Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam

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EISSN : 2614-7971
Published by: Institut Agama Islam Negeri Langsa (10.32505)
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Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 5, pp 14-29; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v5i1.1464

Abstract:
Abstrak Setiap kejahatan yang terjadi pasti akan menimbulkan kerugian terutama bagi pihak korban. Korban kejahatan khususnya korban pelanggaran HAM berat harus menanggung kerugian karena kejahatan yang diterimanya baik itu secara materiil maupun non materiil. Namun dalam penyelesaian perkara pidana banyak dari korban yang kurang mendapatkan perlindungan hukum yang memadai. Salah satu bentuk perlindungan terhadap korban kejahatan pelanggaran HAM dan merupakan hak dari seorang korban tindak pidana adalah untuk mendapatkan kompensasi, restitusi dan rehabilitasi baik itu dari ranah hukum nasional maupun internasional. Beberapa peraturan di Indonesia yang mengatur mengenai pemberian kompensasi, restitusi dan rehabilitasi, misalnya KUHAP, Undang-undang Nomor 26 Tahun 2000 tentang Pengadilan HAM, Undang-undang Nomor 31 Tahun 2014 tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-undang Nomor 13 Tahun 2006 tentang Perlindungan Saksi dan Korban, Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 3 Tahun 2002 tentang Kompensasi, Restitusi dan Rehabilitasi Terhadap Korban Pelanggaran HAM Berat. Adapun dalam hukum internasional terdapat beberapa instrument internasional yaitu Statuta Roma 1998, Kovenan Hak Sipil dan Politik Pasal 9 (5), Piagam Afrika mengenai Hak Asasi Manusia dan Rakyat Pasal 21 (2). Adapun yang menjadi permasalahan dalam penelitian ini adalah apa persamaan dan perbedaan konsep perlindungan hukum terhadap korban pelanggaran HAM berat dalam hukum nasional dan internasional serta apakah mekanisme perlindungan yang dilakukan telah sesuai dengan peraturan yang berlaku. Menjawab rumusan permasalahan tersebut, digunakan penelitian kepustakaan (library research) dengan berdasarkan studi kepustakaan dan pendekatan yuridis-normatif. Setelah data dari kepustakaan terkumpul, maka dilanjutkan analisis dan komparasi dengan menggunakan teori Maqāṣid asy-syarīah untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut. Hasil penelitian menyebutkan bahwa pengaturan mengenai bentuk perlindungan hukum nasional bagi korban pelanggaran HAM berat terkait kompensasi, restitusi dan rehabilitasi belum dapat dijalankan karena mekanisme pengaturannya belum diatur secara rinci dan belum memenuhi standar internasional yang sesuai dengan pengaturan mengenai mekanisme pemberian perlindungan bagi korban dalam Statuta Roma, yanag dapat menjamin korban dalam mendapatkan penggantian kerugian secara materiil dan non materiil. Namun peraturan yang ada tentang perlindungan korban pelanggaran HAM berat baik dalam hukum nasional maupun internasional apabila dihubungkan dengan teori Maqāṣid asy-syarīah sebenarnya telah mencakup secara substansi yang berkaitan dengan Ḥifẓ An-nafs, Ḥifẓ Al-māl dan Ḥifẓ Al-‘aql. Kata kunci: Perlindungan korban, Pelanggaran HAM Berat, Hukum Nasional, Hukum Internasional, Maqāṣid asy-syarīah.
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 5, pp 30-52; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v5i1.1476

Abstract:
The existence of the village as an MHA (customary villagers), is in accordance with Article 18B paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution. The problem is, what are the traditional rights of indigenous peoples in the empirical level of customary law, effectiveness of conduct, Qanun Number 9 of 2008 in the process of applying and implementing qanun No. 9 of 2008 in the Langsa City District area, in resolving adat cases was clearly deemed ineffective. Where in its application Qanun No. 9 of 2008 has not provided the maximum contribution in solving various problems in the Langsa City community, especially with regard to adat criminal cases. There are a number of customary criminal cases that have been resolved but have not yet given maximum contribution to the settlement. The discussion method that I will use in this study is a qualitative method. Qualitative Method is the study of various studies and collections of various types of empirical material, such as case studies, personal experiences, introspective recognition, life stories, interviews, artifacts, various texts and cultural productions, observations, history, interactional, and various visual texts. Various empirical study materials are presented in the details of the problem at various moments and various meanings and various individual lives of descriptive analysis methods. The results of the study found that, First: The pattern of the application of the fostering of customary life and customs in resolving customary criminal cases in the District of Kota Sigli has not necessarily guided by the Qanun, so it has not yet made a maximum contribution. Second: The effectiveness of the effectiveness of Qanun Number 9 Year 2008 in resolving customary criminal cases in Langsa City District can be seen from the size of the process and the verdict is not effective. In conclusion, the customary court in resolving a case must always be guided by Qanun Number 9 of 2008 in order to obtain a legal provision so as to make the community live in comfort.
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 5, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v5i1.1908

Abstract:
Memanusiakan manusia adalah bagian dari menghargai hak hidup diri sendiri. Sebab manusia satu dengan manusia yang lain tak ubahnya satu tubuh. Manusia tidak dapat disebut sebagai manusia jika tidak ada respect terhadap manusia lain. Dalam hal ini, hak untuk hidup menjadi hak yang paling utama dalam Islam. Hal ini salah satu diatur dalam Deklarasi Kairo (1990) yang landasannya adalah a-Qur’ān, yang terdapat dalam pasal 2 ayat 1–4 dan pada tulisan ini dianalisis ayat 1–2. Memahami hak untuk hidup dalam Deklarasi Kairo diharapkan mampu menghadirkan nilai dan makna dalam kehidupan setiap pribadi manusia bahwa hidup harus dipertahankan sekaligus dimuliakan. Pasal 2 ayat 1–2 menjelaskan bahwa membunuh satu jiwa manusia sama dengan membunuh seluruh jiwa manusia apalagi melakukan pembunuhan massal kepada manusia. Pelarangan pembunuhan ini bukan hanya dapat merusak tatanan masyarakat, ras, suku dan lain-lainnya. Melainkan juga merusak harga diri suatu bangsa dan bahkan seluruh manusia yang hidup di muka bumi. Adapun secara teologis, pelaku pembunuhan secara tidak langsung telah melakukan kejahatan terhadap Tuhan sebagai Pencipta manusia.
Abdul Mufid Mufid
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 5, pp 72-92; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v5i1.1525

Abstract:
Kejahatan korupsi di Indonesia telah mendatangkan malapetaka bagi kelangsungan hidup berbangsa dan bernegara. Tidak hanya merugikan dana negara, korupsi juga merampas hak-hak sosial dan ekonomi yang lebih luas. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk mencegah dan seringkali memberantas praktik korupsi. Baik dengan menyusun peraturan perundang-undangan, maupun membentuk kepanitiaan untuk menangani korupsi. Namun korupsi tidak pernah mau meninggalkan bangsa Indonesia. Kebijakan pidana mati bagi pelaku korupsi diatur dalam ketentuan ayat (2) Pasal 2 Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 yang diundangkan dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2001 tentang Pemberantasan Korupsi. Menurut hukum pidana Islam, korupsi termasuk dalam kategori discretionary crime. Jadi bukti dan keputusan hukum diserahkan kepada pemerintah. Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi fenomena koruptor dengan hukuman mati bagi pelaku dari perspektif hukum pidana Islam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif dengan analisisnya menggunakan pendekatan Maqasid al-Syariah. Masalah penelitian yang harus dijawab adalah bagaimana penerapan kebijakan pidana mati terhadap korupsi dari perspektif hukum pidana Islam? Bagaimana kebijakan hukuman mati bagi koruptor menurut UU Pemberantasan Korupsi? Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: Pertama, kebijakan pidana mati bagi pelaku tindak pidana korupsi diatur dalam Ayat 2 Pasal 2 Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 dan Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2001, namun penerapan pasal tersebut hanya berlaku bagi pelaku tindak pidana korupsi yang dilakukan di Keadaan tertentu, “agar tidak semua pelaku korupsi bisa dihukum mati. Kedua, hukuman mati dapat diterapkan dalam perspektif hukum pidana Islam dalam tiga bentuk pidana, yaitu pidana retribusi, pidana hadd, dan pidana diskresioner. Korupsi termasuk dalam kategori discretionary crime. Suatu negara dapat menjatuhkan hukuman mati jika dianggap sebagai upaya efektif untuk menjaga ketertiban dan keuntungan public
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 5, pp 53-71; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v5i1.1819

Abstract:
Eigenrichting itself is a crime that can cause harm to the offender as a result of his own actions, this action arises due to mistrust and distrust of law enforcement and the law itself is confronted by the public. On the other hand, as a result of these actions resulted in the emergence of victims, herein lies the problem to be investigated in this study of how eigenrichting acts which initially as a form of public response from crime turn themselves into criminals. This type of research is the Library Research, with the nature of analytic-comparative research with a juridical-normative approach. From the results of the study it was concluded that in positive law perpetrators of eigenrichting crimes can be charged under article 170 of the Criminal Code, regulating legal sanctions for perpetrators of violence against people or goods in public while in fiqh the jinayah is known as al-tawfuq where several people who commit a crime together without prior agreement because of the psychological influence and thoughts that come suddenly and the given uqubat will also be dropped according to their respective roles.
Khairuddin
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 4, pp 123-141; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v4iii.1313

Abstract:
Mekhoba is a form of marriage proposal in Aceh Singkil. However, this application has customs and laws that must be resolved after the mekhoba. After notification that someone's daughter has been escorted to the village head or priest's place, then the family of the woman must not bring the daughter before this problem is resolved in adat and law. Adat they want to get married and their laws must be married. After the child is brought to the place of the priest, then from the man's side he will pay a penitent money / lose a woman because it has been brought by a man, this will be subject to customary sanctions, namely first, paying money of five hundred thousand rupiahs, or more, as requested by the women, secondly, they will be married off as soon as possible, because if it is feared that they will not get married, thirdly, they will pay for food for women who are entrusted to the village office such as the village head or priest.
Amrunsyah
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 4, pp 181-204; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v4iii.1316

Abstract:
This paper is entitled "The Neglected Dream" (Implementation of the Purpose of Law and Criminal Law in Indonesia). Law and the purpose of law have interrelated and inseparable links. The law always plays an important role in a country even the law has a multifunction with the aim of the public good in order to achieve justice, legal certainty, order, expediency, and others. However, this is far from the fire. That is, the public is only given the wind of heaven and dreams that wash away while the state authorities use the law as a tool to suppress society, so that society can be positioned in accordance with the desires of the state authorities. The implementation of the law and the purpose of the law in force in Indonesia is clearly visible, so through a number of legal theories set forth in this paper will be a little stomping for anyone who understands it when compensating for the facts that occur in the midst of society. In fact, for people who want to get legal justice but in reality are entangled in the law. The government should be serious in responding to this because the people have given full mandate to manage this country, including in dealing with legal issues, both in terms of legal structure, legal substance and legal culture played by law enforcement.
Danil Putra
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 4, pp 142-165; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v4iii.1314

Abstract:
This paper discusses the issue of consumer protection in criminal law, where in the applicable laws and regulations, the inclusion of standard clauses in motor vehicle loan agreements through leasing institutions whose contents are detrimental to consumers has been explicitly prohibited, even in the Consumer Protection Act there is a criminal threat for business actors who violate these provisions. But in practice, motor vehicle financing agreements through leasing still include standard clauses that provide flexibility to act for creditors when there is a problem in installment payments. With law enforcement against violating business actors, it is expected to provide a deterrent effect for business actors.
Indis Ferizal
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 4, pp 166-180; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v4iii.1315

Abstract:
Caning applied in Aceh is one of the social controls and the form of punishment is expected to fulfill the philosophical, juridical and sociological tendencies of legal awareness. Caning is one form of punishment that is also expected to foster a lawful attitude and the creation of an orderly society. According to Islamic law that punishment is for the benefit of the Ummah and educate the person of the perpetrator of the crime. Basically It is not easy to do efforts to increase legal awareness and the development of a legal culture in the community without encouragement from individual communities themselves. This should be of particular concern by the government to be more serious in conducting socialization so that legal awareness can be understood and implemented by the public properly.
Muhammad Alwin
Legalite : Jurnal Perundang Undangan dan Hukum Pidana Islam, Volume 4, pp 205-228; https://doi.org/10.32505/legalite.v4iii.1317

Abstract:
This paper discusses the punishment for someone who has intercourse with an ajnabiah woman through the anal perspective of Shafi'iah. Imam Shafi'I himself did not give a direct opinion related to this issue. However, Shafi'i clerics address the problem, where the majority of Shafi'i clerics equate the intercourse done from the rectum with the intercourse done through the rectal female Ajnabiah. The method they use is the qiyas method, which according to them; both (adultery through qubul or rectum) produce lust and both are parts of the body that must be covered and guarded by a woman. Likewise, mandatory bathing for men who put their genitals in one of them (qubul and rectum).
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