Technium Social Sciences Journal

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EISSN : 2668-7798
Total articles ≅ 498
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Muhammad Mamun, Kaniz Fatima
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 728-764; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3797

This research explored Dhaka slum dwellers’ (n=434 using convenience, quota, and judgmental sampling) view about COVID-19, its causes, preventive measures, potential high-risk groups, self-awareness, transmission prevention, orthodox beliefs, and vaccine effectiveness using 56 simple variables grouped in eight complex variables. The slum dwellers viewed COVID-19 as a fatal and chronic disease spread by Chinese. They perceive that direct contact with infected persons, cough and sneeze droplets, and physical proximity cause the disease. Regarding preventive measures, they think that they must wear masks, frequently wash hands, face, and feet, use soap or hand sanitizer to wash hands. They assume that hot water gargle, more lime/lemon intake, sunlight exposure, and physical activities can reduce the risk of infection. They also perceive that people of any age bear the risk of contagion; but asthmatic, heart and diabetic patients fall in the high-risk group. The slum people self-protect covering nose and mouth while sneeze and cough, take precaution if tested positive, and maintain social distance. They take this disease seriously, as such, they wear masks, avoid guests, friends, and mass transports. They subscribed that if affected they will be in self-quarantine and follow prescribed movement and lockdown decisions to prevent transmission. They believe that home quarantine is for the infected persons only. Slum residents are found to recognize preventive mechanism and self-awareness tactics; but they are carried away by some religious beliefs like the disease is Allah’s will, a curse from Allah, results of our misdeeds, and Allah will save COVID-affected people. Because of their doubt of vaccine effectiveness, they are not quite confident about taking vaccine. Overall, the respondents do not think that they are risk-free. It is found that some of their views are not factual, like COVID-19 is a chronic disease, spread by Chinese; sunrays, hot water gargle reduces risks; lime/lemon intake prevent the disease; or diabetic, asthmatic, and heart patients are at more risks. It is noted that most of the perceptional differences are observed with family types. Nuclear family respondents believe that cold weather causes it and perceive strongly that asthmatic patients are more susceptible to infection. They perceive similar risk of being affected if exposed to a diseased person; however, infected elderly people with comorbidities are more prone to serious illness. They blindly perceive that COVID-19 is all Allah’s will. Education wise, the participants differ in their opinion in almost all the variables. Female slum members firmly believe that Chinese has brought the disease; but males are noted to be more self-aware than females. Married slum residents strongly believe that sunlight exposure and physical activities can prevent the disease and hold the misconception that COVID-19 is a curse from Allah and results of all our misdeeds. Irrespective of their literacy level all respondents believe that Allah will save COVID-affected people. Further, occupation-wise slum dwellers have similar viewpoint about preventing the disease and curbing community transmission. Slum residents’ opinion related to causes of the disease and vaccination has no association with age and income. Older slum residents are found to be more self-aware and cautious in limiting disease transmission, although they possess stronger orthodox religious views and more dubious about vaccination. Slum dwellers’ perception to several aspects of COVID-19 are noticed to be weakly positively related with income, indicating that even when the relatively higher income groups retain views closer to reality, their tendency to be conscious and abide by protective mechanism to reduce risk and control spread of the disease is less as opposed to insolvent slum inhabitants. The factor analysis has found that the grouping variables and the factor variables are quite consistent. It is noted that “self-awareness” and “risk reduction” are the most important factors followed by perception regarding COVID-19 vaccine. In short, slum dwellers are not observed to have a very clear idea about COVID-19, its causes, prevention mechanism, etc. They are aware of some methods of self-protection and deterrence of transmission. However, it is to be ensured that they strictly follow the methods to protect themselves and avoid community spread of the disease.
Confidence Ndlovu, Mfundo M. Masuku
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 661-674; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3786

This paper aimed to explore the effectiveness of agricultural cooperatives towards the enhancement of food security in rural areas. The formation of agricultural cooperatives in South Africa is a prerequisite for obtaining government support concerning activities aimed at social and economic development. It is well-documented that agricultural cooperatives are business entities and vehicles for food security. However, this review sustained that agricultural cooperative do not completely alleviate the vulnerability of food-insecure households because of the dearth of institutional support and sufficient productive resources. Focus group discussions with six agricultural cooperatives and four face-to-face in-depth interviews with municipal officials were conducted to envisage the improvement of food security through agricultural cooperatives. Using thematic analysis to analyse data, findings confirmed that institutional support improves the efficiency of agricultural cooperatives at the local level. Furthermore, institutional support enhances productivity which renders the cooperatives as a supplementary intervention to food security. However, there is a gap in enabling access to agricultural inputs, such as funding for access to farming equipment. This paper recommends the implementation of a cooperative management structure to enhance planning, coordination, and monitoring. The municipality should review the agricultural cooperative governance frameworks to achieve enabling environments for farming activities
Jonas Klemens Gregorius Dori Gobang, Edmondus Iswenyo Noang, Frans Salesman
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 431-438; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3845

Flores Island is one of the diverse place despite its small size as the part of Indonesian East Archipelago and Lesser Sunda Island. We all know that regional language or local language is an intellectual and cultural property. Local language lives and develops in an area or community. There are many regional languages accustomed to be used as a means of communication. The use of local language with its different meanings in a region or community that is no longer homogeneous can be a trigger to cultural conflict. The causes of conflict among residents or cultural believers are assimilation and mixing of heterogeneous local language-speaking communities. This study aims at revealing the existence of cultural conflicts as a result of the meaning differences of local languagesused by the people on Flores Island. This study uses a critical linguistics approach with a cross-cultural communication paradigm.
Shingirai Mugambiwa, Jabulani Makhubele
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 809-819; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3977

Zimbabwe has been affected by numerous floods-related disasters in the recent past. These disasters often left rural communities in difficult socioeconomic situations. Floods are among the major water-related hazards and natural disasters worldwide. They are associated with excess rainfall, resulting in river overflow due to climate change . Developing countries constitute a large number of losses caused by water hazards. Thereby, in these countries, the vulnerabilities of households that depend on rain fed agriculture and livestock production for their livelihoods increases. This review paper seeks to establish the association between anthropogenic flash floods and climate change and unearth the impacts; vulnerabilities and adaptation options associated with anthropogenic flash floods in rural Zimbabwe. The study found that numerous anthropogenic activities perpetuate an increase in flood risk. These include littering, river or dam regulation measures, intensified land use and emissions of greenhouse gases, which subsequently result in global climate change. The impacts of flash floods established in the study include drought, food insecurity, displacements, malnutrition and severe effects on subsistence economy. The study concluded that even though most rural communities in Zimbabwe are vulnerable to the effects of floods, they have devised numerous diverse adaptation strategies to cope with the changes in the environment.
Anita Sonya Lombok, Evie Masengi, Itje Pangkey
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 158-166; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3870

This research was conducted to know the effect of inherent supervision and the work environment partially and simultaneously on the work discipline of employees at Unima Headquarters. The research uses a quantitative approach with survey methods. The population is all employees at Unima Headquarters, totalling 149 employees spread over three bureaus. In comparison, the sampling technique is proportional random sampling with the sample size determined by the Slovin rule and obtained as many as 109 employees. The data collection technique is a questionnaire that has been tested for validity and reliability. Data analysis is multiple regression analysis through the help of the SPS program. The results of the study reveal that (1) inherent supervision has a positive and significant effect on employee work discipline at Unima Head Office, (2) work environment has a positive and significant effect on employee work discipline at Unima Headquarters, (3) inherent supervision and work environment simultaneously positive and significant effect on employee work discipline at Unima Head Office. For this reason, it is recommended that (1) Everyday employee reports must be accountable to superiors at least every week, as a form of indirect inherent supervision, (2). Sanctions for disciplinary violations must be applied consistently and fairly. Likewise, rewards need to be given to employees who are disciplined in carrying out their duties and work because doing so will maintain the attitude (Discipline) of the employee concerned and motivate other employees (undisciplined employees) to be disciplined (3). The work environment needs to be organized neat, clean, healthy, and comfortable by arranging it every day before entering work in the morning and after work in the afternoon through assigned employees (CS).
Hui Zhang
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 212-234; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3499

Science education is paid more attention nowadays. This article describes the current situation of Science education in China. As a concept paper, it is divided into some aspects, such as the history and development, the Necessity of Science history, incorporate the history of science into today's science education, the future trend of science education, the goal and significance of science education, also, it states the problems and solutions in science education as well. More importantly, science education in the 21st Century is introduced in the end which combines the advanced technology in science teaching and learning process. Conclusion comes lastly with the enlightenment for future development of science education.
Rui Jia, Min Chen, Kang Wang, Xinrui Zhou, Xin Wang, Jianhao Yin, Peng Duan, Ye Gao
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 323-331; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3982

End-of-life care is regarded as a special kind of palliative care service. At present, people in our country are still relatively unfamiliar with end-of-life care. As a future medical worker whose work is about human life, health, disease, and death, their attitudes towards end-of-life of medical students affects all aspects of their medical behavior. The purpose of our research is to identify and describe factors associated with medical students' attitudes towards end-of-life care. Ninety-one medical students chosen by stratified random sampling at School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University completed several questionnaires focused on attitudes towards end-of-life care. The scores of end-of-life care attitudes of nursing major (133.3±9.6) is higher than clinical; grade 1 (132.3±9.8) is higher than grade 2, 3 or 4; "Calm and open atmosphere" in discussing the death situation at home (132.4±9.8) was higher than "never discussed death" and other situations; who had never suffered from serious illness (131.8±9.5) was higher than that of those who had suffered. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The correlations coefficient between meaning of life (r=0.47), between the death fear dimension (r=-0.35), death escape dimension (r=-0.27), natural acceptance dimension (r=0.34), approach acceptance dimension (r=-0.21), escape acceptance dimension (r=-0.24), adolescent life events (r=0.19) and end-of-life care attitudes were significant correlation (P<0.01). After controlling of demographic sociological variables, psychological factors have made new contributions to hospice care attitudes, and the explained variance has increased by 32.0%. Medical students with different characteristics have significant differences in end-of-life care attitudes, which suggesting the lack of education in end-of-life care in our country, and the failure of education to enable medical students of different backgrounds to establish a scientific, rational and humanistic care attitude.
Skender Gojani, Granit Curri
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 527-533; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3687

Contractual contests in international sale transactions mainly derive from languages, cultures, traditions, views and different legal terms of contractors in different countries worldwide. In international legal-business relations, problematic issues are inevitably outnumbered and different, thus, more difficult to be sovled. International legal-business transactions, on the other hand, are of particular importance, especially in the continuum and intences of political-economic globalization and integrations of the countries with more developed economy in different international structures such as European Union, etc. Legal regulation of sales transactions in international relations is, above all, practised with CISG, United Nations Organization Convention on International Sale of Goods which is extraordinarily important for the well-being and progress of international sales.
Fadoua El Hajjaji El Idrissi, Abdelhay Benabdelhadi, Hind Kabaili
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 594-610; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3744

In the era of new technologies and global networking, electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM) is becoming an increasingly common practice in organizations and a topic of interest to the research community. Through a systematic literature review, this study synthesizes and analyzes research on the adoption and consequences of e-HRM over the last two decades, with the aim of supporting future research in e-HRM. A review of selected references shows that the gains from e-HRM are significant: They can be operational, relational and transformational. Over the years, the debate has shifted from operational to strategic gains. The realization of these benefits is closely linked to the successful implementation of e-HRM. The factors impacting its adoption are multi-dimensional: human, technological, organizational and environmental. Our research examines these determinants in greater detail and highlights the need for more empirical studies to theorize the relationship between adoption factors and the actual gains of e-HRM.
Vicktor Samuel Samosir, Didik J. Rachbini, Endi Rekarti
Technium Social Sciences Journal, Volume 21, pp 620-634; doi:10.47577/tssj.v21i1.3733

The purpose of this study is to find out and analyze how and how much the significance of promotion, service quality, security to customer satisfaction has implications for customer retention. This research was conducted with a census of 100 respondents. The objective of this research is to empirically prove the variables of promotion, service quality, security, on customer satisfaction in choosing the OVO application, and then have implications for customer retention. This study will also analyze the effect of promotion, service quality, security on customer retention. The results showed that the variable conditions of promotion, service quality, security, had an impact on customer satisfaction in the good category, as well as the effect of promotion, service quality,
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