MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2763-5678
Published by: Zotarelli-Filho Scientific Works (10.54448)
Total articles ≅ 52
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Beatriz De Oliveira Merotti, Laura Souza De Morais, Gestter Willian Lattari Tessarin
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2142

Abstract:
Introduction: It is necessary to know the nature of the endodontic microbiota within the root canal system of teeth with necrotic pulp tissues. There are several methods of microbial identification, including techniques based on culture or non-predominance of facultative anaerobes and Gram-positive species, especially Enterococcus faecalis. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing approach has become the reference method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular technique also used. A condition for successful endodontic retreatment is proper cleaning of the root canals. Objective: Evaluate through a systematic literature review the main contaminations, recontaminations, and endodontic retreatments in root canals. Methods: The present study was followed by a systematic literature review model, according to the PRISMA rules. Clinical studies included case reports, retrospective, prospective and randomized trials. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument. The risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results: A total of 94 articles were found. A total of 58 articles were evaluated in full, and 34 were included and discussed in this study. The overall assessment did not result in significant risks that could compromise the science of the present study. According to the GRADE classification, the studies were of moderate quality. Conclusion: It was concluded that it is essential to characterize the microbiota of root canals with failed endodontic treatment through 16S ribosomal RNA (GS) gene sequencing and PCR. Furthermore, it can be stated that the root canal instrumentation system with rotating files maintains the quality of root preparation, reducing the operative time and also the risk of a torsional fracture within the root canal.
Náthalie Angélica Cardoso Marqui, Marina Lucca de Campos Lima, Rafaela De Fátima Ferreira Baptista, Rawene Elza Veronesi Gonçalves Righetti, Tauane Rene Martins, Gabrielle Gomides Marconato, Gabriella Cavalcante Leite, Kamila Cristina Viana, Beatriz Nomada Hauy, Jaqueline Modaelli, et al.
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2141

Abstract:
Objective: To report a Central Nervous System infection evolving with brain abscess and to address aspects of the treatment of the disease. Results: even with advances in treatment and diagnosis, the pathology has a high mortality. However, the best prognosis is noticed when there is a suspicion through the clinic, neuroradiological images readily available, antimicrobial therapy against commonly encountered agents, and surgical drainage procedures. One study, which combined antibiotic therapy and surgery to drain the abscess, in most of the cases, studied, demonstrated a mortality rate of 12%, and another study, a 42% mortality rate when using antibiotic therapy alone. Another reference suggests the use of antibiotic therapy alone in less severe cases with less neurological impairment. Neurological clinical sequelae can be found in up to 30% of cases. The time of antibiotic therapy still needs to be debated, as well as the surgical indication for drainage. Final Considerations: Pediatric brain abscess is an uncommon disease, still with high morbidity and mortality. Surgical drainage or excision of pediatric abscesses remains the basis of treatment both to relieve the mass effect and to provide a microbiological diagnosis. The literature demonstrates that broad-spectrum antibiotics and access to CT and MRI images decrease the rates of morbidity and mortality. It is concluded that the therapeutic approach involves the administration of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics and surgical drainage in more complex cases.
Janaki Vidanapathirana, Malawige Amila Suranga, Sashiprabha Nawaratne, Suraj Perera
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2146

Abstract:
Introduction: Sri Lanka is committed to achieving the global targets at the end of 2025 by a 25% reduction in premature mortality from cancer by intervening from prevention, early detection, treatment palliative care, and surveillance. Current Sri Lankan evidence shows a gradual increase of cancers where many are preventable by risk factor reduction. According to the data of the National Cancer Registry, Sri Lanka in 2019, there were 14,845 (47%) males and 16,989 (53%) females diagnosed with cancer with a total of 31844. One of the recommendations of the imPACT review 2019 was to develop the NSP to achieve quality of life by preventing and control of cancer in Sri Lanka. National Cancer Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka gave the leadership to develop the National Strategic Plan (2020-2024) that provided a direction for the country for cancer prevention and control. Methods: Based on the local and international evidence initial draft was prepared by the NCCP. Feedback was obtained via emails and virtual meetings from all the stakeholders (medical professional colleges, UN organizations, non-government organizations, community-based organizations) due to COVID 19 physical meeting restrictions. This was followed by a series of virtual meetings with the same stakeholders and finalizing the document. Results: The NSP was developed for the year 2020-2024 as a guiding document for Sri Lanka’s response to cancer control and prevention with a vision and a goal to be achieved in cancer prevention and control in the country. This document has laid down seven strategic objectives and seven strategic directions to serve as pillars for the cancer spectrum with a detailed activity plan under each strategic direction. Conclusion and recommendations: The NSP was developed to reduce cancer incidence and mortality via evidence-based strategic objectives of prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation, surveillance, and research with an activity plan. It was recommended to have close monitoring, mid-term and end of five-year reviews to assess its progress.
Michelle Silva Rocha, Lorenna Lemos de Aquino, Ágda Tamires da Silva Rodrigues, Clarice Paiva de Oliveira, Lívia Mendes Montoya Lazo, Juliana Leite Salviano, Letícia Vieira Valadão, Marihana Miranda Batista, Vinícius Bezerra Lopes, Durval Ribas Filho
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2143

Abstract:
Introduction: The effects on human health caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lead to hyperinflammation processes, which can lead to meta-inflammation. This process can aggravate skin diseases, especially psoriasis. This is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with significant morbidity. This problem affects about 2-3% of people worldwide. Objective: to demonstrate, through a concise systematic review, the main considerations about the relationship between COVID-19 and psoriasis, showing the possible mechanisms for the worsening of this dermatological disease. Methods: The research was carried out from June 2021 to July 2021 and developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, following the Systematic Review-PRISMA rules. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease and is autoimmune. Patients with COVID-19 may have features of hyper inflammation and even meta-inflammation. The triggering or exacerbating factor of psoriasis may be medications and, in addition, patients with COVID-19 may have psoriasis exacerbation. Reports indicated that psoriasis patients using biological products were no longer susceptible to COVID-19 and the severe clinical course of the disease. It is envisioned that the use of azithromycin in cases of COVID 19 with pre-existing psoriasis can alleviate psoriatic lesions. Conclusion: The COVID 19 pandemic had a direct impact on dermatological diseases, especially psoriasis. Difficulty in accessing health care services and the stress load caused exacerbations in psoriasis cases. Studies recommend avoiding classic immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, and TNF alpha inhibitors. Reports indicated that psoriasis patients using biological products were no longer susceptible to COVID-19 and the severe clinical course of the disease.
Pedro Henrique Duarte, Iuri Chierotti Flores, Fábio Pereira Linhares de Castro
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2144

Abstract:
Introduction: Laser application in endodontics has increased due to its safety and effectiveness in dental treatments, involving dentin hypersensitivity, removal of decayed tissues, dental preparations, pulp capping or pulpotomy, and root canal treatment. Postoperative pain after endodontic treatments is a common complication, affecting 3% to 58% of patients. Low-level laser therapy has been used in dentistry to promote analgesia, modulation of inflammation, and tissue healing. Objective: performed a concise systematic review to present the main clinical outcomes of endodontic treatment with low-intensity laser therapy. Methods: The research was carried out from April 2021 to July 2021 and developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, following the Systematic Review-PRISMA rules. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results: After the selectivity of articles and literary findings through the following descriptors, a total of 65 studies were analyzed, with only 17 medium and high-quality studies selected, according to GRADE rules, and with risks of bias that do not compromise scientific development. The authors showed that low-intensity laser therapy has the property of oral sterilization, facilitating tissue healing after surgical procedures. The effects related to anti-inflammatory and analgesic capacities with the application of low-intensity laser were also evidenced. Conclusion: Laser therapy has been shown to improve the healing of soft and hard tissues after endodontic surgery and has also shown favorable effects on pain and patients' quality of life.
Nimali Wijegoonewardene, Janaki Vidanapathirana
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt2145

Abstract:
Background: High work demands and low work resources predispose employees to occupational burnout. Burnout of Sri Lankan prison officers has not been studied previously. Prison guards and prison rehabilitation officers are the staff categories who come into regular and direct contact with prison inmates. Aim: The study aimed to describe the prevalence of burnout and its three sub-domains in Sri Lankan prison officers and to explore the personal and work-related correlates of their burnout. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2017, among 1803 prison officers including 1683 prison guards and 120 prison rehabilitation officers working in 32 prison institutions island-wide. Prison guards were selected using multi-stage stratified sampling, while all the eligible Rehabilitation Officers were included. Self-administered, translated and validated Sinhala version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey and a self-developed questionnaire on correlates were used for collecting data. Results: The response rate was 98.53%. Majority of the participants were male (88%) and currently married (80.6%). True prevalence of burnout was 31.1% (95%CI:22.1-40.1). More than one third (37.8% - 95%CI:28.3–47.3) were suffering from diminished personal accomplishment, while over one fourth were suffering from emotional exhaustion (28.6% - 95%CI:19.7–37.5) and depersonalization (26.9% - 95%CI:18.2–35.6). Feeling overburdened by housework (OR–3.9,95%CI:1.6-9.3), working in closed prisons (OR–5.4,95%CI:1.3–21.7), remand prisons (OR–4.9,95%CI:1.2–19.3) and work camps (OR–6.7,95%CI:1.6–28.4), perceived difficulty in shift work (OR–2.4,95%CI:1.4–4.0) and in taking leave (OR–2.8,95%CI:1.5–5.4), work overload (OR–2.1,95%CI:1.1–3.7), poor relationship with colleagues (OR–10.6,95%CI:1.1–103.3) and with families of inmates (OR–4.7,95%CI:1.4–16.0), poor welfare facilities (OR–3.8,95%CI:1.6–8.7) and job dissatisfaction (OR:14.3,95%CI:4.4–46.8) were associated with a higher risk for burnout. Conclusion: Burnout among prison officers is a significant issue requiring prompt interventions including basic and in-service trainings focusing on stress management.
Lucas Louzada Mendes de Lima, Tagnã Aparecido Martins, Leonardo José Spatini Moura, Pedro Henrique Duarte, Leandro Moreira Tempest
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt21505

Abstract:
Introduction: Prenatal dental care is extremely important, as it requires a series of specific care for pregnant patients. There is a need for specific care with the health of the mouth and informing the patient of essential care for her and her baby's health. Also, the microorganisms that cause these diseases can migrate to the uterus and cause premature births. Several studies show that dental care was considered safe for the mother and fetus throughout the entire period of pregnancy. Objective: To carry out a brief systematic review of the literature to elucidate the main considerations for success during the treatment of oral health in pregnant women. Methods: The research was carried out from May 2021 to June 2021 and developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, following the Systematic Review-PRISMA rules. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results: A total of 244 articles were found. A total of 76 articles were evaluated in full and 19 were included and evaluated in the present study. A total of 3 Studies with a High Risk of Bias and 1 Study with Uncertain Risk. Studies have suggested a protective effect of prenatal oral health care against the onset of caries in infancy and up to before 4 years of age. The transport of S. mutans in children was also significantly reduced in the intervention group. Children exposed to the use of maternal substances had a higher incidence of hospitalization for dental caries than unexposed children. Thus, inadequate prenatal education in oral health can negatively impact the quality of oral hygiene in children. It is imperative to develop strategies to improve oral health and develop a health system strengthening by interprofessional collaboration in the prenatal phase of pregnant women. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was observed between 25(OH)D levels and the number of decayed primary teeth. Conclusion: Taking care of oral health is part of the daily rhythm of personal hygiene. The monitoring of a dental surgeon during pregnancy is considered to prevent and treat the pregnant woman's oral diseases and clarify the doubts of future mothers since the baby's oral health begins to establish itself during the gestational period.
Gabriele Altrão, Alvaro da Rocha Mendes Filho, Leandro Moreira Tempest
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.54448/mdnt21506

Abstract:
Introduction: Oral cancers (OC) represent more than 90% of cases. It is estimated that more than 400,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed each year worldwide. OC is preventable as most of the different identified risk factors, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing, are behaviors that increase the likelihood of the disease. Surgical biopsy remains the gold standard, but adjunctive tools have been developed to aid diagnoses, such as vital toluidine blue staining and autofluorescence imaging. Objective: To emphasize and present the importance of the dental surgeon in the early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer. Methods: The survey was conducted from July 2021 to August 2021 and developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, following the rules of Systematic Review-PRISMA. Study quality was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results: Early detection and treatment of OC were found to be important predictors for improving survival and reducing mortality. A thorough clinical inspection of the oral cavity can detect up to 99% of oral cancers. Other diagnostic types have been developed to help overcome the limits of standard oral clinical examination, highlighting toluidine blue staining, light-based detection techniques, and salivary biomarkers. Self-examination is an effective strategy to reduce the levels of mortality and morbidity caused by this pathology. A gain of 8.09% more in sensitivity and 11.36% more in specificity was observed with the fluorescence test. Conclusion: The findings clearly showed that early diagnosis of oral cancer is essential to increase the chances of cure and survival of patients, avoiding invasive surgical intervention. Currently, there are several diagnostic tools for screening and visual devices for the early detection of oral lesions through auxiliary methods, logically maintaining biopsy as the gold standard.
Vidanapathirana J, Wijewardana D
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2, pp 77-79; https://doi.org/10.34256/mdnt21312

Abstract:
The National Strategic Plan (2020-2024) of the National Cancer Control Programme, Sri Lanka directed the establishment of island wide Cancer Early Detection Centers (CEDC) in all provincial hospitals, aiming to avoid some of the delays for diagnosis of cancer patients in all age groups in Sri Lanka. These one-stop centers provide cancer diagnosis to detect, confirm and refer without long a referral pathway to a treatment center. The services provided these centers are consult a doctor to discuss cancer related issues, identify and education on risk factors and obtain guidance on the need to screen and prevent common and preventable cancers including individual counseling for risk factor reduction and post diagnosis. Further, it facilitates screening for Breast Cancer which includes clinical-breast examination, ultrasound scanning and mammography depending on the clinical assessment. The clinical oral examination for all high-risk target groups and educated on self-mouth examination. Screening for cervical cancer for necessary women via pap test and the HPV DNA test is carried out depending on the clinical assessment. These centers provide fast track method for early detection of cancers.
Natália Cíntia de Oliveira, Gleice Kelly de Sousa, Durval Ribas Filho
MedNEXT Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Volume 2, pp 63-68; https://doi.org/10.34256/mdnt21310

Abstract:
The ketogenic diet (KD), a restrictive diet, is mainly characterized by high-fat content, low or no carbohydrate content, and low or normal protein content. This review aimed to address the main syndromes or diseases in which the therapeutic use of KD can be beneficial. One of the main clinical indications of KD has been, for some time, in the treatment of epilepsy refractory to the use of medications, with satisfactory results in the control of seizures. Recently, studies have addressed the metabolism of ketone bodies caused by KD, in the adjuvant treatment of tumors and endocrine disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, with promising results. In this work, the therapeutic aspect of KD was analyzed, as an aid in the control of pre-existing diseases, and that being a very restrictive diet with controversial effects, its use may be limited and it is not advisable to maintain it for long periods or without the proper follow-up.
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