Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 2241-4487 / 1792-8036
Total articles ≅ 1,455
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L. Boulemzaoud, S. Latreche, M. Khemliche
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8473-8481; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4859

Abstract:
In this paper, a low power consumption long range wireless data acquisition system for PV installations, consisting of a set of sensors connected wirelessly with one or several monitoring/control systems was designed and implemented. The wireless communication between devices is based on LoRa technology. LoRa is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) technology. It offers a long-range low power wireless platform, suitable for professional wireless sensor network applications. The integration of this technology in PV installations provides an extensive, low cost, power-efficient, and easy to maintain, system. Design, high-layer communication protocol, and hardware implementation of sensors are discussed. The sensor set consists of a voltage/current sensor, a sun irradiance sensor, a panel position sensor based on an accelerometer/magnetometer for sun tracking installations, a temperature and humidity sensor, and a mobile monitoring system.
N. Fathy
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8416-8420; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4804

Abstract:
A bimetallic casting consisting of GG25 gray iron substrate and Sn-based alloy using the liquid-solid technique has been studied in this paper. Three different pretreatment processes of gray iron surface substrates including flux only, flux and Sn powder, and flux and Sn-8.8% Zn powder eutectic alloy surface treatment were adopted for the aim of improving the quality of tinning, the interfacial structure, and the bonding area of the Sn-based alloy/gray iron bimetallic composite in order to promote the bonding quality of bimetallic castings. Microstructure characterization on the bonding interface was conducted. The novel tinning material for gray cast iron substrate comprising of Sn-8.8% Zn eutectic alloy powder in combination with flux interlayer improved the bonding area, the interfacial bimetal structure, and the shear stress. This improvement is due to the higher interface reaction of Zn with Fe that leads to the formation of a very thin layer of Fe-Zn and Fe-Sn intermetallic phases.
H. A. Maddah, M. Kheimi, M. Abo El-Wafa
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8241-8247; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4713

Abstract:
Fly ash powders produced from pulverized carbon are a promising renewable and sustainable replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in concrete. However, quantifying the desired compressive strength threshold requires defining the ratio of Fly Ash (FA) to fine aggregates (S). This study presents two novel machine learning models to predict the mechanical properties of FA-based Alkali-Activated Cementitious Materials (AACMs) using supervised regressors. The two models, SLR and MGSVM, showed high prediction accuracy (~95%) based on raw compressive strength training datasets from AACMs with mixed proportions of FA/S (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30%) for 28 days of curing. Maximum compressive strength of ~67.5MP was observed at approximately 20% FA/S (spline interpolation), suggesting the attainment of high mechanical stability. Having more than 30% FA/S indicates a high probability of recovering the original strength of 61MPa for pristine AACMs. The non-linear stress or strain patterns against FA/S confirmed the applicability of stress-strain relationships and elasticity laws. The pozzolanic properties of FA facilitate interaction with Ca(OH)2 for aggregation linked to the non-linear behavior. This study provides generalized design models for correlating the mix proportions in OPC-substituted AACMs to the optimum compressive strength.
M. Xue, W. Hu, L. Huanyu, Y. Fu
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8306-8310; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4693

Abstract:
Rapid economic development has caused many disturbing problems in many countries. Waste disposal is a prominent one of those problems. Waste incineration has gradually become the most popular treatment method. Waste incineration has many advantages, such as processing capacity, short period, recycling and utilization of resources, etc., but it also produces a lot of incineration bottom slag. Landfilling is one of the methods for waste incineration bottom slag treatment. However, many domestic waste landfill sites no longer accept incineration bottom slag. Therefore, finding sufficient ways to deal with the incineration bottom slag has become an urgent problem. With the increase of environmental pressure and the development of technology, the beneficial use of incineration bottom slag has been gradually considered. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom slag is an atypical particulate material, similar to some construction materials of civil engineering. For a construction material, basic physical properties and engineering properties are important factors in its performance. However, there is limited research about the engineering performance of incineration bottom slag. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the basic physical and mechanical properties of the incineration bottom slag from one incineration plant in Wuhan and provide a theoretical basis for its application in civil engineering. Through laboratory tests, we found that the incineration slag completely meets the engineering requirements and is harmless to the environment. The incineration bottom slag can be used for road embankment filling, sludge dewatering treatment improvement, landfill site covering, it can substitute aggregates in concrete, etc.
A. Alrashdi, M. I. Khan
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8426-8430; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4817

Abstract:
This study examines how different initial design decisions affect the area, timing, and power of technology-mapped designs. ASIC design flow, tools used during the flow, and the factors to consider to maximize the performance and power ratio are discussed. The ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) is a fundamental part of all processors. In this study, two ALUs were implemented using two different types of adder circuits: a Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and a Sklansky adder. The Cadence EDA tools were used for the implementation. A comparative analysis was conducted for the two designed ALUs in terms of area, power, and timing analysis. The ALU design was also used as an example to examine the whole workflow front-end wise by constructing a block schematic and back-end wise by floorplanning, placing, and routing the physical design.
Z. Ali Hussain, N. Aljalawi
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8388-8392; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4750

Abstract:
Global warming and environmental damage have become major problems. The production of Portland cement releases large quantities of gas, which cause pollution to the atmosphere. This problem can be solved via the use of sustainable materials, such as glass powder. This study investigates the effect of partial replacement of cement with sustainable glass powder at various percentages (0, 15, 20, and 25%) by weight of cement on some mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength, absorption, and dry density) of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) containing a percentage of Polypropylene fibers (PRPC) of 1% by weight. Furthermore, steam curing was performed for 5 hours at 90oC after hardening the sample directly. The RPC was designed using local cement, silica fume, and super plasticizer with a water/cement ratio of 0.2 to achieve a compressive strength of 96.3MPa at the age of 28 days, and it was tested at percentages of sustainable glass powder replacement of 0 and 20% by weight of cement. According to the study's findings, RPC's compressive strength rose up to 4.2% as a consequence of the use of sustainable glass powder replacement by 20%, flexural strength up to 15.3%, dry density up to 0.49%, and absorption reduction by 31.7% at the age of 28 days and in comparison with the reference mixture.
T. G. Tran, T. A. Nguyen, M. V. Nguyen Hoang
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8402-8409; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4779

Abstract:
This paper presents a load shedding method for power systems with high integration of wind energy, considering their frequency response. The minimum load shedding power needed to restore system frequency to operational limits can be determined by using the modified frequency response model along with secondary frequency control. The voltage electrical distance method can then be applied to appropriately distribute the shedding power to load buses. This method brings selectivity to the problem and minimizes the impact caused by load shedding. The proposed method was validated using simulations on the IEEE 37-bus test system with a modified wind power generator model.
M. A. Khlifi, M. Ben Slimene, A. Alradedi, S. Al Ahmadi
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8316-8320; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4762

Abstract:
Home appliances using Brushless DC (BLDC) motors, such as Air Conditioners (ACs) and ceiling and pedestal fans, are gaining attention these days due to their low power consumption and low maintenance cost. This paper estimates and analyzes the leakage reactance of conventional and flux-switching permanent magnet BLDC motors. The leakage magnetic field of a high-power BLDC motor will be one of the main sources of interference. The magnetic field characteristics of the leakage field of a BLDC motor must be analyzed in order to acquire correct geomagnetic data. We also show the rotor's leakage magnetic field while the BLDC motor is static, the stator and rotor's leakage magnetic fields when the BLDC motor is functioning, and the near-field characteristic of the BLDC motor's leakage magnetic field.
F. Abdelhamid, D. Yahiaoui, M. Saadi, N. Lahbari
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8278-8283; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4749

Abstract:
Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs) have been widely used in the last decades and proved their efficiency to resist strong earthquake intensities by providing suitable ductility and lateral stiffness. Using the PBPD method for the design, EBFs can fulfill the target performance objectives under major earthquakes. The most commonly used configurations are the K-shaped and the recent Y-shaped EBFs, which have the advantage that the links are independent of the beam and can be easily replaced after an earthquake without serious damage to the beam and slab. This study focused on the lateral reliability of both systems under seismic loading. Nonlinear static pushover and Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) were performed on 5-story and 10-story K- and Y-shaped EBFs. A series of 14 near- and 7 far-field seismic records were considered to analyze and compare the inter-story drifts of both systems using the Seismostruct software. Moreover, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) and the different performance levels were also examined.
A. Hallil, A. Redjem
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 12, pp 8467-8472; https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4828

Abstract:
Urban vulnerabilities must be studied and assessed to make cities more resilient to floods. This study aimed to assess the urban vulnerability of El Bayadh city, located in the west of Algeria, to floods and to identify flood-prone areas. Using the Hierarchical Multi-criteria Analysis (HMA) method, a set of criteria was proposed such as population density, housing typology, type of equipment, and road network to measure the overall fragility of the study area. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to translate the obtained results and develop the global vulnerability map. The most important results were: 5.6% of the study area had an extreme vulnerability, 7.97% high vulnerability, 8.5% medium vulnerability, and 77.87% low vulnerability. The results of this study can be used as a tool to assist local authorities during decision-making regarding flood danger assessment.
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