately identified. To evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent system, three benchmark medical data sets, viz., Hepatitis, SPECT Heart and Cleveland Heart from the UCI Repository of Machine Learning, are used for evaluation. A number of useful performance metrics in medical applications which include accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. The results were analyzed and compared with those from other methods published in the literature. The experimental outcomes positively demonstrate that the hybrid intelligent system was effective in undertaking medical data classification tasks.
Bhairav Prasad, Neha Prasad
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 82-89; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.37

Abstract:
Coronaviruses are large group of enveloped viruses with unsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA as genetic material. These are collection related RNA viruses that cause diseases of economically important vertebrate viz. mammals and birds. In humans, these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from asymptomatic to life threatening. The asymptomatic disease include very similar to some cases of the common cold, while other deadly varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) are zoonotic origin and extremely pathogenic coronaviruses that can cause localized and worldwide outbreak. The novel Coronaviruses, COVID-19 posses a unique morphology. The outer surface of the virus bearing surface spike and reveled like crown hence being named corona virus. The mode of replication of the virus is very unique as it replicate through the generation of nested set of viral mRNA. The HCoV (Human coronavirus) cause respiratory complication with asymptomatic to life threatening outcomes. From the past 15 years we have witnessed appearance of two zoonotic, extremely pathogenic human corona viruses the: SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.
D. Jayarajan, V. Abirami
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 75-81; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.15

Abstract:
Obesity is a chronic disease defined by an excessive accumulation of body fat that represents health risks, being considered now a days the major public health problem worldwide. Obesity is characterized as a low-grade inflammatory disease due to the variety of pro-inflammatory adipokines secreted by adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue. This inflammation is characterized by macrophage infiltration and expression of inflammatory adipokines, which are related to insulin resistance, blood pressure, and vascular endothelium alterations. These alterations are closely related to development and progression of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including paediatric patients. Obesity considered now as one among the major global issue affecting young adults. Rapid changes in sedentary lifestyle choices were the risk factors for obesity including unhealthy diet patterns, expending time in front of TV and lacking physical activity etc. The present study aimed for correlating the risk factors of obesity with healthy groups among the adolescent population. And the result were recorded with significant level of elevation in most of the parameters in cases than control and the significance was represented as student’s test. (p
Pithadia Pradeep R, Shah Viral R, Makwana Naresh R, Parmar Dipesh
Journal of Basic and Applied Research in Biomedicine, Volume 6, pp 70-74; doi:10.51152/jbarbiomed.v6i2.16

Abstract:
Maintenance of cold chain points are vital for preserving potency of vaccines for immunization of children and thereby averting vaccine preventable diseases in the community. Cold chain handlers should have sufficient knowledge and skills related to cold chain equipment handling and immunization practices. The present study aims to evaluate maintenance of cold chain facilities at primary health care centers (PHCs), related logistics and observation of Mamta Day (Immunization Day). The observations include knowledge and practice of health workers about immunization activities, their communication skills, training status etc. Methods: There are total 31 Primary Health Centers in Jamnagar district, out of which, we decided to include 50% (15) of primary health centers and observed their cold chain, and Immunization day at a subcentre or Anganwadi centre of the selected PHC to assess the quality of immunization services. We included equal number of cold chain points from each block of the district to make it representative of entire district. Results: Average population served by a cold chain point is 21985. Vaccine related logistics like cold boxes, vaccine carriers etc. were adequate in all facilities. All cold chain equipments were placed as per standard guidelines. The posts of medical officers and pharmacists were vacant in almost one fourth of cold chain points and they were run on deputation from other facilities. The knowledge and skills of health workers related to immunization practices were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion: We observed that routine immunization program was implementing in the district satisfactorily. The posts of medical officers and pharmacists need to be filled up at the earliest for smooth functioning of immunization program in primary health centres.
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