Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences

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EISSN : 2766-2276
Published by: SciRes Literature LLC (10.37871)
Total articles ≅ 195
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Sarmishtha Ghosh
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 713-714; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1301

Abstract:
Technological advancement and change of student attitude towards learning have brought in the necessity of blended learning which is now ubiquitous across medical and allied health sciences education. Flipped classroom forms an increasingly large part of this approach. As the term states, Flipped Classroom means “inverted” classroom. Does that mean a physical inversion? No, it does not. It means the activities that take place within the four walls of a traditional classroom and activities that take place in the personal learning space of a student are reversed. The concept is nothing new, but it has evolved over the years, considering it’s usability and acceptability amongst students and lecturers.
Khin Phyu Pyar, Soe Win Hlaing, Aung Aung, Zar Ni Htet Aung, Nyan Lin Maung, Kaung Myat, Lay Maung Maung, Ye Min Hein, Lynn Htet Aung, Chan Pyae Aung, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 654-659; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1293

Abstract:
A young farmer, tenth standard student, helping his grandfather during holiday, developed anuria after viper bite. Because of headache, non-enhanced CT scan head was done on admission which showed a small pituitary haemorrhage with normal ventricles. Later, he had generalized fits and second non-enhanced CT scan head was repeated which revealed a small pituitary haemorrhage with dilated ventricles. He also had acute kidney injury, septicaemia, cellulitis and DIC. The serum level of TSH, free T3 & free T4 were low; thus, replacement was done. Cerebrospinal fluid study (protein, sugar, cells) including culture was normal. Renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis), platelets transfusion and antibiotics were given. He had torrential polyuria (urine output 12 liter per day) when he recovered from renal failure and it improved dramatically with desmopressin replacement. There was improvement in third non-enhanced CT scan head and fourth one was consistent with normal ventricle and reduction in size of pituitary haemorrhage.
Hassan Malvandi
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 696-704; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1299

Abstract:
Background: Sediments in the aquatic ecosystems can be used as suitable indicators for monitoring contaminants. Then, objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Mohammad Abad River, to determine the degree of pollution of heavy metals in sediments using some major contamination indices; to identify the major sources (anthropogenic or natural sources) of the studied metals; and to evaluate the “reference river” of the river under study for ecotoxicology studies. Methods: Samples of sediment were taken from six sites of the river. The present study, eleven heavy metals (chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, selenium, magnesium, silver, aluminum and arsenic) were studied. Results: Comparison of metal concentrations with those of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed no association with harmful biological effects for the heavy metals studied except for Se and As. The results of the contamination factor index showed low pollution levels for most metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Al), moderate pollution levels for As, and very high pollution levels for Se. The degree of contamination (Cd) and modified degree of contamination (mCd), showing the total contamination of elements, demonstrated very high degree contamination status in the study area. According to the index of quantification of contamination, the values of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Al were derived mainly from geogenic sources of enrichment, while the values for Se and As were enriched by anthropogenic source of enrichment. Conclusion: These findings suggest that continuous monitoring of Se and As in sediment and organisms of the Mohammad Abad River should be directed to evaluate the threat of these elements to the public health and to the ecology of the river under study.
Stephanie A Ihezie, Nachum Dafny
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 731-740; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1304

Abstract:
Opioid addiction is classified as a Substance Use Disorder (SUD), a complex and chronic health condition with physical, social, and psychological consequences. While there is no cure for it, we present a novel approach towards preventing a hallmark feature of addiction-- the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Opioids exert numerous effects, acutely and chronically, on the nervous system with physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal being the most adverse chronic features. The degree of opioid dependence can be quantified by the frequency and/or intensity of the behavioral expression of withdrawal seen after abrupt termination of opioid consumption or after treatment with an opioid antagonist such as naloxone. Although the Central Nervous System (CNS) is the primary area of opioid impact, the involvement of the immune system in modifying CNS phenomena was suggested nearly two centuries ago and proved by several groups within the last few decades. Through a series of studies with immunomodulators alpha interferon, cyclosporine A, and cortisol, preclinical experiments show that administration of these agents prior to chronic morphine exposure prevents the expression of opiate withdrawal a hallmark feature of addiction. This review provides updates on current developments in the management of the opioid epidemic and an overview of studies on preventative immunomodulation prior to repetitive opioid administration as a means of addressing one of the underlying symptomatology driving the epidemic.
Anthony Osamuyi Iyamu, Uwaifoh Akpamu, Karen Uwarobehi Iyamu
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 715-720; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1302

Abstract:
Increased curiosity on natural plant products has been raised due to problems of cost, unavailability, and after-effects of countless synthetic drugs. Worrisome, many plant-derived formulations lack phytochemically or toxicological screening. Hence, this study phytochemical and elemental screened the ethanolic leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana and as well as determining acute toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. The leaves were obtained in Benin City, Nigeria. Ethanol extraction was carried out on leaves and the extract was subjected to proximate, qualitative, and quantitative phytochemical screening and elemental analysis. Acute toxicity was determined on 12 adult male Wistar rats following Lork’s method. Proximate analysis revealed a high presence of carbohydrate, ash, fiber, and moisture. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation showed the abundance of alkaloids (68.7 ± 0.120%), flavonoids (34.7 ± 0.001%) and minute (<1mg/g) saponins, tannins, phenol, and terpenes. The extract contain nutritive (vitamin E = 1.184 ± 0.055µg/g; vitamin A = 0.0066 ± 0.003µg/g; vitamin C = 0.046 ± 0.037µg/g) and anti-nutritive (oxalates = 229.780 ± 16.93mg/100g; cyanide=0.162 ± 0.006 mg/100g; phytate = 0.131 ± 0.01mg/100g) elements. The elemental evaluation showed an abundance of potassium, sodium, and chloride with traces of cadmium and lead and the absence of manganese and copper. There was no sign of acute toxicity or mortality at an extract dose of 5000mg/kg. These findings indicate the ethanol leaf extract of A. wilkesiana as a rich source of phytochemicals and major macro elements and high safety at 5000mg/kg dose. Considering the several components in the leaves extract, Acalypha wilkesiana leaf might be pharmacological significant for the biological system.
Mary Shannon Byers
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 685-689; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1297

Abstract:
Uillain-Barré Syndrome is a life-threatening, demyelinating, autoimmune condition in which the body’s immune system attacks the myelin of the peripheral nervous system. Guillain-Barré Syndrome is characterized by ascending motor weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Demyelination results in nerve inflammation, numbness, tingling, muscle weakness, structural damage to the myelin sheath, and possible respiratory system complications. The annual incidence rate is 1.1 to 1.8 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Guillain-Barré Syndrome is thought to be triggered by an antecedent infection such as a viral, gastrointestinal, or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or reaction to a vaccine. Approximately 9-11% of cases result in severe disability or death. The acute phase can vary in length from a few days to several months, although over 90% of patients begin rehabilitation within four weeks. Patient care involves a team of neurologists, physiatrist, internist, nurses, physical, occupational, and speech therapists, social worker, psychologist and family physician. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, symmetrical muscle weakness, the rate and order at which symptoms appear, and the absence or prolonged latency of reflexes are hallmarks for diagnosing Guillain-Barré Syndrome. A lumbar puncture to test for protein levels in the brain and spinal cord, and nerve conduction velocity test may aid in proper diagnosis, critical for optimizing treatment options and minimizing further progression. Although there is no cure, treatment may consist of plasmapheresis, typically performed four times during hospitalization, or intravenous immunoglobulin. Intravenous immunoglobulin combined with plasmapheresis should be avoided. Although glucocorticoids could repair damage to the blood-nerve barrier, oral corticosteroids could delay recovery.
Cihan Fidan, Funda Salgur, Ozdemir Efe Kul, Yusuf Bozkus, Gokhan Eminsoy, Fisun Sozen, Altug Kut, Ergun Oksuz
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 705-712; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1300

Abstract:
We aimed to determine the lifetime and one-year incidence of hypoglycemia in adults who had been treated following a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), the factors that affected this incidence, and its effect on the use of health care resources. The descriptive cross-sectional cost study included adult T2DM patients who had an outpatient examination. Using a face-to-face interview method, patients were required to complete a questionnaire containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, T2DM diagnosis and treatment features, and hypoglycemia events. Episode treatment costs of the patients in whom hypoglycemia was observed were calculated as direct cost per episode from the payer perspective. The mean age of the patients (n = 220) was 48.1 ± 11.8 (range 26-79) years, and the mean duration of disease was 4.5 ± 3.0 (range 1-16) years. According to treatment modalities, the frequency of hypoglycemia in the last year was 4.7% in the patients receiving oral antidiabetic drugs and 32.7% in the patients using insulin. In addition, 61.9% of the patients who had a hypoglycemic event in the last year presented to hospital, and 57.7% of these patients were hospitalized because of the hypoglycemic event. The incidence of hypoglycemia was 18 episodes of hypoglycemia per 100 patient years for T2DM patients and 25 severe hypoglycemia episodes per 100 patient years for patients using insulin. Significant predictors of hypoglycemia included insulin therapy (p = 0.000), regular use of medications (p = 0.013), hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.008), and exercise (p = 0.042). The average cost of a hypoglycemic event was calculated as Purchasing Power Parity İn Dollars ($PPP) 1.370.2 ± 1.407.0 (149.8-5,048.8). T2DM complications are the cause of a high economic burden. Hypoglycemia, which is one of these complications, is observed more frequently in patients who receive insulin therapy, who use regular medication, who do not exercise regularly, and who have been hospitalized in the last year.
Zhang Rong-Hui-Nan
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 690-695; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1298

Abstract:
Phthalates (Phthalic acid esters, PAEs) as a common industrial products, a growing body of scientific evidences indicate that exposure to PAEs in early life has a potential harmful effect on the growth and development of organisms in later life, among these hazards, exposure to PAEs widely may increase the risk of asthma in children, which has attracted more and more attention. This article introduced the reasons and effects of PAEs exposure in early life, the relationships between early-life PAEs exposure and childhood asthma from the perspectives of epidemiological and animal studies and the underlying mechanisms of action.
Sanober Rasool, Hamdani Sa, Niha Ayman, Aaliya Fayaz, Sheikh Shubeena, Namera Thahaby, Burhan Nabi, Abdul Hai, Akand Ah
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 669-674; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1295

Abstract:
The Livestock sector plays a central role in nature resource based livelihood of the vast majority of population and often considered as the poor people’s ATM. They are kept as a unit of production and provide an important source of revenue, employment and wealth. However this sector is facing a number of problems like bad health, shortage of feed and fodder, increase incidence of emerging and reemerging diseases etc and the most drastic amongst them being the Natural disasters like earthquake, floods, volcanoes etc. This paper gives a brief idea about the ill effects of natural disasters on the health of livestock, thereby effecting their production and productivity along with the various strategies to be kept in mind while dealing with disaster like event.
Khin Phyu Pyar, Sai Aik Hla, Soe Min Aung, Di Wunn, Zar Ni Htet Aung, Nyan Lin Maung, Thurein Win, Linn Htet Aung, Aung Phyoe Kyaw, Kyaw Zay Ya, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 721-730; https://doi.org/10.37871/jbres1303

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China at the end of 2019, became a major threat to health around the world. Breakthrough infection following COVID-19 vaccine has clinical and public health significance. The highest groups at risk of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic is health care workers; the physicians are the frontline workers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of breakthrough COVID-19 infection and their clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome among physicians who were fully vaccinated, working in COVID-19 treatment centers in Myanmar. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among physicians, at least 14 days after receiving second dose, working at COVID-19 treatment centers in Myanmar, during the third wave from end of May to August 2021. Data were collected by using standardized forms and analysis was done. Results: Among 410 physicians, 98.2% (221/225) received two dose of vaccination: Covaxin 90.0%, Covishield 9.5% and Sputink V 0.5%. They received first dose of vaccine in January/February 2021 and second dose in March/April 2021. In Myanmar, third wave started in end of May; the largest pandemic surge had reached its peak in July, 2021. In the third wave, most of them 72.9% (161/221) did not experience no infection. The prevalence of fully vaccinated break through infection was 27.1% (60/221); the majority 78.3% (47/60) were mild symptomatic infection. Severe infection was seen in 10% of physicians with breakthrough infection who required hospital admission and oxygen therapy. The common presenting symptoms in order of frequency were body aches and pain 62.6%, sneezing 56.6%, headache 53.5%, cough 52.5%, sore throat 45.5%, anosmia 33.3%, runny nose 23.2% and loose motion 27.3%. The uncommon symptoms were dyspnoea 9.1%, vertigo 6.1%, skin rash 5.1%, vomiting 5.1%, petechiae 3.0%, tinnitus 3.0% and silent hypoxia 3.0%, and non-per-os 1%. Most of them did not have any significant comorbidities. One out of six physicians having severe infection had diabetes mellitus and two were obese. The mean duration of hospital stay was 7 days. None of the cases was fatal. Conclusions: In this study, over 98% of physicians were fully vaccinated; majority with Covaxin. One in four physicians had breakthrough infection in third wave; mainly mild form. Nearly half of them had possible delta symptoms; aches and pain, sneezing, runny nose, headache, cough, and sore throat. Awareness of rare but important symptoms like Non-per-Os and vertigo should be highlighted both to public and health care personnel. Ten percent of physicians with breakthrough infection were severe. Mortality rate was zero.
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