Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2706-9907 / 2706-9915
Total articles ≅ 25
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Shmeeran Ismael
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 181-186; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i04.72

Abstract:
Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease, is a parasitic infection caused by a coccidian protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. In immunocompetent people, the infection is asymptomatic, while it can produce serious signs in immunocompromised people and in developing fetuses. Accurate diagnosis is dependent, mainly, on the clinical features. However, in immunocompromised patients, the diagnosis is very difficult and may lead to misdiagnosis and improper treatment. Today, molecular diagnosis and serotyping are widely used for the diagnosis of T. gondii in many countries. The aim of the present short review is to highlight the current diagnostic methods and protocols that are used for the diagnosis of T. gondii in humans.
Abdul-Rahim Ali, Omar Abdul-Rasheed, Ula Alkawaz
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 187-202; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i04.76

Abstract:
Background: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a pivotal hormone for male fertility, and its action on gonads is exerted by FSH receptors (FSHRs). Objectives: To examine whether the presence of FSHR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), G919A and A2039G, involved in non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in Iraqi infertile men. Methods: Two common SNPs, A919G and A2039G, in the FSHR gene were analyzed in 104 subjects (70 infertile patients with NOO: 33 NOA patients were not receiving treatment and 37 were on infertility treatment, and 34 normozoospermic fertile men as controls). Results: The results revealed that the homozygous wild genotype (AA) of rs6165 FSHR gene SNP was more abundant than (AG) and (GG) genotypes in both groups of infertile NOA patients with a frequency of 49% in those who untreated, 81% in patients undergoing treatment and in the control group 41%. Whereas, the highest percentage of heterozygous genotype (AG) in the fertile control group was 41% when compared to NOApatients with a genotype frequency of 24% (for those who untreated) and 11% (for patients on treatment), respectively; with (A) allele frequency of 86% and the observed frequency of (G) allele was only 14% in the patients’ group as compared to that of controls that were (65 %) and (35 %), respectively. The rs6166 genotyping revealed that the homozygous wild genotype (GG) of FSHR gene was more abundant than (AG) and (AA) genotypes in NOA patients receiving infertility treatment with a frequency of (68%), in NOA patients who didn’t receive treatment 49%, while the lowest frequency was detected in the healthy fertile control group (47%). Conclusions: These results support the evidence that rs6165 and rs6166, FSHR SNPs, might be involved in the pathogenesis and protection against NOA, respectively.
Shukrya Alwan, Muna Al-Saeed, Hussein Abid
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 133-145; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.67

Abstract:
Background: Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications. However, limited reports are currently available about the safety of biofabricated AgNPs using Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark extracts. Objectives: The current study is aimed to assess the potential toxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs (using C. zeylanicum) by subacute oral administration in experimental rats. Methods: AgNPs were biofabricated using methanol extract of C. zeylanicum bark and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Twenty-four Rattus norvegicus female rats were divided into 4 groups (6 animals per group) as follows: Group-I was the control, while groups II, III, and IV were given 0.85, 1.76 and 3.53 mg/kg doses of AgNPs, respectively for 14 consecutive days. After 14 days of oral administration of AgNPs, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured using an ELISA technique. Serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were also determined as well as histopathologic features of the liver and the kidney. Results: AgNPs did not induce any changes in mean body weight, biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, urea and creatinine), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD and CAT) and histopathologic features (of the liver and kidneys) of the treated groups when compared to control group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the oral administration of biogenic AgNPs (biofabricated using methanol extract of C. zeylanicum) to rats at a specific dose is relatively safe and does not show any signs of toxicity.
Ahmed Suleiman, Tamadher Rafaa, Ali Al­rawi, Mustafa Dawood
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 167-180; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.53

Abstract:
Background: Epidemiological studies revealed there is a difference in susceptibility to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of differences in gender with age and males being more inflicted. There is a clear indication that deaths caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in males appeared at a higher rate than females across 35 nations. The implication of associated disease-risk genes, involved in the susceptibility of COVID-19 such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has recently received considerable attention due to their role in severe injury of lung and mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry as a host receptor. Objectives: Herein, we aimed to systematically review how two main genetic polymorphisms of ACE2 (rs2106809 and rs2074192) can affect the gender susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: To conduct this systematic review, a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Nature was made for the period 2004 to 2020. We searched for the impact of ACE2 genetic polymorphisms (rs2106809 and rs2074192) on gender susceptibility. Results: We noticed that there was a differential genotype distribution between males and females in various global populations whereas mutant variants were common in males compared to wild-type variants among females, which may reflect differences in gender susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Females are less susceptible to coronavirus as compare to males because of the expression of ACE2 receptor. It has a double role in favour of COVID-19 and against COVID-19. Conclusions: Male mortality is greater than female mortality, which might be attributed to the ACE2 deficiency in women. Epidemiological studies have shown that the differences in sex and age have different susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Anas Sadek, Rayah Baban, May Al-Habib, Enas Khazaali
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 160-166; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.42

Abstract:
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific condition, characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. One of the hypotheses concerning the etiology of PE is vitamin D3 deficiency during pregnancy. Vitamin D3 is especially important during pregnancy as low maternal vitamin D3 stores may contribute to problems like low birth weight as well as an increased risk of maternal comorbidities. Objectives: To evaluate serum vitamin D3 levels and how they can be affected by the severity of PE at the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: This case-control study included a total of 71 pregnant women at the third trimester of pregnancy (41 with PE and 30 without PE as controls). Vitamin D3 serum level was measured by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The study’s findings showed no significant difference in serum vitamin D3 level (p>0.05) between controls (14.41±1.41ng/ml) and PE patients (14.32±1.00). As well, subgroup analysis revealed non-considerable changes between mild PE cases (15.92±1.73 ng/ml) and severe ones (13.07±1.09 ng/ml). Conclusions: PE and its severity may have no significant effect on serum vitamin D3 levels of pregnant women at the third trimester of pregnancy.
Baraa Saeed, Rayah Baban, Usama Al-Nasiri
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 146-159; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.65

Abstract:
Background: The lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) isoenzyme is an important enzyme involved in metabolic processes that are needed for spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Objectives: This study aims to assess the activity and kinetic parameters (maximum velocity, Vmax and Michaelis constant, Km) of LDH-C4 in fertile and infertile (azoospermia and oligospermia) men in Baghdad City, Iraq. Methods: A total of 120 participants (80 infertile and 40 healthy fertile men) were included in the current study. The patients were sub-grouped into: 40 infertile men with oligospermia, and 40 infertile men with azoospermia. The oligospermia patients were further subdivided into subgroups based on sperm count and motility. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation after 3-5 days abstain for seminal fluid analysis. The microscopic test included the assessment of the count, motility and morphology of the sperms. In addition, the coulometric assay was used for measuring the activity and kinetic parameters of LDH-C4 enzyme. Results: The activity of LDH-C4 is significantly higher in fertile men when compared with infertile subjects (fertile: 403.13±189.90, oligospermia: 110.01±58.13, azoospermia: 39.06±28.15; p≤0.01). Statistically significant differences in LDH-C4 activity were also noted among patients with oligospermia based on sperms count and motility. Based on sperms’ count in patients with oligospermia, a significantly higher LDH-C4 activity (p≤0.01) was noted in those with higher sperm count (10-15 million/ml) when compared to others who have lesser count. Significant elevation in enzyme activity (p≤0.01) was also observed in oligospermia patients with higher percentages of motile sperms when compared with others who have fewer percentages of motile sperms. Moreover, the highest Vmax value (0.483 mmol/L.min) and the lowest Km value (0.39 mmol/L) were recorded in fertile men. While, the lowest Vmax value (0.174 mmol/L.min) and the lowest Km value (0.75 mmol/L) were detected in azoospermia patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that LDH-C4 is essential for the count and motility of sperm and may be considered as a therapeutic approach for infertility.
Raghad Ali, Rayah Baban, Shatha Ali
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 120-132; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.55

Abstract:
Background: The role of paraoxonase 1 enzyme (PON1) and its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been reported previously in different ethnic and racial groups with divergent results. The human PON1 gene contains two coding region polymorphisms leading to two different PON1 isoforms. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to find out the association between the PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms and their relation with serum PON1 activity as well as lipid profile tests (total cholesterol, TC; triglycerides, TG; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-c; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c) in children with NS. Methods: This study included a total of 80 participants (40 with NS in the age group of 2-14 years and 40 age and sex-matched healthy controls). The PON1 enzyme activity and lipid profile tests were measured in serum samples of all included participants. The PON1 genotype was determined by PCR-restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for both PON1 alleles (192 and 55) SNPs. Results: Our findings showed that the mean levels of lipid profile tests (TC, TG, LDL-c) were significantly increased in patients when compared with healthy controls (p<0.05), while the HDL-c concentration was significantly decreased in patients than that of controls. Also, the patients had significantly lower concentrations of PON1 when compared with the controls regardless of the genotype Q192R and L55M polymorphisms. Moreover, the homozygous RR genotype for PON1 SNP 192 and MM homozygous genotype for PON1 SNP 55 were significantly frequent in patients when compared with the controls. Conclusions: Our results support that the presence of the homozygous RR genotype for PON1 SNP 192 and MM homozygous genotype for PON1 SNP 55 were significantly higher in patients compared with the controls.
Hussein Abid, Zainab Abid, Shireen Abid
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 60-70; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i02.52

Abstract:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. To date, many physicians still requesting traditional lipid profile tests (TG, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C) to confirm the clinical diagnosis related to CVD. However, using these tests may be inadequate for the prediction of CVD risk, especially in intermediate risk. For better clinical practice, laboratory diagnostic alternatives should constantly be evaluated and developed by physicians and laboratory scientists. In this review, we sought to focus on the benefits of lipid ratios (CRI-, CRI-II, AIP, AC, and CHOLindex) in supporting clinical diagnosis and how they can be calculated. To attain this aim, a literature search in reputed databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed and peer-reviewed research articles were included to conduct this review. Short theoretical and practical notes about each index were accordingly included along with calculation formulas. Thus, the current article can assist new researchers and young physicians to review what supports their knowledge in managing early CVDs.
Rasha Raheem, Raghda Alsayed, Emad Yousif, Nany Hairunisa Hairunisa
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 71-79; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i02.54

Abstract:
Background: The world has watched with growing alarm as scientists in the U.K. Identified a new coronavirus variant that appears to be more contagious than, and genetically distinct from, other established variants. The scientists keep collecting the facts about the new variant and its impact on symptom, severity, mortality, and vaccine efficacy. Objective: This review shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 2020 virus that appeared in Britain and South Africa in December 2020, known as B.1.1.7. Furthermore, it highlights the main differences between the new COVID-19 version (B.1.1.7) and the other strains of the virus. Conclusion: Mutations are still happening in the SARS-CoV-2 virus as the RNA viruses cause many changes in the proteins of the spikes of the virus and other parts. The British variant has 23 mutations, compared with the version that erupted in Wuhan, that renders the virus more contagious; however, these mutations do not change the disease's severity.
Zainab Subber, Ghassan Al-Shamma, Hashim Hashim
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 80-94; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i02.41

Abstract:
Background: The free-form of vitamin D has been used by many researchers as an index of vitamin D status in health and disease. Several methods are there to estimate free, total, and even bioavailable vitamin D. Objective: The present work was carried out to measure free vitamin D using a special formula suggested by Bikle and Schwartz in 2019, which includes the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). The results will be used to evaluate the vitamin D status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its relation to the disease progression. Methods: Sixty-four patients with T2DM and 73 healthy subjects, all from Baghdad city, were enrolled in the current study from March to October 2020. For each participant, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and body mass index (BMI) were measured in addition to the total vitamin D and VDBP. Moreover, free vitamin D was calculated by the formula of Bikle & Schwartz. Results: There were highly significant correlations between total vitamin D and absolute values of free vitamin D or its percentage. The difference in total vitamin D was significant between patients and healthy controls with no significant change in VDBP, free and bio-available vitamin D, while free vitamin D% was higher in the patient’s group. Correlations between vitamin D and each of BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR were not significant; however, there was a negative correlation with BMI and fasting glucose in the healthy control subjects only. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of vitamin D in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was poor. Conclusion: Total vitamin D can represent vitamin D status, but it cannot be used as a factor for diagnosing T2DM. However, it could be of importance to change the glycemic status.
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