Frontiers in Microbiology
EISSN : 1664-302X
Current Publisher: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 19,662
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.682187
Context dependency occurs when biological interactions shift in sign or magnitude depending upon genetic, abiotic, and biotic context. Most models of mutualism address systems where interaction outcomes slide along a mutualism-antagonism continuum as environmental conditions vary altering cost-benefit relationships. However, these models do not apply to the many mutualisms that involve by-product benefits and others that do not have antagonistic alternate states. The ubiquity of such mutualisms indicates a need for different approaches and models to understand how environmental variability influences their strength, stability, and ecological roles. In this paper, we apply the concept of context dependency to mutualisms among bark beetles and fungi that span a variety of life strategies and exposures to environmental variability. Bark beetles and their mutualist fungi co-construct a niche based on by-product benefits that allows them to exist in a resource that is otherwise intractable or inaccessible. For the closest of these partnerships, this has resulted in some of the most influential agents of forest mortality in conifer forests worldwide. Understanding these symbioses is key to understanding their influence on forest structure and dynamics and responses to change. We found no evidence that bark beetle mutualisms change in sign as conditions vary, only in magnitude, and that the “closest” (and most environmentally influential) of these partnerships have evolved behaviors and mechanisms to reduce context-dependency and stabilize benefit delivery. The bark beetle-fungus symbioses most likely to slide along a mutualism-antagonism continuum are those involving loosely associated facultative symbionts that may provide benefits under some circumstances and that are horizontally transmitted by the beetle host. Additionally, some symbiotic fungi are never mutualists – these “third party” fungi are exploiters and may shift from commensalism to antagonism depending on environmental context. Our assessment indicates that a careful differentiation between bark beetle-fungus partnerships is crucial to understanding how they influence forests and respond to environmental variability.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.647989
Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa species are the most destructive and economically devastating fungal plant pathogens causing brown rot disease on stone and pome fruits worldwide. Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) play critical roles influencing the mechanisms and directions of the evolution of fungal pathogens. The pan-mitogenomics approach predicts core and accessory regions of the mitochondrial genomes and explains the gain or loss of variation within and between species. The present study is a fungal pan-mitogenome of M. fructicola (N = 8) and M. laxa (N = 8) species. The completely sequenced and annotated mitogenomes showed high variability in size within and between the species. The mitogenomes of M. laxa were larger, ranging from 178,351 to 179,780bp, than the mitogenomes of M. fructicola, ranging from 158,607 to 167,838bp. However, size variation within the species showed that M. fructicola isolates were more variable in the size range than M. laxa isolates. All the mitogenomes included conserved mitochondrial genes, as well as variable regions including different mobile introns encoding homing endonucleases or maturase, non-coding introns, and repetitive elements. The linear model analysis supported the hypothesis that the mitogenome size expansion is due to presence of variable (accessory) regions. Gene synteny was mostly conserved among all samples, with the exception for order of the rps3 in the mitogenome of one isolate. The mitogenomes presented AT richness; however, A/T and G/C skew varied among the mitochondrial genes. The purifying selection was detected in almost all the protein-coding genes (PCGs) between the species. However, cytochrome b was the only gene showing a positive selection signal among the total samples. Combined datasets of amino acid sequences of 14 core mitochondrial PCGs and rps3 obtained from this study together with published mitochondrial genome sequences from some other species from Heliotales were used to infer a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree. ML tree indicated that both Monilinia species highly diverged from each other as well as some other fungal species from the same order. Mitogenomes harbor much information about the evolution of fungal plant pathogens, which could be useful to predict pathogenic life strategies.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.633004
Laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase with a wide range of substrates, possessing a good application prospect in wastewater treatment and dye degradation. The purpose of this research is to study the degradation of various industrial dyes by recombinant laccase rlac1338 and the mutant enzyme lac2-9 with the highest enzyme activity after modification by error-prone PCR. Four enzyme activities improved mutant enzymes were obtained through preliminary screening and rescreening, of which lac2-9 has the highest enzyme activity. There are four mutation sites, including V281A, V281A, P309L, S318G, and D232V. The results showed that the expression of the optimized mutant enzyme also increased by 22 ± 2% compared to the unoptimized enzyme and the optimal reaction temperature of the mutant enzyme lac2-9 was 5°C higher than that of the rlac1338, and the optimal pH increased by 0.5 units. The thermal stability and pH stability of mutant enzyme lac2-9 were also improved. With ABTS as the substrate, the kcat/Km of rlac1338 and mutant strain lac2-9 are the largest than other substrates, 0.1638 and 0.618 s–1M–1, respectively, indicating that ABTS is the most suitable substrate for the recombinant enzyme and mutant enzyme. In addition, the Km of the mutant strain lac2-9 (76 μM) was significantly lower, but the kcat/Km (0.618 s–1M–1) was significantly higher, and the specific enzyme activity (79.8 U/mg) increased by 3.5 times compared with the recombinant laccase (22.8 U/mg). The dye degradation results showed that the use of rlac1338 and lac2-9 alone had no degradation effect on the industrial dyes [indigo, amaranth, bromophenol blue, acid violet 7, Congo red, coomassie brilliant blue (G250)], however, adding small molecular mediators Ca2+ and ABTS at the same time can significantly improve the degradation ability. Compared to the rlac1338, the degradation rates with the simultaneous addition of Ca2+ and ABTS of mutant enzyme lac2-9 for acid violet 7, bromophenol blue and coomassie brilliant blue significantly improved by 8.3; 3.4 and 3.4 times. Therefore, the results indicated that the error-prone PCR was a feasible method to improve the degradation activity of laccase for environmental pollutants, which provided a basis for the application of laccase on dye degradation and other environmental pollutants.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.663948
Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), an economically significant pathogen of grapevines, is transmitted by Pseudococcus calceolariae, a mealybug commonly found in New Zealand vineyards. To help inform alternative GLRaV-3 control strategies, this study evaluated the three-way interaction between the mealybug, its plant host and the virus. The retention and transmission of GLRaV-3 by P. calceolariae after access to non-Vitis host plants (and a non-GLRaV-3 host) White clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. “Grasslands Huia white clover”), Crimson clover (T. incarnatum), and Nicotiana benthamiana (an alternative GLRaV-3 host) was investigated. For all experiments, P. calceolariae first instars with a 4 or 6 days acquisition access period on GLRaV-3-positive grapevine leaves were used. GLRaV-3 was detected in mealybugs up to 16 days on non-Vitis plant hosts but not after 20 days. GLRaV-3 was retained by second instars (n = 8/45) and exuviae (molted skin, n = 6/6) following a 4 days acquisition period on infected grapevines leaves and an 11 days feeding on non-Vitis plant hosts. Furthermore, GLRaV-3 was transmitted to grapevine (40−60%) by P. calceolariae second instars after access to white clover for up to 11 days; 90% transmission to grapevine was achieved when no alternative host feeding was provided. The 16 days retention period is the longest observed in mealybug vectoring of GLRaV-3. The results suggest that an alternative strategy of using ground-cover plants as a disrupter of virus transmission may be effective if mealybugs settle and continue to feed on them for 20 or more days.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.679827
Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are proteinaceous prokaryotic organelles that enable the utilization of substrates such as 1,2-propanediol and ethanolamine. BMCs are mostly linked to the survival of particular pathogenic bacteria by providing a growth advantage through utilization of 1,2-propanediol and ethanolamine which are abundantly present in the human gut. Although a 1,2-propanediol utilization cluster was found in the probiotic bacterium Propionibacterium freudenreichii, BMC-mediated metabolism of 1,2-propanediol has not been demonstrated experimentally in P. freudenreichii. In this study we show that P. freudenreichii DSM 20271 metabolizes 1,2-propanediol in anaerobic conditions to propionate and 1-propanol. Furthermore, 1,2-propanediol induced the formation of BMCs, which were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and resembled BMCs found in other bacteria. Proteomic analysis of 1,2-propanediol grown cells compared to L-lactate grown cells showed significant upregulation of proteins involved in propanediol-utilization (pdu-cluster), DNA repair mechanisms and BMC shell proteins while proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated. 1,2-Propanediol utilizing cells actively produced vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in similar amounts as cells growing on L-lactate. The ability to metabolize 1,2-propanediol may have implications for human gut colonization and modulation, and can potentially aid in delivering propionate and vitamin B12 in situ.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.660697
Irrigation return flows (IRFs) collect surface runoff and subsurface drainage, causing them to have elevated contaminant and bacterial levels, and making them a potential source of pollutants. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli and enterococcal isolates that were collected from IRFs in a south-central Idaho watershed. Environmental isolates can be a potentially important source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and IRFs may be one way resistance genes are transported out of agroecosystems. Water samples were collected from nine IRFs and one background site (canal water from Snake River) on a biweekly basis during 2018. Escherichia coli and enterococci were enumerated via a most probable number (MPN) technique, then subsamples were plated on selective media to obtain isolates. Isolates of E. coli (187) or enterococci (185) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using Sensititre broth microdilution plates. For E. coli, 13% (25/187) of isolates were resistant to tetracycline, with fewer numbers being resistant to 13 other antimicrobials, with none resistant to gentamicin. While 75% (141/187) of the E. coli isolates were pan-susceptible, 12 multidrug resistance (MDR) patterns with 17 isolates exhibiting resistance to up to seven drug classes (10 antimicrobials). For the enterococcal species, only 9% (16/185) of isolates were pan-susceptible and the single highest resistance was to lincomycin (138/185; 75%) followed by nitrofurantoin (56/185; 30%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (34/185; 18%). In addition, 13 enterococcal isolates belonging to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterococcus thailandicus, were determined to be MDR to up to six different antimicrobial drug classes. None of the enterococcal isolates were resistant to gentamycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.644855
Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic to the northern hemisphere. This zoonotic organism has historically been developed into a biological weapon. For this Tier 1, Category A select agent, it is important to expand our understanding of its mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (AMR). Francisella is unlike many Gram-negative organisms in that it does not have significant plasmid mobility, and does not express AMR mechanisms on plasmids; thus plasmid-mediated resistance does not occur naturally. It is possible to artificially introduce plasmids with AMR markers for cloning and gene expression purposes. In this review, we survey both the experimental research on AMR in Francisella and bioinformatic databases which contain genomic and proteomic data. We explore both the genetic determinants of intrinsic AMR and naturally acquired or engineered antimicrobial resistance as well as phenotypic resistance in Francisella. Herein we survey resistance to beta-lactams, monobactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, polymyxins, macrolides, rifampin, fosmidomycin, and fluoroquinolones. We also highlight research about the phenotypic AMR difference between planktonic and biofilm Francisella. We discuss newly developed methods of testing antibiotics against Francisella which involve the intracellular nature of Francisella infection and may better reflect the eventual clinical outcomes for new antibiotic compounds. Understanding the genetically encoded determinants of AMR in Francisella is key to optimizing the treatment of patients and potentially developing new antimicrobials for this dangerous intracellular pathogen.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.660094
OXA-48-like carbapenemases are among the most frequent carbapenemases in Gram-negative Enterobacterales worldwide with the highest prevalence in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Here, we investigated the so far uncharacterized carbapenemase OXA-484 from a clinical E. coli isolate belonging to the high-risk clone ST410 regarding antibiotic resistance pattern, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and genetic support. OXA-484 differs by the amino acid substitution 214G compared to the most closely related variants OXA-181 (214R) and OXA-232 (214S). The bla OXA – 484 was carried on a self-transmissible 51.5 kb IncX3 plasmid (pOXA-484) showing high sequence similarity with plasmids harboring bla OXA – 181. Intraspecies and intergenus HGT of pOXA-484 to different recipients occurred at low frequencies of 1.4 × 10–7 to 2.1 × 10–6. OXA-484 increased MICs of temocillin and carbapenems similar to OXA-232 and OXA-244, but lower compared with OXA-48 and OXA-181. Hence, OXA-484 combines properties of OXA-181-like plasmid support and transferability as well as β-lactamase activity of OXA-232.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.635772
Exposure of mosquitoes to numerous eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes in their associated microbiomes has probably helped drive the evolution of the innate immune system. To our knowledge, a metagenomic catalog of the eukaryotic microbiome has not been reported from any insect. Here we employ a novel approach to preferentially deplete host 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons to reveal the composition of the eukaryotic microbial communities of Anopheles larvae sampled in Kenya, Burkina Faso and Republic of Guinea (Conakry). We identified 453 eukaryotic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with Anopheles larvae in nature, but an average of 45% of the 18S rRNA sequences clustered into OTUs that lacked a taxonomic assignment in the Silva database. Thus, the Anopheles microbiome contains a striking proportion of novel eukaryotic taxa. Using sequence similarity matching and de novo phylogenetic placement, the fraction of unassigned sequences was reduced to an average of 4%, and many unclassified OTUs were assigned as relatives of known taxa. A novel taxon of the genus Ophryocystis in the phylum Apicomplexa (which also includes Plasmodium) is widespread in Anopheles larvae from East and West Africa. Notably, Ophryocystis is present at fluctuating abundance among larval breeding sites, consistent with the expected pattern of an epidemic pathogen. Species richness of the eukaryotic microbiome was not significantly different across sites from East to West Africa, while species richness of the prokaryotic microbiome was significantly lower in West Africa. Laboratory colonies of Anopheles coluzzii harbor 26 eukaryotic OTUs, of which 38% (n = 10) are shared with wild populations, while 16 OTUs are unique to the laboratory colonies. Genetically distinct An. coluzzii colonies co-housed in the same facility maintain different prokaryotic microbiome profiles, suggesting a persistent host genetic influence on microbiome composition. These results provide a foundation to understand the role of the Anopheles eukaryotic microbiome in vector immunity and pathogen transmission. We hypothesize that prevalent apicomplexans such as Ophryocystis associated with Anopheles could induce interference or competition against Plasmodium within the vector. This and other members of the eukaryotic microbiome may offer candidates for new vector control tools.
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.684953
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of understanding of the virus’s pathogenesis hinders the development of anti-virus drugs and the control of EV71 infection. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were altered significantly in EV71 infected cells, but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of EV71 infection on the expression of INF2, a key regulator factor in ER-Mitochondria communication and mitochondrial fission. We found that INF2 was cleaved in EV71 infected RD cells. The INF2 cleavage occurred at Aspartic 1,051 of INF2 and is mediated by activated caspases, predominantly by activated caspase-2. The subcellular localization of INF2 and caspase-2 was significantly altered in infected cells. We speculate that caspase-2-mediated INF2 cleavage is involved in forming viral replication organelles (ROs) and is a positive feedback regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial disorders caused by EV71 infection.