Frontiers in Psychiatry
ISSN / EISSN : 1664-0640 / 1664-0640
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 5,564
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.677039
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe affective disorder, mainly characterized by alternative depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes, yet the pathogenesis of BD has not been fully elucidated. Recent researches have implicated the altered kynurenine (KYN) metabolism involved in the neurobiology of BD. Excessive activation of the immune system also occurs in patients with BD, which further accelerates the KYN pathway for tryptophan metabolism. Changes of the KYN metabolites have effects on neuronal receptors and are involved in neuroendocrine transmissions. Interactions between KYN metabolism and the immune system may contribute to the neuropathogenesis of BD. Various studies have shown that alterations of the KYN metabolites were associated with mood, psychotic symptoms, and cognitive functions in patients with BD. In this review, we briefly introduce the KYN pathway and describe the immune dysregulation in BD as well as their interactions. We then focus on the research advances on the KYN metabolism in BD, which hold promise for identifying novel treatment targets in patients stricken with this disorder.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.648108
Introduction: Negative symptoms, neurocognitive deficits and functional impairment are prevalent in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, unlike neurocognitive deficits, little is known about the role of negative symptoms toward functioning in individuals with MDD. On the other hand, both factors are well-studied in individuals with SCZ. Thus, this study aimed to examine the contributions of negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments in functioning in individuals with MDD, compared to individuals with SCZ. Methods: Participants included 50 individuals with MDD, 49 individuals with SCZ and 49 healthy controls. The following measures were administered—Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-16), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and MIRECC-Global Assessment of Functioning (MIRECC-GAF) to evaluate negative symptoms, neurocognition, depressive symptoms, and functioning respectively. Results: Both MDD and SCZ groups had significantly more severe negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and poorer functioning than healthy controls. Individuals with SCZ performed significantly poorer on the BACS than the other two groups. Both negative symptoms and neurocognition were significantly correlated with social and occupational functioning in SCZ. Motivation subdomain of the negative symptoms was significantly correlated with occupational functioning, while depressive symptoms correlated with functioning in MDD. Conclusion: Both negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits appear to play differential roles on individual domains of functioning between MDD and SCZ. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes should be done for a better understanding about the associations between the factors and functioning.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.706933
The accurate assessment of suicide risk in psychiatric, especially affective disorder diagnosed patients, remains a crucial clinical need. In this study, we applied temperament and character inventory (TCI), Barratt impulsiveness scale 11 (BIS-11), PEBL simple reaction time (SRT) test, continuous performance task (CPT), and Iowa gambling task (IGT) to seek for variables linked with attempted suicide in bipolar affective disorder group (n = 60; attempters n = 17). The main findings were: strong correlations between self-report tool scores and objective parameters in CPT; the difference between attempters and non-attempters was found in the number of correctly responded trials in IGT; only one parameter differed between attempters and non-attempters in BPI diagnosis; and no significant differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in TCI, BIS-11, and SRT were found. These justify the conclusion that impulsivity itself is not a strong predictor, and used as a single variable might not be sufficient to indicate the high suicide risk group among bipolar patients.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.647615
Rationale: Among the serious consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the reduced ability to process visual information. It is also generally agreed that AUD tends to occur with disturbed excitation–inhibition (EI) balance in the central nervous system. Thus, a specific visual behavioral probe could directly qualify the EI dysfunction in patients with AUD. The tilt illusion (TI) is a paradigmatic example of contextual influences on perception of central target. The phenomenon shows a characteristic dependence on the angle between the inducing surround stimulus and the central target test. For small angles, there is a repulsion effect; for larger angles, there is a smaller attraction effect. The center-surround inhibition in tilt repulsion is considered to come from spatial orientational interactions between orientation-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1), and tilt attraction is from higher-level effects of orientation processing in the visual information processing. Objectives: The present study focuses on visual spatial information processing and explores whether chronic AUD patients in abstinence period exhibited abnormal TI compared with healthy controls. Methods: The participants are 30 male volunteers (20–46 years old) divided into two groups: the study group consists of 15 clinically diagnosed AUD patients undergoing abstinence from alcohol, and the control group consists of 15 healthy volunteers. The TI consists of a center target surround with an annulus (both target and annulus are sinusoidal grating with spatial frequency = 2 cycles per degree). The visual angle between center and surround is a variable restricted to 0°, ±15°, ±30°, or ±75°. For measuring the TI, participants have to report whether the center target grating orientation tilted clockwise or counterclockwise from the internal vertical orientation by pressing corresponding keys on the computer keyboard. No feedback is provided regarding response correctness. Results: The results reveal significantly weaker tilt repulsion effect under surround orientation ±15° (p < 0.05) and higher lapse rate (attention limitation index) under all tested surround orientations (all ps < 0.05) in patients with chronic AUD compared with health controls. Conclusions: These results provide psychophysical evidence that visual perception of center-contextual stimuli is different between AUD and healthy control groups.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.685024
Introduction: Debates about coercive practices have challenged a traditional biomedical hegemony in mental health care. The perspectives of service user organizations have gained considerable ground, such as in the development of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Such changes are often contested, and might in practice be a result of (implicit) negotiation between stakeholders with different discursive positions. To improve understanding of such processes, and how discursive positions may manifest and interact, we analyzed texts published over a 10 year period related to the introduction of medication-free inpatient services in Norway. Methods: We conducted qualitative analyses of 36 policy documents related to the introduction of medication-free services and 75 opinion pieces from a subsequent debate. We examined discursive practices in these texts as expressions of what is perceived as legitimate knowledge upon which to base mental health care from the standpoints of government, user organizations and representatives of the psychiatric profession. We paid particular attention to how standpoints were framed in different discourse surrounding mental health care, and how these interacted and changed during the study period (2008–2018). Results: The analysis shows how elements from the discourse promoted by service user organizations—most notably the legitimacy of personal experiences as a legitimate source of knowledge—entered the mainstream by being incorporated into public policy. Strong reactions to this shift, firmly based in biomedical discourse, endorsed evidence-based medicine as the authoritative source of knowledge to ensure quality care, although accepting patient involvement. Involuntary medication, and how best to help those with non-response to antipsychotic medication represented a point at which discursive positions seemed irreconcilable. Conclusion: The relative authorities of different sources of knowledge remain an area of contention, and especially in determining how best to help patients who do not benefit from antipsychotics. Future non-inferiority trials of medication-free services may go some way to break this discursive deadlock.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.691007
Functional and structural disturbances in the orbitofrontal–striatal–thalamic circuitry are thought to be associated with mental symptoms and neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia. This study tested whether synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97), a reasonable candidate gene for schizophrenia, is related to orbitofrontal–striatal–thalamic connection changes in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and the clinical performance of schizophrenic patients by affecting this integrity. Fifty-two FES patients and 52 matched healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent genotyping via the improved multiplex ligation detection reaction technique and scanning with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide orbitofrontal–striatal–thalamic functional and structural imaging data. A two-way analysis of covariance model was employed to examine abnormal brain connectivities, and Spearman correlations were applied to estimate the relationships between brain connectivity and clinical manifestations. In the FES group, those with the SAP97 rs3915512 TT genotype showed lower structural and functional connectivity than A allele carriers between the orbitofrontal gyrus and striatum/thalamus. In the FES group, negative correlations were found between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the orbitofrontal gyrus and thalamus, and positive symptoms between structural connections in the orbitofrontal gyrus and striatum and cognitive functions, and positive correlations were suggested between RSFC in the orbitofrontal gyrus and thalamus and negative symptoms. Our findings suggested that the SAP97 rs3915512 polymorphism may be involved in mental symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in FES patients by influencing structural and functional connectivity of the orbitofrontal–striatal and orbitofrontal–thalamic regions.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.636730
Smartphones provide convenience in everyday life. Smartphones, however, can elicit adverse effects when used excessively. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying neurobiological alterations that arise from problematic smartphone use. We performed resting state seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis of 44 problematic smartphone users and 54 healthy controls. This analysis assessed the salience, central executive, default mode, and affective networks. Compared to controls, problematic smartphone users showed enhanced FC within the salience network and between the salience and default mode network. Moreover, we observed decreased FC between the salience and central executive network in problematic smartphone users, compared to controls. These results imply that problematic smartphone use is associated with aberrant FC in key brain networks. Our results suggest that changes in FC of key networks centered around the salience network might be associated with problematic smartphone use.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.667699
Objective: Uncontrolled internet use may lead to the emergence of pathological internet use (PIU). PIU has become a global public health concern that can cause a range of psychotic symptoms, including anxiety, depression, and impulse control disorder. To date, we know very little about the principal biological factors related to PIU. Monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) and serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) play critical roles in the development of behavioural and drug addictions. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure the relative expression of mRNA of MAOA and 5-HT2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with PIU and to determine the correlations between these biological indicators and the comorbid symptoms of patients with PIU. Methods: In this study, the mRNA of MAOA and 5-HT2AR was detected using real-time PCR in PBMCs of the patients with PIU (n = 24) and healthy controls (HCs, n = 25). The relationship between the mRNA levels of MAOA and 5-HT2AR and clinical symptoms in patients with PIU was further investigated. Results: MAOA mRNA in PBMCs was significantly upregulated in patients with PIU compared with that in HCs. mRNA levels of 5-HT2AR were not found to differ significantly between HCs and patients with PIU. Correlation analyses further revealed a significant positive correlation between the relative expression of MAOA mRNA in PBMCs of patients with PIU and the Young's Internet Addiction Test and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores. Conclusion: The present study revealed upregulated expression of MAOA mRNA in patients with PIU and an association between the expression of MAOA mRNA and clinical symptoms of PIU, suggesting that the neurobiological changes may be similar between PIU and substance addiction. Additionally, this study demonstrated a potential association between comorbid symptoms and mRNA levels of MAOA.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.713834
We examined the association of mental health problems with preventive behavior and caregivers' anxiety in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and their caregivers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were obtained from 227 pairs of children with NDD and their caregivers in a clinic in Fukui Prefecture, Japan, from October 1 to December 31, 2020. During this period, the activities of children and caregivers were not strongly restricted by the public system. Caregivers' anxiety about children's activities was positively associated with caregivers' and children's fears of COVID-19 and children's depressive symptoms. Children's preventive behavior was negatively associated with children's depressive symptoms. These findings suggested that caregivers' fear of COVID-19 stemmed from worry about the relationship between children's activity and COVID-19 infection, and children might have reflected caregivers' expressions of concern. In schools and clinics, practitioners educate children on how to engage in preventive behavior against COVID-19. Our results support the effectiveness of such practices in mitigating mental health problems in children with NDD.
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.565633
Studies investigating the psychosomatic effects of social isolation in animals have shown that one of the physiologic system that gets disrupted by this environment-affective change is the Endocannabinoid System. As the levels of endocannabinoids change in limbic areas and prefrontal cortex during stressful times, so is the subject more prone to fearful and negative thoughts and aggressive behavior. The interplay of social isolation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cannabinoid tone triggers a vicious cycle which further impairs the natural body's homeostatic neuroendocrine levels and provokes a series of risk factors for developing health complications. In this paper, we explore the psychosomatic impact of prolonged quarantine in healthy individuals, and propose management and coping strategies that may improve endocannabinoid tone, such as integration of probiotics, cannabidiol, meditation, and physical exercise interventions with the aim of supporting interpersonal, individual, and professional adherence with COVID-19 emergency public measures whilst minimizing their psycho-physical impact.