Advanced Engineering Research

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EISSN : 2687-1653
Published by: FSFEI HE Don State Technical University (10.23947)
Total articles ≅ 98
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M. A. Kazakova, A. P. Sultanova
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-169-176

Abstract:
Introduction. The article presents an overview of modern neural network models for natural language processing. Research into natural language processing is of interest as the need to process large amounts of audio and text information accumulated in recent decades has increased. The most discussed in foreign literature are the features of the processing of spoken language. The aim of the work is to present modern models of neural networks in the field of oral speech processing.Materials and Methods. Applied research on understanding spoken language is an important and far-reaching topic in the natural language processing. Listening comprehension is central to practice and presents a challenge. This study meets a method of hearing detection based on deep learning. The article briefly outlines the substantive aspects of various neural networks for speech recognition, using the main terms associated with this theory. A brief description of the main points of the transformation of neural networks into a natural language is given.Results. A retrospective analysis of foreign and domestic literary sources was carried out alongside with a description of new methods for oral speech processing, in which neural networks were used. Information about neural networks, methods of speech recognition and synthesis is provided. The work includes the results of diverse experimental works of recent years. The article elucidates the main approaches to natural language processing and their changes over time, as well as the emergence of new technologies. The major problems currently existing in this area are considered.Discussion and Conclusions. The analysis of the main aspects of speech recognition systems has shown that there is currently no universal system that would be self-learning, noise-resistant, recognizing continuous speech, capable of working with large dictionaries and at the same time having a low error rate.
A. L. Solovyev, M. E. Royak
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-161-168

Abstract:
Introduction. Incipient fatigue damage in the metal superstructures of bridges creates certain threats to the safety of operation. Various methods of non-destructive testing are used for their timely detection and diagnosis. A modern and popular on-the-day solution is the method of infrared (IR) thermography. Due to the specifics of the operation of IR cameras, additional processing of recordings received from these cameras is required to obtain an accurate result. This work aims at presenting a method for processing thermofilms and describing the possibilities of its application under real conditions.Materials and Methods. A method for processing thermographic films was described. It provided detecting temperature anomalies using only information from the camera. The results of its application on the elements of existing metal bridge spans are presented.Results. It is shown that there are temperature anomalies for existing defects. This means that the defects continue to develop, which was confirmed by subsequent observations of their condition. In addition, a case of temperature anomaly in the defect-free external region was identified. This might be a sign of an incipient defect that could not be diagnosed by other methods. If the presence of this defect is confirmed during repeated examinations, it will be possible to diagnose hidden defects that have not yet come to the surface, and/or detect potentially collapsing places.Discussion and Conclusions. The IR thermography performance as a method of non-contact non-destructive testing is shown, as well as its operability on real objects under random load.
K. A. Burdinov, K. M. Shashkina, Ehsan Shaghaei
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-150-160

Abstract:
Introduction. The movement of the carrier and external factors (the effects of the atmosphere, temperature and pressure) degrade significantly the image quality of the servo optoelectronic systems (OES) and the positioning accuracy of the emitting OES. The issues of image quality improvement and the probability of keeping the image of the observation object (OO) on the optical axis of the servo EOS are considered.Materials and Methods. The development of an automatic control system for an optoelectronic device (ACS OED) involved solving a multi-criteria optimization problem taking into account a number of conflicting technical-andeconomic (TE) requirements. The determination of tolerated dynamic errors (TDE) of image stabilization was a key issue in the development of on-board optoelectronic devices (OOED). Lagrange equations of the second kind and the mixed Gilbert method made it possible to obtain a mathematical model of the CO OED. Then, the decomposition of a two-link ACS with nonlinear cross-couplings in the CO was performed. A functional diagram of the image formation model of the OOED was presented. The parameters of the matrix photodetector and the requirements for the dynamic error of the ACS OED, taking into account the permissible MTF of the OED, were listed. The functions of transferring modulation, as well as linear, harmonic and vibrational shift of the image corresponding to the permissible and achieved TDE were visualized. Logarithmic frequency characteristics were created in the Mathcad environment. The two-link control system of the OED with the specified parameters of the CO for the considered movement was presented as two independent azimuth and elevation control channels.Results. The processes of control of the on-board optoelectronic system in the stabilization and tracking modes were described. To study the dynamics of spatial control of the OOEP in accordance with the ACS methodology, a computer simulation model (CSM) of the digital automatic control systems (DACS) of the OED was developed. It was implemented in the Matlab environment and consisted of CSM CO, drives, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers taking into account non-linearities, a central computing device (CCD), a guidance software device, a CSMcarrier that implemented the equations of motion. Harmonic vibrations of the carrier were described. The errors of tracking and stabilization in the tracking mode with an additional control action introduced in the form of a constant speed were determined. The dynamics of spatial control of the OOED was investigated. A computer simulation model of a digital automatic control system of an optoelectronic device, the results of modeling the DACS OED without considering the board movement, and the processes of OED control subject to movement were visualized.Discussion and Conclusions. The stabilization accuracy was calculated for the studied cases. It was established that the stabilization tens of times exceeded the previously stated indicators, and it tens of times reduced the requirements for the convergence of the laser beam and the laser radiation power when developing the optical path of the product in question. The proposed CSM can be used in the development of the on-board optoelectronic systems. In this case, the application of the presented methodology and CSM will help to reduce labor costs and minimize errors.
A. A. Sahakyan, D. A. Butko
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-142-149

Abstract:
Introduction. A gravity conduit with a control valve and a pressure regulator in the gravity water-supply pipe is considered under conditions when the hydraulic regime of the water-supply system is not disturbed. In relation to such a system, the problems of converting the energy of local artificial hydraulic resistance into electricity are investigated.Materials and Methods. Literature that highlights the possibility of using microturbines for power generation in water systems was studied. The actual values noted by the continuous pressure recorder (logger) for 12 hours were presented, as well as the water consumption by the turbine at a given unit section (the average for a year), and the pressure differential. It was noted that the use of small hydroelectric power plants in water supply systems significantly reduced the cost of their operation. The indicators of water consumption in the hydroturbine unit during the year, broken down by months, were given. The maximum power at the turbine inlet was calculated. The principles of selecting the type of hydraulic turbine were described. The average efficiency values for different elements of the hydroturbine plant, the average parameters of the power of the small hydro and the corresponding indicators of the average monthly electricity generation were indicated.Results. Equipping the units under study with specially designed turbines can enable to obtain electrical energy through converting artificially created by local resistance and extinguished mechanical energy. It is possible to apply the approaches described in this article when replacing many of the pressure control units of the Yerevan City Network system. The productivity of a small hydro power plant was predicted, as well as the terms of its construction and operation — for 2 years and 30 years, respectively. The construction and maintenance costs were calculated in advance. The expected data on income, expenses, and net profit are given. It is indicated that it will potentially be close to 6 million drams per year. The analysis of the data allowed us to conclude that the internal rate of return will be at the level of 10.4%, and the payback period is 9 years.Discussion and Conclusions. We recommend replacing the regulator with a hydroturbine having the same hydraulic resistance and automatic flow control in the system. The conclusions were confirmed by the energy and economic indicators of the hydroturbine plant located on the section of the Arzakan — Yerevan main water pipeline.
V. I. Sanchugov,
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-130-141

Abstract:
Introduction. Some of the major factors in the occurrence of vibration of units, causing fatigue failure of the housings of elements, pipelines, and failure of pump elements, are pulsations of the working medium in the hydraulic systems of machine tools, fuel feed systems of aircraft engines and liquid-propellant engine supply. This study aimed at the implementation of a method for determining the dynamic characteristics of a volumetric pump using special bench systems, and the comparison of the calculation results to the experimental data. The stages of calculating the dynamic characteristics of a volumetric pump were described, taking into account the pre-developed special bench systems on the example of an external gear pump with a capacity of 14 cm3 /rev. The implementation of V. P. Shorin's load variation method using special bench systems developed by the authors with predetermined dynamic characteristics was shown. The main stages of the methodology for determining the dynamic characteristics of a gear pump were described.Materials and Methods. Methods of spectral analysis of pulsating pressure were applied in the work. Pulsations of fluid flow at the pump outlet were determined using the impedance method, the method of load variation, and special bench systems.Results. The paper implemented a technique for determining the dynamic characteristics of a gear pump in the drive shaft speed range of 500-2500 rpm for four harmonic components of the vibration spectrum in a wide range of dynamic loads (from inertial to capacitive nature). The bench systems yielding the calculation of the dynamic characteristics of the pump with a minimum error based on the condition of matching the dynamic load and the source of vibrations were analyzed. The developed approach to the evaluation of the dynamic characteristics of the pump was verified through comparing the calculated and experimental data of pressure pulsations in the bench systems with choke, cavity and an extended pipeline at the pump outlet.Discussion and Conclusions. The method for determining the dynamic characteristics of a volumetric pump was implemented using special bench systems developed by the authors. The research results show that the gear pump under study can be considered as an independent source of flow fluctuations, for which the deviation of its own dynamic characteristics from the average values does not exceed 10% for the first harmonic component.
M. R. Gimadeev, A. A. Li
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-116-129

Abstract:
Introduction. Domestic and foreign works on the milling of complex-profile surfaces with a ball-end tool were analyzed. Methods of surface quality control and ways to provide amplitude parameters of roughness, based on research data and field experiments, were considered. Theoretical provisions on the determination of cutting forces and the results of vibroacoustic diagnostics were presented.Materials and Methods. The methods of correlation analysis, comparison and generalization of the results were applied. The data were calculated at different tool angles, taking into account the instantaneous cutting forces, and were fixed in the range of values of the variable feed per tooth (fz) and the angle of inclination of the surface (γ). The vibroacoustic diagnostic data and theoretical data of the presented model at different tool inclination angles were verified by experiment. Consequently, such methods can be used to predict surface roughness parameters.Results. The relationship between cutting forces, tool inclination angle, and vibroacoustic diagnostics data was found. A model of the cutting force and tool displacements was formulated taking into account the inclination of the surface. The optimal range of the inclination angle of the tool to the surface to be machined, at which the minimum values of the amplitude parameters of roughness were achieved, was determined. The sound vibrations obtained empirically, presented in spectral and wave forms, were in good agreement with data from other sources. This allowed us to conclude about the feasibility of forecasting and monitoring roughness parameters in real time through acoustics.Discussion and Conclusions. It was established that the growth of forces in the direction ae(X) and fz(Y) was observed at γ > 40°. This was due to the distribution of the components of the cutting force along the cutting edge and depended on the inclination of the surface. The amplitude parameters decreased when the angle increased from 10 to 40 degrees. The found interrelations of force analysis, processing directions, and vibroacoustic diagnostics have validated the use of vibroacoustic diagnostics to predict surface roughness. Acoustic diagnostics, regardless of the layout of technological equipment, enables to quickly adjust the sound device and assess the impact of cutting modes on roughness parameters.
I. R. Bondarenko, , V. S. Perevuznik, L. A. Kovalev
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-91-98

Abstract:
Introduction. The paper presents a brief kinematic analysis, as well as the application of D'Alembert's principle to finding the relationship between the force parameters in the transmission mechanism of a robotic manipulator constructed from a twisted arm chain. The use of this transfer mechanism can enhance the life of the arm actuator, the accuracy of its positioning, and increase the workload compared to the flexible linkage actuators (twisted strings). The work aimed at obtaining dependences between the displacements of circuit elements, as well as their force parameters required to monitor the control system operation of these devices.Materials and Methods. In the course of solving the problem, an elementary segment (element) of the transmission chain was considered. To find the relationship between the loads in the element, the virtual displacement principle was used. When finding kinematic connections between displacements, a brief geometric analysis of the transmission chain element was carried out. To conduct a comparative analysis of the analytical dependences obtained, a simulation technique implemented on a graphical link model using the NX software package was applied.Results. In the course of the study, we obtained dependences for determining the magnitude of the moment developed on the input link, depending on the external workload and its rotation angle, as well as for defining the linear displacement of the output link. A simulation model of the actuator was constructed, which can be applied in the dynamic study of the actuator mechanism, taking into account the inertia of the links.Discussion and Conclusions. From the obtained analytical dependences, we determined the value of the angle of rotation of the input link of the mechanism element, at which the maximum torque value for a fixed workload on the output element was achieved, as well as the maximum linear displacement of the output link. The calculated values were in good agreement with similar values obtained from the results of the simulation experiment, which gave us the possibility of using analytical dependences in the formation of a robot control system. In addition, these dependences made it possible to provide the selection of actuators with the required force indicators.
D. A. Matlygin, , , S. A. Timofeev
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-99-106

Abstract:
Introduction. The article elucidates increasing the efficiency of turn-milling of powdered metal high-speed steel products. Turn-milling can be used as an alternative to the traditional turning method. The article describes advantages of the turn-milling method. A review of studies devoted to improving the surface quality of parts when turning by milling is given. The work aims at determining the effect of cutting modes on the surface roughness by the orthogonal turning method through milling powdered high-speed steel with a monolithic cutter.Materials and Methods. Statistical analysis methods based on the creation of a mathematical model for predicting microgeometric deviations of the treated surface were used. An experimental research method was applied to verify the adequacy of the mathematical model. The experiment was planned according to the non-composite design proposed by Box and Behnken. The experiment was carried out on a turning machining center with a driving tool. Powdered highspeed steel BÖHLER S390 MICROCLEAN was used as sample material for the experiment. A monolithic carbide milling cutter served as a cutting tool. During the experiment, the cutting speed, milling width, and feed per tooth varied. The roughness of the treated surface was measured by a contact profilometer.Results. A mathematical model of the formation of surface roughness depending on the processing modes was developed. During the experiments, the effect of cutting speed, tool feed, and radial cutting depth on the roughness of the treated surface was determined. It was established that the dependence of roughness on feed had a linear character over the entire investigated range of cutting modes. In turn, the dependence of roughness on the cutting speed and cutting width had a parabolic character. The results obtained allowed us to achieve the roughness of the treated surface Ra = 1.85 without reducing the processing performance. Discussion andConclusions. The developed mathematical model reflects the impact of cutting modes on the surface roughness when turning high-speed steel with a monolithic cutter. The results of the conducted research can be used to determine the optimal cutting modes that provide a given surface quality in the manufacture of real parts under the production conditions. It is recommended to continue the research with the control of additional output parameters, such as temperature and vibration. Reducing the effect of regenerative self-oscillations on the roughness of the treated surface can be reached through assigning the cutting modes based on the results of a modal analysis of the process system.
D. A. Shlyakhin,
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-81-90

Abstract:
Introduction. The article studies the problem of investigation of coupled nonstationary thermoelectroelastic fields in piezoceramic structures. The main approaches related to the construction of a general solution to the initial non-selfadjoint equations describing the process under consideration are briefly outlined. The work aims at constructing a new closed solution to the axisymmetric thermoelectroelasticity problem for a long piezoceramic cylinder.Materials and Methods. A long hollow cylinder whose electrodated surfaces were connected to a measuring device with large input resistance was considered. On the cylindrical surfaces of the plate, a time-varying temperature was given. The hyperbolic theory of Lord–Shulman thermo-electro-elasticity was used. The closed solution is constructed using a generalized method of finite integral transformations.Results. The developed calculation algorithm makes it possible to determine the stress–strain state of the cylinder, its temperature, and electric fields. In addition, it becomes possible to investigate the coupling of fields in a piezoceramic cylinder, as well as to analyze the effect of relaxation of the heat flow on the fields under consideration.Discussion and Conclusion. The use of assumptions about the equality of the components of the temperature stress tensor and the absence of temperature effect on the electric field allowed us to formulate a self-adjoint initial system of equations and construct a closed solution.
I. R. Antipas,
Advanced Engineering Research, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.23947/2687-1653-2022-22-2-107-115

Abstract:
Introduction. Over the past decade, global demand for pressure vessels has increased significantly, specifically in such industries as aviation, space, chemical, and oil and gas. Being under the constant impact of high internal pressure, the walls of the tanks are under increased stress, which can cause their sudden destruction. To eliminate this probability and improve the strength characteristics, the tanks are made in the form of metal cylinders with an internal coating of composite material consisting of resin reinforced with carbon fibers. This article aimed at studying the effect of the angle of inclination of carbon fiber on cylindrical tanks and determining the maximum destructive pressure using the finite element method of ANSYS program.Materials and Methods. Using the ANSYS program, a finite element model of a tank was created. It has a central part, which is a metal cylinder with an internal coating of composite material consisting of polymer reinforced with carbon fibers. At the ends of the tank, spiral wound hemispheres were placed. In these studies, SHELL 99 was used to model the layered composite material. The Tsai-Wu theory was used to determine the pressure tank failure criterion.Results. The cylindrical tank model was calculated for two types of fiber winding paths: annular and spiral, at different angles of their inclination. The results of the pressure value analysis for different fiber inclination angles showed that, starting from the angle value of 0° and up to 45°, it increased, and then, up to the angle value of 65°, it began to decrease. The critical pressure value for a carbon fiber reinforced tank was 207 MPa, which was obtained at a fiber angle of 45º.Discussion and Conclusion. Analysis of the studies showed that at a fiber inclination angle of 45º, the value of the maximum stress turned out to be the smallest, and the maximum possible destructive pressure at the same angle was 207 MPa. It follows, that the optimal fiber orientation angle to provide safe operation of the high-pressure tank is ± 45º, and the carbon fiber tank, calculated at the same fiber winding angle, has the maximum strength value.
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