Polar Biology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0722-4060 / 1432-2056
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 5,020
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, Philip R. Hollyman, Andy Black, Martin A. Collins
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Light-induced bird strikes on vessels occur frequently in association with areas of high seabird density, often resulting in bird mortalities. These incidents are poorly understood and likely under-reported by vessels. Here we present the details of four separate bird strike events (899, 206, 50 and 47 birds), which took place whilst vessels (two fishing trawlers and one tourist expedition ship) were navigating along the south coast of South Georgia, and discuss possible contributing factors. All species encountered in these events were burrowing petrel species in the family Procellariidae, with diving-petrel species (Pelecanoides spp.) being most commonly reported. All four events took place during the night in similar meteorological conditions, with poor visibility due to fog, light precipitation and low wind speeds. We identify the waters off the south coast, between King Haakon Bay and Drygalski Fjord, which have remained rat free and are of exceptional importance to breeding seabirds, as high risk for collisions and propose other high-risk areas. The different mortality rates recorded during these events are likely attributed to the varying actions taken by ship crew and persons on board. We propose actions that will help reduce the occurrence of events and mitigate the impact of bird strikes, including the avoidance of high-risk areas in certain night-time conditions. We give recommendations on what to do when birds land on board and stress the importance of reporting of events. Given the expected increase of both fishing and tourist ship activity in South Georgia waters, there is an increasing need to understand and mitigate this threat to seabirds.
, Gabriele La Mesa, Dieter Piepenburg, Julian Gutt, Joseph T. Eastman
Published: 17 May 2022
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 25 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 923-936; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03036-1

Abstract:
Seaweeds contain a wide range of secondary metabolites which serve multiple functions, including chemical and ecological mediation with microorganisms. Moreover, owing to their diverse bioactivity, including their antibiotic properties, they show potential for human use. Nonetheless, the chemical ecology of seaweeds is not equally understood across different regions; for example, Antarctic seaweeds are among the lesser studied groups. With the aim of improving our current understanding of the chemical ecology and potential bioactivity of Antarctic seaweeds, we performed a screening of antibiotic activity using crude extracts from 22 Antarctic macroalgae species. Extractions were performed separating lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions at natural concentrations. Antimicrobial activity assays were performed using the disk diffusion method against seven Antarctic bacteria and seven human pathogenic surrogates. Our results showed that red seaweeds (especially Delisea pulchra) inhibited a larger number of microorganisms compared with brown seaweeds, and that lipophilic fractions were more active than hydrophilic ones. Both types of bacteria tested (Gram negative and Gram positive) were inhibited, especially by butanolic fractions, suggesting a trend of non-specific chemical defence. However, Gram-negative bacteria and one pathogenic fungus showed greater resistance. Our study contributes to the evidence of antimicrobial chemical interactions between Antarctic seaweeds and sympatric microorganisms, as well as the potential of seaweed extracts for pharmacological applications.
Published: 21 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 895-907; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03042-3

Abstract:
Marine Porifera (sponges) are known to produce several bioactive metabolites having a biotechnological potential, mostly derived from their bacterial symbionts; however, current knowledge on the production of metabolites such as enzymes and antibacterial molecules in sponges living in Antarctic environments is not fully exhaustive and needs further deepened investigation. The interest in discovering the broad spectrum of natural products potentially derived from species adapted to colonize extreme environments stimulates the research toward Antarctic sponge bioprospection. In this study, whole homogenates of Antarctic Demospongiae, belonging to five different species [Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sp., Haliclona (Rhizoniera) dancoi, Microxina sarai, Dendrilla antarctica, and Mycale acerata] were collected from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea) and examined for presence and activity of enzymes, including lysozyme, and antibacterial substances. Enzyme activities (leucine aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase, and alkaline phosphatase) were measured using fluorogenic substrates; lysozyme content was determined on plates containing lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls as a substrate. Homogenates were screened in microtiter plates for their antibacterial activity against Antarctic bacterial isolates, and the absorbance reduction was measured with a microplate reader. All homogenates exhibited proteolytic, glycolytic, and phosphatasic activities, lysozyme and antibacterial activities at near “in situ” temperature (5 °C), with some differences among the examined species. Results confirmed that Antarctic sponge homogenates are interesting sources of different bioactive substances, likely produced from associated bacterial symbionts, and that could have great potential to be used in medicine or industrial applications.
, Tereza Cahová, Eveline Pinseel, Kateřina Kopalová, Tyler J. Kohler, Filip Hrbáček, Bart Van de Vijver, Daniel Nývlt
Published: 19 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 873-894; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03038-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, S. Fielding, C. S. Reiss, G. M. Watters, P. N. Trathan
Published: 15 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 857-871; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03039-y

Abstract:
This study was performed to aid the management of the fishery for Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. Krill are an important component of the Antarctic marine ecosystem, providing a key food source for many marine predators. Additionally, krill are the target of the largest commercial fishery in the Southern Ocean, for which annual catches have been increasing and concentrating in recent years. The krill fishery is managed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which has endorsed a new management framework that requires information about the spatial distribution and biomass of krill. Here, we use krill density estimates from acoustic surveys and a GAMM framework to model habitat properties associated with high krill biomass during summer and winter in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, an area important to the commercial fishery. Our models show elevated krill density associated with the shelf break, increased sea surface temperature, moderate chlorophyll-a concentration and increased salinity. During winter, our models show associations with shallow waters (< 1500 m) with low sea-ice concentration, medium sea-level anomaly and medium current speed. Our models predict temporal averages of the distribution and density of krill, which can be used to aid CCAMLR’s revised ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Our models have the potential to help in the spatial and temporal design of future acoustic surveys that would preclude the need for modelled extrapolations. We highlight that the ecosystem approach to fisheries management of krill critically depends upon such field observations at relevant spatial and temporal scales.
Vladlen Trokhymets, Oleksander Savytskiy, Artem Zinkovskyi, Olena Gupalo, Ihor Dykyy, Dmytro Lutsenko, Anna Berezkina,
Published: 10 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 845-855; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03040-5

Abstract:
In the last three decades, several interdisciplinary studies investigated the marine ecosystems off the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of the most impacted areas of the Southern Ocean by the global warming. Although the extent of near-shore habitats along the WAP is wider than elsewhere in Antarctica, the coastal fish communities have been rarely studied. Complementing these previous studies, we provide new data on the species composition, population structure and relative abundance of the inshore fish community living off the Argentine Islands (Bellingshausen Sea). Fish samples were caught all the year round during four different periods spread over ten years (from 2006 to 2017). The fish fauna consisted of fourteen high-Antarctic and low-Antarctic species of notothenioids, most of them belonging to the Nototheniidae. Notothenia coriiceps was by far the most abundant species, followed in decreasing abundance by Chaenocephalus aceratus, Notothenia rossii, Trematomus newnesi and Trematomus bernacchii. Our findings provide context for future ecological studies as this area represents either a spawning and nursery area for multiple species in this study. More generally, the inshore waters off the Argentine Islands represent the southern limit of distribution for several low-Antarctic species, and our results provide critical baseline data for assessing possible disruptions in population dynamics driven by the ongoing climate change.
Alexander M. Rykov, Anastasiia S. Kuznetsova,
Published: 7 April 2022
Polar Biology, Volume 45, pp 965-970; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-022-03037-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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