Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2159 / 2162-2167
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 77
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André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 10, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2020.101001

Abstract:
Seven percent voluntary body weight decrease by boxers requires 21 days while 4.4 percent increase needs only one day. Energy and fluid intakes reduction does not affect boxers punching force. Boxers effective punch masses and body weights correlate. Wrist girths and competition rankings of boxers correlate. Boxers show leanness body fat percentage. Boxers, generally highly mesomorphic, with increasing body weight, show ectomorphy decreases but endomorphy and mesomorphy increases. Vibration treatment enhances power in boxers arm flexors. Presence, nature and thickness of bandages and gloves donned influence boxers punch force. Stance posture adopted by boxers ends in locomotion functional parameters adaptations. Muscular recruitment sequence during rear straight punches may be influenced by the target height (head or body levels) and the boxer intention (produce maximal force or maximal speed). Handgrip strength: 1) increases from younger to older and from lighter to heavier boxers, and 2) correlates with competition ranking. Rear knee extension increases rear straight punching force to the head. Compared to uppercut and straight punches, the hook produces the highest change in hand velocity. Maximal forces are larger for the rear than the lead hand, and greater in more than in less experienced boxers. Hook punch force is greater than those of uppercut and straight punches. Boxer aim (produce maximum force or maximum speed) influence his punching force. Massage neither prevents a decrement in repeated performance nor has detrimental effects on performance, but increases recovery perceptions, compared with the passive rest intervention.
Peter L. Latchman, Gregory J. Gates, Robert Thiel, Robert S. Axtell, Weili Zhu, Ally Morin-Viall, Tianhong Yue, Qin Yang, Kenneth Gardner, Ronald E. De Meersman
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 09, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2019.91001

Abstract:
Purpose: African-American men (AAM) have a greater risk of hypertension (HTN) than Caucasian men (CM). To reduce this risk, determining the differences in mechanisms involved in HTN and understanding the relationship between these mechanisms and factors affecting blood pressure (BP) in AAM and CM is necessary. One such mechanism is spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS) and two factors are cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and arterial stiffness (AS). The aims of this study were to determine, firstly, whether there are differences in sBRS between young, normotensive AAM and CM, and secondly, to determine if CRF and AS are significant predictors of sBRS in young, normotensive AAM and CM. Methods: Twenty-three normotensive AAM and 36 CM were recruited from Southern Connecticut State University. Measures included anthropometric, sBRS (alpha-index), and CRF (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]), as well as AS (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [Cf-PWV]). Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups and multiple regression analysis was used to determine how much of the variation in sBRS was explained by CRF and AS. Results: The sBRS was significantly lower in AAM (10.3 ± 3.8 ms/mmHg) vs. CM (13.3 ± 5.7 ms/ mmHg), P = 0.03. CRF and AS were not significant predictors of sBRS in AAM (P = 0.25) and CM (P = 0.30). There was no relationship between, sBRS, CRF and AS; CRF was significantly reduced in AAM vs. CM (45.1 ± 6.3 vs. 52.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg−1·min−1, P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Young normotensive AAM demonstrated significantly lower sBRS vs. CM, irrespective of having fair CRF and normal BP. CRF and AS are not significant predictors of sBRS in young, normotensive AAM and CM. The attenuation in sBRS in AAM did not result in AAM having higher BP versus CM. This finding underscores the need for more detailed examination of the role of sBRS in the etiology of HTN in AAM.
André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 08, pp 13-28; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2018.82002

Abstract:
The present commentary is aimed to contribute to the improvement of the judo specific test proposal elaborated and validated by Almansba, Franchini and Sterkowicz (2007) 1) with the aim of evaluating specifically the physical fitness of competing judo practitioners, 2) wishing the test to be representative both qualitatively and quantitatively of the effort sustained by the practitioners. All alone, the test proposal, which utilizes rapid repetitions of one judo technique off-balancing and body positioning by the same practitioner (Uchi-komi) may be usable instead of three non-judo specific tests: the vertical jump test of Sargent (1921), the multistage fitness test of Léger et al. (1984) and the Australian shuttle run test described by Cazorla et al. (2004). However, the judo specific test proposal 1) specificity is still to be increased and must ideally turn into test individualization (using the proposal as a template), as in judo, trained individuals have favorite techniques they use in preference to others; 2) represents competing judo practitioners efforts quantitatively but not qualitatively (throws are represented, but neither hold downs, arm-locks, strangle holds nor chokeholds); 3) brings subjects to physiological exhaustion but psychological exhaustion emotional component is left out of account. Uchi-komi utilized by the test proposal could better be replaced by continual completions of variable judo techniques by the same practitioner (Kakari-geiko) which allow the practitioner who is attacking by means of judo techniques (Tori) to utilize linked up techniques. Nevertheless, to date, the test proposed for assessing the suitability of judo practitioners to meet competition demands is the most judo specific and the most economic.
Bonaventure Awede, Mariane S. Hounnou, Christiane Tshabu-Aguemon, Grace Adehan, François Djrolo, Marcellin Amoussou-Guenou, Anatole Laleye
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 08, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2018.81001

Abstract:
Thyroid dysfunction is frequent in pregnant women and is often associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcome. In the present work, thyroid function of pregnant women from Benin republic was studied. Two hundred forty (240) pregnant women, without thyroid disease history, have been included in the study. A blood sample was drawn for measurement of TSH, free T3 and free T4 serum levels. From the first to the third trimester, plasma levels of free T3 and free T4 decreased when plasma levels of TSH increased. Using recommendations of the 2011 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, thyroid dysfunction was observed in 24.17% of subjects. Hypothyroidism was present in 22.50% of subjects with 19.17% of subclinical hypothyroidism, 0.83% of overt hypothyroidism and 2.50% of hypothyroxinemia and hyperthyroidism was observed in 1.67% of subjects. An increase from 15.52% to 28.07% was observed in the frequency of hypothyroidism from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. When an upper cut-off value of 4 mU/L was used for TSH, as recommended in the 2017 ATA guidelines, prevalence of thyroid disorders was 14.58% with 12.91% of hypothyroidism but no hypothyroidism was observed in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. A rise in hypothyroidism frequency was observed when pregnant women age increased. Hypothyroidism was very common in pregnant women in Benin. To allow accurate assessment of thyroid status in pregnant women in Benin, pregnancy specific range for plasma level of TSH and thyroid hormones should be established.
Valery Kazakov, Alexander Skoromets, Tima Stuchevskaya, Dmitry Rudenko, Vladislav Kolynin
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 07, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2017.72002

Abstract:
Along with hereditary myopathies, there are many exogenic (the same a not hereditary) muscle affections due to the pathology of endocrine gland’s functioning. These forms of muscle pathology are called endocrine myopathies. In the cases of thyroid gland hyperfunction (the same a thyrotoxicosis), different regions of neuromuscular system may be involved in the pathological process. Thyrotoxic myopathy (TM) which is a subject of this investigation, occupies one of the first places between thyrotoxic (the same a thyrotoxicosis) neuromuscular affections. Meanwhile, for a long time in literature there was no clarity about the degree of muscle weakness and atrophy to diagnose TM in a patient. It’s because of the fact that the majority of patients complain of increased fatigue and general weakness due to thyrotoxicosis. In present time TM diagnostics is very rare. TM is a phenocopy (the clinical similar) of many neuromuscular diseases. However in literature, the data about peculiarities of clinical picture of TM is almost completely absent, it isn’t known about the frequency of affection of the isolated muscles or muscle groups, the topography of muscle weakness and successive involvement of isolated muscles in the pathological process during different stages of thyrotoxicosis and myopathy. The questions of differential diagnosis with similar neuromuscular disorders are described very poorly. In present article, we accent our attention at the clinical differentiation of the TM with other neuromuscular diseases, namely muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, Addison’s disease, proximal spinal muscular atrophy, steroid myopathy and neurosis. In our opinion, the early diagnosis of TM may help the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in patients who have no classical clinical signs of this disease, i.e. in patients with latent thyrotoxicosis.
Lena J.-T. Strömberg
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 07, pp 53-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2017.74005

Abstract:
A continuum thermodynamic model for how whirls can transform into thermal energy-forms determined by a functional relation for temperature is derived. This is used to describe how fishes maintain circulation in the vascular system, at very low temperatures.
Lena J-T Strömberg
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 07, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2017.73003

Abstract:
Present long range interactions for signals, as well as large scale rare phenomena at Earthquakes are subjects of wave dynamics with large impact. Here, that will be addressed in a general (science fiction) format. The method used is based on energy balance for a continuum and kinematics of noncircular orbits, nco. Released vortex formation in a process invoking escape velocity for beamed up Dinosaurs, is modeled with fluid dynamics of a Helix. It is found that elasticity in terms of volumetric changes and vorticities interact giving large velocities and interchange of potential and kinetic energies. The model is an example of atmosphere integrative physiology.
Peter L. Latchman, Robert Thiel, Gregory Gates, Weili Zhu, Robert Axtell, Kenneth Gardner, William Lunn, Ronald DeMeersman
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 07, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2017.73004

Abstract:
Purpose: Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and cardiovagal tone (CVT) are indicators of cardiovascular health. Associations between these variables provide information about their roles in cardiovascular disease. However, evaluating these associations from a gender perspective and gaining an understanding of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and AIx based on gender can provide additional information. Therefore, we examined the relationships between CVT, measured as the log transformed high-frequency power of R-R intervals from electrocardiogram measurements (lnHFR-R); cardiorespiratory fitness, measured as maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max); and AIx at a heart rate of 75 beats·min-1([email protected]). We hypothesized that the relationships between CVT, cardiorespiratory fitness, and [email protected] would differ based on gender. Methods: We examined the associations between lnHFR-R, VO2max, and [email protected] in 41 women and 39 men. Power spectral density analysis of heart rate variability determined lnHFR-R, radial tonometry determined [email protected] and the Bruce Treadmill Protocol determined VO2max. Results: In men, lnHFR-R positively correlated with and significantly predicted [email protected] (P = 0.005) but not in women (P = 0.49). For every unit increase in lnHFR-R, there was a 4.6 unit increase in [email protected] in men versus a 1.0 unit increase in women. There was a significant inverse relationship between VO2max and [email protected], with VO2max being a significant predictor of [email protected] in men (P = 0.01). For every unit increase in VO2max, there was a 0.60 unit decrease in [email protected] in men versus a 0.2 unit decrease in women. Conclusions: The associations between CVT and [email protected] and between cardiorespiratory fitness and [email protected] differ by gender. CVT and cardiorespiratory fitness are significant predictors of [email protected] in men but not in women.
Ikuo Inoue, Ryo Kubota, Shohan Yanagi, Masumi Akita, , Shigehiro Katayama, Akira Shimada, Mistuhiko Noda
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 07, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2017.71001

Abstract:
Aims: There has been no evidence on the effects of evolocumab, protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, on small size LDL. We observationally investigated the efficacy and side effects of evolocumab on the LDL subfraction particle diameter using PAGE system for lipoprotein analysis. Methods: We defined 30 patients with high-risk hyperlipidemia. As for analysis of LDL subfraction profile, we used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis three methods: 1) 3% nondenatured poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis method (3%PAGE), 2) 2% - 16% nondenatured poly-acrylamide gradient gel electro-phoresis method (2% - 16% GGE) and 3) 2.7% - 5% GGE. Evolocumab 140 mg/day administered together with statin significantly improved serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-dense lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-C after four-week treatment. Results: TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C levels were improved by, respectively, 33%, 20%, 10%, and 54%. The mean LDL size significantly increased from 25.6 ± 0.4 nm to 26.4 ± 0.8 nm. The small dense LDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C), large buoyant LDL-cholesterol (lbLDL-C), and mid-band lipoprotein-cholesterol were reduced, respectively. Therefore, the preliminary study on this paper can be the first step into a new insight on the world of lipid metabolism. Conclusion: Short-term administration of evolocumab addedons to statin therapy, significantly reduced small size LDL levels.
Shayna A. Wrighten, Gerardo G. Piroli
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Volume 06, pp 19-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojmip.2016.62003

Abstract:
Insulin induces long-term depression (insulin-LTD) in the CA1 region of the rat juvenile hippocampus. This insulin-LTD may be due in part to internalization of the GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) events that haven’t been studied in the mature rat hippocampus. In our studies, we used hippocampal preparations from juvenile (14 - 25 days) and mature (60 - 90 days) rats to assess insulin modulation of CA1 synaptic transmission and AMPAR trafficking and phosphorylation. Using field potential electrophysiology, we observed that insulin induced LTD in the juvenile hippocampus (as previously reported) in the presence and absence of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but produced no significant long-term changes in the mature hippocampus in the presence of PI3K activity. Interestingly, during PI3K inhibition, insulin did produce LTD in the mature hippocampus. Additionally, insulin induced a long-term decrease in plasma membrane expression of the GluA2 and GluA1 subunits of the AMPAR in the juvenile, but not mature hippocampus. Furthermore, there was a long-term decrease in GluA1 phosphorylation at Serine 845 in the juvenile, but not mature hippocampus. These data reveal that insulin modulation of synaptic plasticity and AMPAR modulation within the hippocampus is age-dependent, suggesting that insulin-regulated behaviors may also show age-dependence. These findings are important largely due to the increased use of insulin as a therapeutic throughout the lifespan. Our data suggest that additional work should be done to determine how this use of insulin throughout different stages of life might affect synaptic function and development.
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