Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2706-9907 / 2706-9915
Total articles ≅ 36
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Fulgence Mpenda, Mwanaisha Mkangara
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i02.118

Abstract:
Background ad objective: Among the notable achievements of the twentieth century was the discovery and identification of new drugs from plants against microbial infections. However, the discovery of novel drugs since then is inadequate due to emergence of resistant microbes. In an effort to discover novel drugs, the study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from Cnidoscolas aconitifolius and Ocimum suave. Methods: Following morphological characterization and initial screening for antimicrobial activity, isolates that had higher inhibition were genotypes by Sanger sequencing. Two isolates (Candida tropicalis from O. suave and Phyllosticta capitalensis from C. aconitifolius) were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: Overall, the range of crude extract concentration was from 152 mg/mL to 1353 mg/mL, and that of a zone of inhibition was from 7 to 21 mm. The lowest minimum inhibition concentration (19>MIC>9.5) was observed in Phyllosticta spp. extract against S. aureus. Conclusions: Findings of the present study have shown that endophytes isolated from medicinal plants can generate secondary metabolites with therapeutic applications. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to decipher the content and structure of bioactive compounds that may be associated with the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts.
Marwa Abdulghani, Ahmed Naser
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i02.91

Abstract:
Background and objective: Alpha-lipoic acid is a drug used to treat diabetic neuropathy, and it has other uses as a dietary supplement. The target of the study was to investigate the concentration of therapeutic doses of Alpha-lipoic acid in the blood plasma of broiler chicks to define the pharmacokinetic parameters. Methods: A randomized controlled study was performed on thirty-five healthy broiler chicks of seven days old, chicks were injected into the peritoneum with a single dose of analgesic ED50 80mg /kg b.wt, following injection of the drug, blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 24 h (five chicks per time) from the jugular vein. Then the blood plasma was obtained, the concentrations of Alpha-lipoic acid in blood plasma samples were determined utilizing UV Spectrometric Method, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by the PKSolver program. Time versus concentration curve for Alpha-lipoic acid was obtained from the program. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with non-compartmental models. Results: The concentration of Alpha-lipoic acid in the blood plasma of chicks injected with Alpha lipoic at a dose (80 mg/kg) were 134.6±7.17, 178.5±4.10 ,192.4±7.83 ,158.5±11.05 ,147.1±10.16, 122.8±7.09 µg/ml at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours respectively. The maximum plasma concentration was 192.4µg/ml during a period of 1 hour of injection. The terminal elimination half-life was 65hours, the terminal phase elimination rate constant was 0.011 h-1 , the mean residence time was 94h, and the area under the curve from time 0 to infinity was 14960 µg.h/ml. Conclusions: Our study concluded that the peak of the analgesic effect of alpha lipoic acid was one hour after treatment; furthermore, it is characterized by a long elimination half-life and a poor clearance from the chick’s body, which is reflected in the long effects of its pharmacological properties
Zainab Hussein, Sura Abdulsattar, Issam Salman
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 3, pp 50-58; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i01.40

Abstract:
Background and objective: Serum beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) has been used as a useful clinical marker of chronic kidney dysfunction. The current study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of β2M for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy among Iraqi patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study included 84 participants divided into four groups, three of them were type II diabetics and the fourth is the healthy individuals’ (control) group. The diabetic’ subgroups were named according to the Micral test as: normoalbuminuria (21 patients), microalbuminuria (21 patients), and macroalbuminuria group (21 patients). The control group included 21, age- and sex-matched, healthy participants. Biochemical markers for diabetes mellitus as well as β2M were determined for each participant and then were analyzed statistically. Results: The serum β2M of normoalbuminuria group was (2.86±0.95 µg/mL), microalbuminuria group was (5.06±1.97 µg/mL) and macroalbuminuria group (3.6±1.59 µg/mL). The results showed significant increase (p˂0.05) in the β2M level of microalbuminuria group when compared with that of normoalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria groups. In addition, a highly significant increase (p˂0.01) in β2M concentration was observed in microalbuminuria group when compared with that of the control group. Conclusions: β2M can be used as a useful biomarker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy.
Dalia Ali, Reder Mohammedsalih, Rafiq Salih
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 3, pp 16-27; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i01.83

Abstract:
Background and objective: The current study aims to evaluate the glycemic index of local honey and date intake in healthy adults. Methods: The study was conducted on 24 healthy volunteers. They were given 50 g of carbohydrates from Haji Omeran local honey, Khudri (or Khadrawi) local date and reference food (white bread). The average body mass index and age of volunteers are almost similar. The blood samples were collected from finger capillaries to assess the glucose levels by using glucometer at selected time points (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes). The data was recorded and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan comparison. Results: The study results showed that the glycemic index of the honey and date is classified as a medium glycemic index, referring to their high carbohydrates content. The results also indicated that honey and dates have significantly different effects (P0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, eating behavior regarding honey and date consumption, particularly portion size and ingestion timing, is essential to manage blood glucose levels. Thus, glycemic index values should be considered in promoting a healthy lifestyle from chronic related metabolic disorders especially, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.
Adem Keski̇n, Recai Aci
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 3, pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i01.94

Abstract:
Background and objective: The pre-analytical rejection rate is the proportion of samples rejected at the stage that includes the initial procedures of the testing process performed outside the laboratory walls by healthcare professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the pre-analytical rejection rate by considering the health status of the patients and the sample types and to examine the measures that can be taken against it. Methods: The data of the samples that came to the laboratory for analysis for one year were included. These data were categorized according to sample types in complete blood count, biochemistry, hormones, urine, blood gases, coagulation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). It was also categorized by emergency, outpatient, inpatient, and critically ill status. Considering the health status of the patients, the pre-analytical rejection rates determined in these sample types were compared. Results: Complete blood count (0.40%) in emergency patients, HbA1c (0.78%) in outpatients, biochemistry (0.62%) in inpatients, hormones (0.29%), urine (6.19%) blood gases (1.03%), coagulation (1.26%), ESR (3.23%) in critical patients, sample types had the highest pre-analytical rejection rate. Conclusions: The source of causes that affect pre-analytical rejection rates, such as hemolyzed sample, clotted sample, or insufficient sample, may be due to the patient's bed rest, critical or emergency. An underlying disease, treatment, or frequent phlebotomy may also be a factor. The source of the causes that affect the pre-analytical rejection rates, such as incorrect request, incorrect registration, and incorrect tube, can usually be attributed to non-laboratory healthcare personnel.
Shireen Al-Tameemi, Najwa Hameed, Karina Gomes, Hussein Abid
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 3, pp 60-68; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i01.108

Abstract:
Background and objective: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of a wide range of critical health problems such as cancers, especially those related to the respiratory system. Although studies are continuing on the smoking-related inflammatory responses, limited reports are there to explore how such responses can be affected by the smoking intensity. Therefore, the current communication aimed to shed light on how smoking and smoking intensity can affect some inflammatory and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: A total of 159 subjects (108 smokers and 51 non-smokers) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Their sociodemographic, smoking intensity and blood samples were obtained and processed using approved methodologies. The blood plasma samples were used to quantify interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and ferritin by using ELISA. The gained data was then analyzed using GraphPad Prism software to assess the variations. Results: Both IL-6 and TNF-α are elevated markedly (p<0.001) in smoker subjects when compared with non-smoker ones (IL-6: 2.58±0.98 vs. 1.858±0.6256 pg/ml, TNF-α: 28.38±7.162 vs. 22.64±7.257 pg/ml). However, no significant differences were observed in other biomarkers comparing the groups, as well as no significant association was evidenced based on smoking intensity among smokers. Conclusions: The findings might point to a relationship between smoking and the elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α levels in a cigarette dose-dependent manner.
Nawfal Alrawi
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 3, pp 3-15; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v3i01.64

Abstract:
Cancer is one of the most common diseases around the world and the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer type among Iraqi women, as it represents the highest percentage of malignant tumors in women until 2018. Therefore, women should be aware of the aggravation of this disease, the importance of the periodic examination for early detection for breast cancer, and following the most appropriate means for the treatment to get recovered and, thus, to reduce mortality. To fight cancer, there is an urgent need to search for new effective anticancer therapies that alter the molecular biology of tumor cells, stimulate the immune system, or specifically deliver chemotherapy factors directly to cancer cells without affecting normal cells and reducing the side effects of treatments. In this context, this paper aimed to highlight the therapeutic approaches used in the current researches of breast cancer treatment. Accumulated evidence showed that medicinal plant extracts, and can serve as anticancer agents. The proposed mechanisms were discussed and presented in this review.
Zainab Subber, Hashim Hashim, Ghassan Al-Shamma
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 230-236; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i04.47

Abstract:
Background: Vitamin D is considered an important regulator of many metabolic processes in the body. Its deficiency was reported to associate with many pathological conditions, with contradicting reports on its role in dyslipidemia. Objectives: To evaluate the role of vitamin D (total and/or free) in improving dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Sixty-four patients with T2DM, and 73 apparently healthy normal subjects were enrolled in the study from March to October 2020. Their fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, and serum lipids (cholesterol, its fractions and triglycerides) were measured in addition to total and free vitamin D. Results: There was a significant negative correlation between total vitamin D and each of cholesterol and LDL-C in the diabetic group. The correlations between serum vitamin D and all other lipid parameters (HDL-C, VLDL-C and triglycerides) were non-significant in the diabetic group, while in the control groups none of serum lipids showed significant correlations with vitamin D. Conclusions: The significant negative association of vitamin D with total cholesterol and LDLC in the diabetics reveals the important action of vitamin D in reducing the atherogenic indices, and consequent reduction in the rate of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease or stroke.
Rasha Raheem, Mohammed Kadhom, Noor Albayati, Enas Alhashimie, Wathik Alrubayee, Israa Salman, Nany Hairunisa, Emad Yousif
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 218-229; https://doi.org/10.47419/bjbabs.v2i04.71

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 is an ongoing disease that caused, and still causes, many challenges for humanity. In fact, COVID-19 death cases reached more than 4.5 million by the end of August 2021, although an improvement in the medical treatments and pharmaceutical protocols was obtained, and many vaccines were released. Objective: To, statistically, analyze the data of COVID-19 patients at Alshifaa Healthcare Center (Baghdad, Iraq). Methods: In this work, a statistical analysis was conducted on data included the total number, positive cases, and negative cases of people tested for COVID-19 at the Alshifaa Healthcare Center/Baghdad for the period 1 September – 31 December 2020. The number of people who got the test was 1080, where 424 were infected and the rest of them were not. Results: The study showed that males’ infection and death cases were higher than females by more than double, despite the population ratios of the two genders being almost equal. Furthermore, as the age of patients is older, the chance of death is higher. Death cases were lower in December than the previous three months, which could be attributed to lower infection cases compared with the previous months. Conclusions: We can conclude that the peak of infected ages was the same as the other countries. Hence, the number of checked children was low, while we have the peak around the 40s and 50s. Females’ death cases were much less than males, which could be attributed to the genetic influence and the higher responsibility that females showed than males to prevent the disease’s spreading.
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