Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change
Articles in this journal
Published: 29 November 2021
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2021.11.1000116
The purpose of this research is to determine the correlations between the capacity of the solar power station, the energy generated by it, and the investment made for the installation of the station based on the correlationregression analysis. Within the framework of the research: these are the basic financial ratios calculated, the knowledge, which is necessary to determine the profitability of the project (NPV, IRR, Payback Period PI). Furthermore, the paper, based on certain assumptions, shows how the increase in investments in renewable energy (solar) sources could affect the energy sector.
Published: 19 September 2021
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2021.09.1000114
Dryland areas are regarded as highly sensitive to climatic changes. A positive relationship between average annual rainfall, and environmental factors (water availability, species diversity, etc.), is often assumed for areas with an average annual rainfall of 100-300 mm. However, the global climatological models fail to address an important issue. The above assumption disregards the fact that a climate change in some dry-land areas is not limited to climatic factors. It is often accompanied by a pronounced variability in surface properties, such as the deposition of loess in a wet climatic phase, and of sand during a dry climatic phase. Needless to say, the spatial variability of the new surface properties may have variable effects on water resources and related environmental variables. In addition, the climatic models, based on average annual rainfall, disregard the rainfall characteristics at the rain-shower level, which greatly influence the degree to which rainwater will percolate, or will be transformed into runoff, thereby significantly affecting the spatial redistribution of water resources. In other words, a climate change in dryland areas would be expected to have differential hydrological effects in a sandy area, a rocky area, or in a loess covered area. Differential spatial hydrological effects would be also expected within each of the areas listed above. The present manuscript deals with the complex relationships between average annual rainfall, and environmental variables in sandy areas, at three research sites, along a rainfall gradient of 90-450 mm, in the south eastern Mediterranean area, Israel. Data obtained clearly show that average annual rainfall is not a good indicator of water resources, and ecosystem structure, in each of the sites; and the controlling factors vary from one site to another.
Published: 2 September 2021
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2021.08.1000115
Many marine and freshwater fisheries are now in a very poor state, and many fish stocks are close to collapse. There is a need to manage fisheries more carefully, especially since fishing can affect other aspects of the environment. It is also important to reduce the adverse effects of climate changes upon the marine and freshwater environments, fish, and other animals, and the need to manage other human activities taking place in the sea, to improve the marine environment and protect the wildlife and the fishing activities. Forms of pollution, including plastics, and also noise and substrate vibration, from industrial and other activities may affect both the abundance and quality of fish and other marine animals. This paper deals with fisheries management, and environmental protection, and concludes that fishermen, fisheries scientists, fisheries managers and environmental interests must work closely together, if fish are to be adequately protected, and fisheries are to be better managed. It describes current systems of management. It especially draws attention to the importance of moving towards an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. Such an approach aims to manage all those human activities that have an impact upon the marine environment and its life forms. Keywords: Fish; Fisheries; Environments; Ecosystems; Management; Scientists
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2021.07.1000113
The stocks of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have declined in the sea and in many rivers in North America and Europe in recent years and are experiencing a crisis. Despite their high degree of legal protection, the quality of their aquatic environments within rivers and in the sea, including local coastal waters, appears to be deteriorating. Salmon survival, has declined both within the sea and within rivers. The status of the Atlantic salmon stocks is considered here, together with the adverse effects of different sources, and those steps that may need to be taken to improve the condition of the salmon. This paper is intended to assist management bodies in taking steps to resolve the problems that exist for salmon, both within rivers and in the sea. It makes particular use of information available from the River Dee in Scotland.
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2021.04.1000109
Cameroon has 115 000 km2 land area designated as Protected Areas (PAs), providing society with many ecosystem services including climate change mitigation. The study was aimed at examining the potentials of inland and coastal PAs as carbon sinks and implication on climate change mitigation in Cameroon between 1978 and 2014. Data for the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in the analysis of satellite imageries. The land cover change trajectory revealed a drop in the rate of conversion of dense forest within inland PAs compared to coastal PAs. Results reveaked carbon sequestration within inland PAs between 1978 and 2014 and the PAs were able to absorb166,590.73 tonnes/ha CO2 from the atmosphere and build up carbon resulting to the amelioration of the local and regional climate of the area with a positive impact on global climate change. Within the coastal PAs, there was 71,418.48 tonnes/ha CO2 emission through 1978 – 2014 with resulting negative impacts on the climate. The constraints to effective PA management identified were human and capital resource problems, hostility of the local population, delayance in law enforcement and poverty. To ensure their roles in climate moderation there should be a better forest policy implementation within PAs in Cameroon by making available more capital and human resources to PAs management to enable them cope in the face of growing anthropogenic threats.
Published: 26 December 2020
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2020.12.1000106
Volcanic eruptions with an intensity of VEI4, or higher, affect Earth’s climate by injecting sulfurous compounds into the stratosphere, where they are quickly converted to the SO2 aerosol, H2SO4. These aerosols circulate around the globe, temporarily cooling the climate, with the maximum cooling generally occurring a year or more after the date of the eruption. These aerosols eventually settle out of the atmosphere, after about 18-30 months, and temperatures recover to pre-eruption levels, or a bit higher, as the descending aerosol droplets coalesce with others in the troposphere, causing some temporary cleansing of the atmosphere. Warming due to the less polluted air usually results in the formation of a volcanic-induced El Nino, if there have been no other eruptions in the interim. Global “Clean Air” activities since the late 1970’s focused strongly upon the reduction in industrial (anthropogenic) SO2 aerosol emissions, primarily because of acid-rain and health concerns. As a result, a plot of average anomalous global temperatures will reflect the increases and decreases caused by the changing amounts of SO2 in the atmosphere, from both “Clean Air” reductions in industrial emissions and volcanic eruptions. In examining such a plot, increases in average anomalous global temperatures were occasionally observed which appeared to be unrelated to either volcanic eruptions or to “Clean Air” activities. One such increase was noted for the year 1958, when the author graduated from college, and jobs were difficult to find because of the ongoing business recession (1957 Aug-1958 Sept.). It thus seemed possible that other recessions might also be responsible for the unexpected temperature increases, since industrial SO2 aerosol pollution of the atmosphere decreases during such times.
Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.46715/jescc2020.10.1000105
The long-term record of River Jordan-Lake Kinneret ecosystem indicates some significant climate condition changes: water temperature increase, decline in rainfall, and diminishing river discharges and lake water inflows accompanied by a reduction in nitrogen and a slight increase in phosphorus in the Lake upper layers (Epilimnion). Lake Water level decreased, Prolongation of Residence Time was documented, nutrient inputs and dynamics modifications resulting water quality deterioration. As a result of temperature elevation and nitrogen deficiency, the biomass of Peridinium spp significantly reduced and was replaced by Cyanobacterial biomass enhancement. Dryness trend expressed as enhanced frequency of drought seasons initiated an elevation of lake water salinity. It has been suggested that these changes in the phytoplankton community structure are caused by regional climate change. This study evaluates a multi-annual respective approach although the summer is the most critical. The objective of this research is evaluate the background of the ecosystem structure modification aimed at define future potential management design.