Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2766-2276
Current Publisher: SciRes Literature LLC (10.37871)
Total articles ≅ 42
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Abhinav Shrivastava, Ravi Kant Singh, Pankaj Kumar Tyagi, Dilip Gore
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 011-020; doi:10.37871/jbres1180

Abstract:
The use of nanoparticles for the therapeutic purpose is gaining pronounced importance. In the last two decades, a number of nanomedicines received regulatory approval and several showed promises through clinical trials. In this content, it is important to synthesize nanoparticles from various sources and to check its efficiency, especially its antibacterial activity. In today’s scenario number nanomedicines are proving useful to control multidrug resistance and since the mechanism of action of nanoparticles is totally different from the small molecules like antibiotics it obviates the chances of drug resistance. In this review, we discussed three metal-based nanoparticles prepared from various reducing sources namely Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO NPs), Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle (TiO2 NPs) and Magnesium Dioxide Nanoparticle (MnO2 NPs). The focus also made towards the safety assessment of the several nanoparticles. In addition, the exact interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacterial cell surface and the resultant changes also been highlighted. The review put forward the sources, method, and antibacterial success of these nanoparticles so that future nanomedicines could be put forward.
Tekerek Saniye
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 034-037; doi:10.37871/jbres1184

Abstract:
In this study the effects of gamma radiations with compounds are an important subject in the field of medicine, radiation shielding and radiation physics. With technological advances the using of radiation has increased in the medicine in the last century. The mass absorpsion coefficient (µ/ρ) is the fundamental a quantity characterizing gamma ray and is of major importance in radiation shielding. In this study, the mass absorption coefficient of painkillers named Ketoprofen, Flurbiprofen, Etodolac, Ibuprofen, Meloxicam, Diclofenac and Aspirin were calculated at energy range from 4.65 keV to 59.543 keV using the WinXCom data programme. In addition total atomic (σta), moleculer (σtm), electronic cross-section (σte), effective atomic number (Zeff), effective electron density (Neff) were calculated.
Aamir Jalal Al Mosawi
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 021-029; doi:10.37871/jbres1181

Abstract:
There has been an increasing interest in famotidine research within the scientific medical community because of the emerging preliminary evidence suggesting its possible beneficial role in patients with COVID‑19. The aim of this paper to provide an overview of famotidine research progress relevant to COVID‑19.
Tekerek Saniye, Küçükönder Adnan
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 024-029; doi:10.37871/jbres1182

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to calculate the experimental and theoretical the mass attenuation coefficient some Br compounds by using transmission method. Also using these values were determined the total electronic section, total atomic section, effective atomic number, effective electron density and Kerma. We performed the calculations of these values in attenuation by using direct excitation experimental geometry. The total attenuation cross sections of some halogene Br compounds were measured in a narrow beam good geometry using a high resolution Si(Li) detector in the energy with γ photons at 59.543 keV from Am-241 annular source. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were computed from the XCOM data programme, based on mixture rule method. This study provide new insight into the literature since the values of effective atomic number, electron density and Kerma for some Br compounds have not been determined before. According to the results shown in mass attenuation coefficient, Zeff and Neff of Br compounds are closely associated with chemical structure. This research were undertaken to explore how Bromine compounds is gamma ray shielding material.
Tirtha Man Shrestha, Laxman Bhusal, Ram Prasad Neupane, Rajan Ghimire, Pratap Narayan Prasad
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 001-007; doi:10.37871/jbres1178

Abstract:
Background: With the increasing number of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), emergency visit of these patients is also increasing. This study tried to find some of the reasons for which patients with CKD visit the emergency room and the reasons for their mortality. Method: A cross-sectional study was done in the emergency room of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. We conducted this study from 1 May 2018 to 31 October 2018 among the adult CKD patients under regular hemodialysis. We used a convenience sampling method. Three hundred patients were included. We studied the following variables: patient’s age, sex, risk factors, laboratory parameter during the emergency visit (viz. hemoglobin, pH, serum bicarbonate level, and potassium level), emergency hemodialysis, blood transfusion, and clinical outcome during emergency room stay. Result: We enrolled 300 patients in the study. The mean age was 45.04 years in the mortality group and 45.69 years in the survival group 152 (50.7%) of patients had hypertension. Mean hemoglobin was 6.52gm% (SD = 1.93). Mean hemoglobin in survivor and the non-survivor group was 6.59 gm% and 5.58 gm% respectively. Serum creatinine was 1220.87 micromol/l and 1064.01 micromol/l in mortality and survivor group respectively. Likewise, serum potassium was 6.13 mEq/l and 5.74 mEq/l among mortality and survivor groups respectively. Binary logistic regression showed significant association (p
Pinaki Ghosh, Ayan Das, Madhurina Majunder, Samir Kumar Mukherjee, Debashis Chatterjee
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 372-382; doi:10.37871/jbres1168

Abstract:
In Bengal Delta Plain (BDP), shallow aquifer (
Ashok Chakraborty, Anil Diwan
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 431-438; doi:10.37871/jbres1175

Abstract:
Potential clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2 infection upon remdesivir treatment has been established. Recently, FDA has granted full approval for the clinical use of remdesivir for COVID therapy. However, the efficacy of remdesivir alone or in combination with other antivirals is still open to research, especially in terms of benefits vs. risk ratio. We here review remdesivir therapy based on a search for relevant pharmacological evidences with regards to the Pharmacokinetics (PK) and Pharmacodynamics (PD) of appropriate antiviral compounds against COVID-19 alone or in combination with other potential therapies. Drug–Drug Interactions (DDIs), if any in case of combo treatments have also been taken into consideration. We found promising in vitro evidence for efficacy of remdesivir, in combination with (hydroxy) chloroquine and/or favipiravir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture studies. However, clinical trial results from these combinations were not in line with the promising in vitro data, and therefore limit the use of such combinations in practice. Remdesivir and antibody therapies have also been used clinically either in combination or in sequential application. However, there are no substantive evaluable clinical data on these uses as of now. Additionally, some other drug combinations with remdesivir have been proposed in this article for future improvement in therapies.
Pawel Lizis, Wojciech Kobza, Grzegorz Manko, Jaroslaw Jaszczur-Nowicki, Joanna Bukowska, Jacek Perlinski, Barbara Para, Damian Wisniewski, Jolanta Nawara
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 383-388; doi:10.37871/jbres1169

Abstract:
Introduction: Numerous modalities of conservative therapeutic interventions are available to achieve the best health benefits in people with Low Back Pain (LBP), e.g., kinesiotherapy, physical therapy, behavior therapy. People with LBP continue to experience pain and disability despite receiving the best evidence based therapy. Osteopathic Manual Therapy (OMT) and Kaltenborn-Evjenth Ortopedic Manual Therapy (KEOMT) are the other options, although their effectiveness remains controversial. The aim of this study is a proposal for a protocol for randomized trials to compare the effectiveness of OMT vs. KEOMT on pain and disability in people suffering from LBP. Methods and analysis: It's a randomized study with two-arms parallel, designed with concealed allocation, the assessor's blinding with intention to-treat analysis. It will include 34 people a group with severe disability ranged from 41 to 60% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). There will be two groups: a treatment group (OMT) and a comparison group (KEOMT). All the patients in both groups will receive 2 treatments a week for 5 weeks. Each session in both groups will not exceed 30 minutes. During each session OMT and KEOMT techniques will be repeated 3 times. A baseline assessment will be performed pre and post intervention, two days later. The following parameters will be assessed during the evaluations: Numeric Pain Rating Scale – NPRS, ODI. Ethics and dissemination: The trial was approved by the Scientific Research Ethics Committee of University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. Registration approval number: 9/2018. Trial registration: The study protocol was prospectively registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2019 (registration ID: ChiCTR1900028580). Strengths and Limitations of this Study The participants' random allocation to the experimental and the control groups. The same experienced physiotherapist, blind to the outcome measures, provides the interventions. The same assistant, blind to the group allocation, administrates the outcomes. The same number of the interventions, the compared contact time with the physiotherapist providing the interventions. A short follow-up period and/or a rather small sample size.
Niraj Kumar Srivastava, Somnath Mukherjee, Vijay Nath Mishra
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 393-403; doi:10.37871/jbres1171

Abstract:
Muscular dystrophies are inherited myogenic diseases and considered by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with variable distribution and severity. The essential characteristics of muscular dystrophies are selective involvement, significant wasting and weakness of muscles. The most common and frequent types of muscular dystrophies are Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (FSHD) and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD). Metabolic disturbance is observed in muscular dystrophy patients (DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B). Alteration in the level of metabolites (BCAA, Glu/ Gln, Ace, alanine, glucose, histidine, propionate, tyrosine and fumarate) in dystrophic muscle reflects the alteration in the activity of enzymes. Collectively, these observations propose that there is alteration in the rate of glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis pathway and protein metabolism (catabolism & anabolism) in the muscular dystrophy patients. Metabolic disturbance, further provide the explanation about the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy.
Maha J Hashim, Jeffrey R Fry
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 1, pp 389-392; doi:10.37871/jbres1170

Abstract:
The main characteristic of antioxidants is the capacity to scavenge free radicals produced during cell metabolism, and thus they prevent oxidative stress, which may reduce the risk of many diseases. In this study, we evaluate the antioxidant properties of selected four compounds Quercetin (Q), Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, (EGCG), Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and Sulforaphane (SF) by DPPH assay. The view is to establish the distinction between direct and indirect antioxidants, which would be the form of the basis for subsequent cellular antioxidant assays in our further studies. For sample assay: 20 μL of antioxidant solutions of Q, EGCG, I3C, and SF was added to 180 of 2,2- Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. For blank solution, DMSO was used. Leaving the plate for 15 min in a dark place and measure the absorbance at 540 nm. The results demonstrated that Q and EGCG possess direct antioxidant properties, which can be used in further cellular studies. I3C and SFN did not appear to possess any direct antioxidant behaviours during DPPH radical scavenging.
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