Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2766-2276
Published by: SciRes Literature LLC (10.37871)
Total articles ≅ 142

Latest articles in this journal

Thompson Ma, Kowalczewski C, Roy J, Nathan Wienandt Maj, Williams C Iii, Chambers-Wilson R, Martinez LA, Christy R, Jockheck-Clark Ar
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 509-515; doi:10.37871/jbres1267

Introduction: Thermal burns account for 5-10% of casualties sustained in present-day conflicts and are expected to be one of the most common wounds to occur in future conflicts. Timely debridement of necrotic burn tissue can greatly reduce the chances of mortality and late-stage complications. However, future conflicts are anticipated to occur in austere environments where surgical debridement may not be plausible and casualty evacuations significantly delayed. Without access to prompt surgical interventions and standard treatment, burn wounds can progress (become deeper and more extensive) and become highly susceptible to infection. Several studies have demonstrated that topical applications of Cerium (III) Nitrate (Cen) can be used to delay the need for surgical eschar removal, a delay which may be forced upon injured warfighters in austere environments. The proof-of-concept studies described herein suggest that an electrospun dressing with a Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) shell and CeN core could prolong the time before surgical intervention is required and/or mitigate late-stage burn pathophysiologies in Prolonged Field Care (PFC) scenarios. Materials and Methods: Coaxially electrospun PEO dressings with a CeN payload were synthesized for application in a swine burn model. Dressings were first evaluated ex vivo using a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay to confirm that no cytotoxic effects were present. Then, one female Yorkshire pig was anesthetized and received ten 5 cm x 5 cm contact burns with a brass burn device that was heated to 100°C. The deep-partial thickness wounds were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: 1) 1-Layer of the PEO/CeN dressing, 2) 4-Layers of the PEO/CeN dressing, 3) 4-layers of a control electrospun PEO dressing, 4) Flammacerium® cream (silver sulfadiazine 1%, cerium nitrate 2.2%), or 5) the PFC standard of care (SOC; gauze). Wounds were observed over an 18-day period, with surgical debridement occurring on Day 4 for all wounds. Transepidermal water loss, depth to debridement, and histologic measurements of necrosis were utilized to assess the burns. Research was conducted in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act, the implementing Animal Welfare regulations, and the principles of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council. The facility’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all research conducted in this study. The facility where this research was conducted is fully accredited by AAALAC International. Experimental design and statistical comparisons were approved by an accredited epidemiologist and biostatistician. Results: The PEO/CeN dressings did not elicit a cytotoxic response ex vivo. Compared to the PFC SOC, treatments containing CeN reduced the amount of necrotic tissue produced by second-degree thermal injuries, as evidenced both histologically and in the depth required to reach viable tissue during surgical debridement. Importantly, the dressing did not adversely impact the live tissue surrounding the burn site. Conclusions: There are currently no field dressings that can delay the need for immediate debridement and thereby promote burn wound healing. This proof-of-concept study strongly suggests that the electrospun PEO/CeN dressing could fulfill this unmet medical need and advocates for further evaluation for use in imminent PFC scenarios.
Djuraev Ja, Khasanov Us, Vokhidov Un, Botirov Aj
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 486-492; doi:10.37871/jbres1264

The fairly widespread prevalence of CRSwNP along with the lack of remedies for curing the disease, a variety of hypotheses of etiology dictate the need for further study of all links in the pathogenesis and clinical features of the course of the disease. In the coming century of “biological medicine”, the availability of high technologies of medical genetics makes it possible to reveal the individual characteristics of the most important regulatory systems of the body, which opens up new prospects for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of CRSwNP. In the tissues of polyps and intranasal secretions, an increase in the concentration of various inflammatory mediators, in particular interleukins, is observed due to an increase in their de novo synthesis by effector cells. Particular importance is attached to an increase in the concentration of cytokines involved in the development, recruitment and activation of eosinophils (IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, GM-CSF), the main pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-2, TNF-a, IL- 10), regulatory cytokines (IL-10, TLR2B), contributing to the chronicity of the inflammatory process in the nasal cavity.
Sayantan G
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 431-438; doi:10.37871/jbres1255

Background: Leukemia is one of the most occurring haematological pathologies in the world which develops due to the impairment in the hematopoietic machinery. Cellular death via apoptosis is severely impaired in this pathophysiological condition and leads to the progression of the disease. Objective: We have tried to unearth the efficacy of Withanolide D, a steroidal lactone derived from Withania somnifera or Ashwagandha on some of the apoptotic machinery components, i.e. TERT, BCL2 and PUMA in the experimental leukemic mice. Materials and Methods: LD50 and EC50 values of Withanolide D were estimated. Three groups of animals were taken for experimental purpose i.e. Group I = Leukemic, (L); Group II = Control, (C); Group III = Leukemic treated with Withanolide D, (L + WD). Group III received Withanolide D via oral route and other two groups received equal volume of distilled water. Various cytological, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric studies were taken into consideration post administration. Result: Leukemic group showed increased cellular proliferation and decreased cellular death as compared to control. Post Withanolide D administration TERT, BCL2 and PUMA expression started to shift towards normal status. This shift in the expressional values of increased apoptosis rate and decreased cellular proliferation revealed by cytological, immunofluorescence studies and flow cytometric investigations. Conclusion: As Withanolide D decreased the suppression of apoptosis and impaired the progression of the disease, so, we can conclude that Withanolide D of Ashwagandha may hold a promise towards a new therapeutic strategy in leukemia.
Bolognesi M
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 525-528; doi:10.37871/jbres1270

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Coronary artery disease frequently coexists with AF, and management of these associated conditions can be challenging. Endurance veteran athletes are a population at high risk to have episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Herewith the author describes an original case of induced atrial fibrillation and myocardial ischemia during an Ex-ECG stress test in a veteran amateur runner.
Ling Hw
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 493-495; doi:10.37871/jbres1265

From time to time, the author sees patients who stay menstruating outside their menstrual period or having colic pain during the cycle and for this reason they go to the gynecologist and they sometimes prescribe hormones. Some patients say that they took hormones without having a break for those who menstruate a lot and there are patients nowadays who stay for years and years taking this hormone without menstruation break [1].
Datarkar An, Anukula H, Parmar S, Rai A, Gosavi S
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 443-446; doi:10.37871/jbres1257

Trismus is a disturbing condition with varied etiology, one of them is Extra articular ankylosis. The extra articular ankylosis has been reported in the literature as a fusion of the coronoid process to the zygomatic bone or to the skull base. However, there are a very few cases reported in the literature that highlights a pathologic tumor of mandible leading to extra-articular ankylosis and subsequently resulting in trismus. We hereby present a unique case of young adult having restricted mouth opening due to the bony fusion of the mandibular ramus to the zygomatic bone and zygomaticomaxillary buttress region due to a pathologic tumor diagnosed as Ossifying Fibroma.
Meider J, Messal C
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 516-522; doi:10.37871/jbres1268

Taking a tape-lift sample is one of the main practices used by indoor environmental quality investigators for detecting whether mould structures (for example, spores and hyphae) have either settled onto or colonized the surface. Despite the popularity of the method, there can be significant inconsistency in how tape lifts are collected and evaluated. The common ASTM standard D7910-14: Practice for the Collection of Fungal Material from Surfaces by Tape Lift, describes the correct way to collect a tape-lift sample. Using ASTM D7658-17: Standard Test Method for Direct Microscopy of Fungal Structures from Tape, semi-quantitative results in percentage of infested area in a scale from 0 up to 5 are available only. In case histories or for mould removal control, the total cell count is needed. This cannot be realized by the ASTM method. Therefore, an innovative method is asked to combine the quickness of taping and the precision of total cell count. Our research team developed two methods to quickly and fully quantify the tape samples. Regarding the assessment criteria, the user can decide to operate with the 3-LINE method to achieve the highest precision or use the faster 3-STEP method for even better results. Therefore, an innovative method is asked to combine the quickness of taping and the precision of total cell count. The aim of the work is to develop two strategies to quickly and comprehensive quantify the tape samples.
Barchín Jl, Wikman-Jorgensen Pe, Bello L, Pascual R
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 450-459; doi:10.37871/jbres1259

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia is a prevalent disease that is managed in heterogeneous ways. Clinical pathways have been proposed as one way to mitigate this variability, but few implementation experiences have been published. The primary objective of this study is to analyse the effects of implementing a standardised clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia on length of hospital stay. Methods: Retrospective cohort study comparing two equivalent time periods with and without a clinical pathway. We described patient characteristics in both periods and compared mean length of hospital stay, mortality, rate of complications, and readmissions within 30 days. Results: A total of 170 patients were included across both periods. Mean length of hospital stay in patients treated before implementation of the clinical pathway was 6.05 days versus 5.43 days afterward (p = 0.28). The segmented regression analysis showed a change in slope for the length of hospital stay (0.04) following implementation of the clinical pathway. The proportion of patients hospitalised for more than 6 days was 37.5% in the first period, compared to 29.6% in the second (p = 0.088). Multivariable analysis showed that nonadherence to the clinical pathway was associated with a hospital stay of longer than 6 days (p = 0.048). Mortality dropped from 10.5% to 4.7% after the clinical pathway was established (p = 0.12). The proportion of patients readmitted within 30 days due to CAP was 8.8% before the establishment of the clinical pathway and 0% afterwards (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A clinical pathway for managing community-acquired pneumonia was associated with a reduction in length of hospital stay and readmittance. There was a trend towards mortality reduction.
Zubair Sm, Muhammad Zaid Hh, Talha S
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 425-428; doi:10.37871/jbres1253

A 71 years old male came to the hospital with the complaint of cough and fever since 7 days. He was diagnosed with severe COVID pneumonia and was managed with steroids and tocilizumab. He was discharged on steroids and came after 20 days with complaints of worsening shortness of breath and hypoxia. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage was done which showed positive PCR for Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP). Patient was started on co-trimoxazole and steroids after which he showed remarkable improvement. This is one of the rare cases in which patient developed PCP as a sequelae of COVID-19.
Datarkar An, Anukula H, Walke D, Deshpande A, Rai A
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences pp 439-442; doi:10.37871/jbres1256

This is a case report of a 19 year old adult female with facial asymmetry secondary to right Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) ankylosis with a history of previous surgery at the age of 10 years with gap arthroplasty for tmj ankylosis which was unsuccessful and lead to relapse .Because of decreased mouth opening and facial disfigurement patient was not able to have a quality life. She reported to our department where she got operated simultaneously for tmj ankylosis with interpositional arthroplasty using temporalis myofascial flap and novel osteotomy technique for correction of chin asymmetry. After surgery there is a significant improvement in patient both functionally and aesthetically.
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