Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 2241-4487 / 1792-8036
Total articles ≅ 1,336
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M. A. Mahdi, T. C. Wan, A. Mahdi, M. A. G. Hazber, B. A. Mohammed
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7635-7640;

A MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) is a group of mobile network nodes dynamically forming a network without any pre-existing infrastructure. Multi-path routing protocols in MANETs try to discover and use multiple routes between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing is typically used to reduce average delay, increase transmission reliability, provide load balancing among multiple routes, and improve security and overall QoS (Quality of Service). In this paper, the Cluster-Based Routing Protocol (CBRP), which is a single path MANET protocol is enhanced to use multiple paths. The traffic will be distributed among multiple paths to reduce network traffic congestion and decrease delay. An analytical model is used for multipath and single path CBRP routing protocols in MANETs to estimate the end-to-end delay and queue length. The analytical results show that the average delay and average queue length in multipath CBRP are less than the average delay and queue length in single path CBRP.
T. Chati, K. Rahmani, T. T. Naas, A. Rouibah
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7571-7577;

Heat and mass transfer in many systems are widely accomplished applying natural convection process due to their low cost, reliability, and easy support. Typical applications include different mechanisms in various fields such as (solar energy, solar distiller, stream cooling, etc…). Numerical results of turbulent natural convection and mass transfer in an open enclosure for different aspect ratios (AR = 0.5, 1, and 2) with a humid-air are carried out. Mass fraction and local Nusselt number were proposed to investigate the heat and mass transfer. A heat flux boundary conditions were subjected to the lateral walls and the bottom one make as an adiabatic wall, while the top area was proposed as a free surface. Effect of Rayleigh numbers (106≤????????≤108) on natural convection and mass flow behavior are analyzed. The governing equations are solved using CFD Fluent code based on the SIMPLE algorithm. The results showed that the cavity with an aspect ratio of AR = 2 has a significant enhancement to raise the rates of both heat and mass transfer. When the Rayleigh number increases, maximum heat transfer rates were observed due to the fluid flow becomes more vigorous. However, mass transfer improves as the Rayleigh number decreases.
S. M. Alsaedy, N. Aljalawi
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7619-7623;

Portland cement is considered the most involved product in environmental pollution. It is responsible for about 10% of global CO2 emissions [1]. Limestone dust is a by-product of limestone plants and it is produced in thousands of tons annually as waste material. To fulfill sustainability requirements, concrete production is recommended to reduce Portland cement usage with the use of alternative or waste materials. The production of sustainable high strength concrete by using nanomaterials is one of the aims of this study. Limestone dust in 12, 16, and 20% by weight of cement replaced cement in this study. The study was divided into two parts: the first was devoted to the investigation of the best percentage of replacement of waste lime. The second part of the study evaluated the performance of concrete when adding nanomaterials. Three percentages of cement replacement 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% with nano-Al2O3 were used. The most efficient content of hydrated lime used in this study which achieves sustainability and maintains the quality of concrete was (16%). On the other hand, it was found that the best percentage of nano-Al2O3 as a partial replacement of cement is 1.5%.
S. A. Dahri, B. A. Memon, M. Oad, R. Bhanbhro, I. A. Rahu
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7641-7646;

This research paper presents the laboratory investigations of the compressive strength of no-fines concrete made with demolished waste as coarse aggregates used in percentages from 20% to 100%. The basic properties of aggregates were determined. Sieve analysis of both conventional and recycled aggregates was conducted to ensure the existence of well-graded aggregates in concrete. Nine concrete mixes were designed with an aggregate-cement ratio of 4. Additionally, three batches were prepared (conventional, recycled, conventional no-fines concrete) and the results were compared. For all mixes, the water-cement ratio was equal to 0.5. In each batch, 5 cylinders of standard size (total 60 samples) were prepared and cured for 28 days. The weight of the specimens was determined and compressive strength was checked in a Universal Testing Machine under gradually increasing load. A decrease in weight and compressive strength was recorded for the batches of the proposed concrete. Results show that at 40% replacement level the loss of compressive strength is 19% and the weight reduction of the samples was equal to 9%.
A. Towheed,
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7578-7584;

Spatial and temporal analysis of rainfall data were carried out along with wavelet analysis for seven rain gauge sites of Kosi basin, India during the time period from 1985 to 2017. Wavelet spectrum analysis and wavelet coherence analysis were performed to fully characterize the time-frequency rainfall variability of the rain gauge data in these areas. For all the selected gauge stations during the study period, the peak value of the wavelet power spectrum was identified for the 8-16 month band. The results of wavelet spectrum analysis reveal a good correlation of rainfall data in the rain gauge sites lying in the southwest of the Kosi basin. The spectrum analysis also differentiates the wet and dry periods and it was observed that in the majority of the selected sites, a dry period occurred from the year 2005 onwards. This was again confirmed with breakpoint analysis. The wavelet coherence analysis explicit is a good correlation between the rain gauges in the study area. Overall, the variability of the rainfall parameters was more vivid with the wavelet analysis and this can be extended to other climatological parameters.
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7678-7683;

Analysis of the symptoms of rose leaves can identify up to 15 different diseases. This research aims to develop Convolutional Neural Network models for classifying the diseases on rose leaves using hybrid deep learning techniques with Support Vector Machine (SVM). The developed models were based on the VGG16 architecture and early or late fusion techniques were applied to concatenate the output from a fully connected layer. The results showed that the developed models based on early fusion performed better than the developed models on either late fusion or VGG16 alone. In addition, it was found that the models using the SVM classifier had better efficiency in classifying the diseases appearing on rose leaves than the models using the softmax function classifier. In particular, a hybrid deep learning model based on early fusion and SVM, which applied the categorical hinge loss function, yielded a validation accuracy of 88.33% and a validation loss of 0.0679, which were higher than the ones of the other models. Moreover, this model was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation with 90.26% accuracy, 90.59% precision, 92.44% recall, and 91.50% F1-score for disease classification on rose leaves.
A. Tariq, K. L. Khatri, M. I. U. Haque, M. A. Raza, S. Ahmed, M. Muzammil
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7628-7634;

The rapid increase of the electrical power demand gave rise to many challenging situations for power system control engineers as the transmission lines are operating at their maximum capacity in most developing economies. To solve this, Distributed Generation (DG), i.e. the generation of electrical power in a distribution network that provides clean energy, is gaining popularity. There are several challenges the protection of distribution networks faces after DG installation, such as variations in short circuit levels, protection blinding, reverse power flow, protection coordination, change in fault impedance, recloser-fuse coordination, selectivity, unsynchronized reclosing, false tripping, etc. In this paper, an IEEE 13-Bus System Radial Distribution System is simulated using Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP), various scenarios of DG placement are considered, their impact on the protection system is analyzed, and different techniques are proposed to minimize the effect on protection coordination. The use of directional relays, current limiting reactors, and small magnitude DGs is tested and analyzed. The way this effect varies by changing the location of DG is also analyzed.
T. K. V. Nguyen, T. T. H. Doan, T. H. Cao, H. S. Pham
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7624-7627;

The current work tries to valorize the bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI). The bottom ash from waste incineration consists of atypical granular materials. They are industrial by-products resulting from the incineration of domestic waste and the way of the considered valorization is road gravel. In this paper, we present the state parameters of bottom ash taken from a recycling company in the North of France. These features can help us evaluate our bottom ash according to the technical guide of realization of embankments and subgrades.
D. B. Minh, V. D. Quoc, P. N. Huy
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7615-7618;

A permanent magnet Brushless DC (BLDC) motor has been designed with different rotor configurations based on the arrangement of the permanent magnets. Rotor configurations strongly affect the torque and efficiency performance of permanent magnet electric motors. In this paper, different rotor configurations of the permanent magnet BLDC motor with parallel the Halbach array permanent magnet were compared and evaluated. Many applications of electric drives or air-crafts have recently preferred the surface-mounted permanent magnet design due to its ease of construction and maintenance. The finite element technique has been used for the analysis and comparison of different geometry parameters and rotor magnet configurations to improve efficiency and torque performance. A comprehensive design of a three-phase permanent magnet BLDC 35kW motor is presented and simulations were conducted to evaluate its design. The skewing rotor and Halbach magnet array are applied to the permanent surface-mounted magnet on the BLDC motor for eliminating torque ripples. In order to observe the skewing rotor effect, the rotor lamination layers were skewed with different angles and Halbach sinusoidal arrays. The determined skewing angle, the eliminated theoretically cogging torque, and the back electromotive force harmonics were also analyzed.
H. Samreen, S. Wizarat, Z. Mehdi, R. Ahmed
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Volume 11, pp 7564-7570;

In this study, the theoretical and empirical effects of foreign investment, openness to trade, urbanization, and economic development on carbon dioxide emission levels (CO2) in Pakistan were examined. Annual time series for 38 years 1970-2018 were utilized. The Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound test has been used to estimate the model which indicates the presence of cointegration among the variables. Long-run and short-run relationships were observed between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and CO2 emission levels revealing that increase in FDI results in increased CO2 emission levels contributing to environmental degradation. This endorses the theory of Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in the case of Pakistan. To achieve the goal of sustainable economic development, it is imperative to consider the possible negative effects of foreign investment on the environment. The study suggests limiting CO2 emissions by adopting more advanced low carbon technologies to ensure growth and a sustainable environment. Strict implementation of environmental laws for foreign and domestic firms both by defining CO2 emission limits, installation of proper waste management plants, and imposing a pollution tax are crucial steps for the improvement of environmental quality.
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