Frontiers in Psychology
ISSN / EISSN : 1664-1078 / 1664-1078
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 22,311
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701544
Patients with an immigrant background are overrepresented in forensic psychiatric hospitals. As a result, daily work is impeded by language barriers and cultural differences. Furthermore, general therapy processes have not yet been adapted to this special patient population, and little reliable knowledge is available. All immigrants go through an acculturation process, which is related to their mental well-being. Four acculturation strategies exist: integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization. The strategy chosen depends on the extent of someone’s orientation toward their country of origin and the country of admission. The current study aimed to expand knowledge of forensic patients with a migration background in Germany by evaluating their self-reported acculturation processes and associated individual and social factors, e.g., the ward climate. Therefore, we studied forensic patients with a migration background from 11 forensic hospitals in Bavaria, Germany. Besides completing the Frankfurter Acculturation Scale (FRACC) and Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES), the participants provided information on their clinical and biographical history. We recruited 235 patients with a migration background and found that the participants oriented themselves more toward the culture of admission and less toward the country of origin than the reference sample did. Moreover, the patients experienced significantly less safety on the ward than the forensic reference sample did. A possible explanation for the patients’ orientation is the lack of possibilities to adhere to their cultural traditions. Patients may feel less safe because of their limited knowledge of German and cultural misunderstandings.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.696353
Binding theories postulate an integration of stimulus and response features into temporary episodic traces or event files. In general, in the visual binding literature, attention is considered to be necessary to feature binding, and a higher cognitive load can lead to worse performance. On the other hand, in stimulus-response binding theories, central attention is not regarded as necessary in binding effects. A possible discrepancy between the visual feature binding findings and the findings in stimulus-response binding studies could lie in the amount of central load implemented, whereas another discrepancy was related to a specific type of process that was manipulated. In the present study, load was manipulated in three levels, such as no load, low load, and high load, and the binding effects were tested under each condition. Load was manipulated by using a secondary task, which was to be carried out simultaneously with the primary task. Additionally, the influence of targeting different working memory processes (maintenance and updating) was examined by varying the time point of the presentation of the secondary task. The results indicate that, under high load, binding effects are observed if memory contents are merely maintained, but not observed when memory contents are actively updated.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.567971
Conceptual combination is a fundamental human cognitive ability by which people can experience infinite thinking by artfully combining finite knowledge. For example, one can instantly combine “cactus” and “fish” together as “prickly fish” even if one has never previously heard of a “cactus fish.” Although two major combinatorial types—property and relational combinations—have been identified, the underlying processes of each remain elusive. This study investigates the asymmetric processing mechanisms underlying property and relational combinations by examining differential semantic activation during noun–noun conceptual combination. Across two experiments utilizing each combinatorial process as semantic priming and implementing a lexical decision task immediately after combination, we measure and compare the semantic activation patterns of intrinsic and extrinsic semantic features in these two combinatorial types. We found converging evidence that property and relational combinations involve asymmetric semantic information and entail distinct processing mechanisms. In property combination, the intrinsic feature in the modifier concept showed greater activation than the semantic feature of the same dimension in the head concept. In contrast, in relational combination, the extrinsic semantic feature in the head concept and the whole modifier concept showed similar levels of activation. Moreover, our findings also showed that these patterns of semantic activation occurred only when the combinatorial process was complete, indicating that accessing the same lexical-semantic information is not sufficient to observe asymmetric patterns. These findings demonstrate that property combination involves replacing a specific semantic feature of the head noun with that of the modifier noun, whereas relational combination involves completing the semantic feature of the head noun with the whole modifier concept. We discuss the implications of these findings, research limitations, and future research directions.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.704036
Background: The quality of parental caregiving behavior with their child plays a key role in optimal mother–infant interaction and in supporting child adaptive development. Sensitive caregiving behavior, in turn, requires the ability to identify and understand emotions. Maternal alexithymia, with difficulties in identifying and describing feelings or emotions, as well as a concrete way of thinking, could potentially complicate the quality of caregiving. In this study, we aim to explore the possible association between maternal alexithymic traits and the quality of maternal caregiving behavior. Methods: The study sample consisted of 158 mother–infant dyads within the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study population with an available report of maternal alexithymic traits at 6 months postpartum and observational data on maternal caregiving behavior at 8 months postpartum. Alexithymia was measured using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) including three alexithymia dimensions—Difficulty Identifying Feelings, Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF), and Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT). Maternal caregiving behavior was assessed using the Emotional Availability Scale and in this study, all four parent dimensions (Sensitivity, Structuring, Non-intrusiveness and Non-hostility) were included. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms at 6 months postpartum were controlled for as potential confounders. In addition, background factors of mother's age and gestational weeks at the time of child birth, maternal educational level, monthly income and parity, as well as relationship status and the gender of the baby were assessed. Results: Maternal TAS-20 total score correlated negatively with Sensitivity (r = −0.169, p = 0.034) and with non-intrusiveness (r = −0.182, p = 0.022). In addition, maternal DDF correlated negatively with Sensitivity (r = −0.168, p = 0.035) and EOT with Non-hostility (r = −0.159, p = 0.047). Furthermore, in regression analyses with controlling for the associated background factors, maternal total score of alexithymic traits (p = 0.034, η2 p = 0.029) and higher DDF (p = 0.044, η2 p = 0.026) remained significantly associated with lower Sensitivity and higher EOT remained significantly associated with lower Non-hostility (p = 0.030, η2 p = 0.030). Conclusions: In this explorative study we found preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that higher maternal alexithymic traits associate with lower maternal sensitivity and more hostile maternal caregiving behavior. Further studies are needed to explore these hypotheses and to investigate their possible implications for child development.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.717817
Stroke is a prevalent disease among geriatric population, which tends to deteriorate cognitive ability and mental health. In such context, cognitive impairment and geriatric depression generate mutually deteriorating impacts on each other. Using the Health and Retirement Study, this study examined depression and cognition before, immediately after, and 2 years after the onset of stroke. Through latent growth mixture modeling, four different trajectories of depression were identified: resilience, recovery, emergent depression, and chronicity. We used demographics including gender, age, race, and ethnicity, activity of daily life, baseline cognition, and trajectories of depression to predict cognitive ability 2 years after the stroke. Both aforementioned demographic factors and pre-stroke cognition were predictive of post-stroke cognition, but the inclusion of depression trajectories further improved the predictive ability. Emergent depression and chronicity were two significant predictors of worse post-stroke cognition. This study showed the importance of considering a more specific trajectotrial interrelationship between depression and cognition in geriatric stroke patients.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.662610
The categorical approach to cross-cultural emotion perception research has mainly relied on constrained experimental tasks, which have arguably biased previous findings and attenuated cross-cultural differences. On the other hand, in the constructionist approach, conclusions on the universal nature of valence and arousal have mainly been indirectly drawn based on participants' word-matching or free-sorting behaviors, but studies based on participants' continuous valence and arousal ratings are very scarce. When it comes to self-reports of specific emotion perception, constructionists tend to rely on free labeling, which has its own limitations. In an attempt to move beyond the limitations of previous methods, a new instrument called the Two-Dimensional Affect and Feeling Space (2DAFS) has been developed. The 2DAFS is a useful, innovative, and user-friendly instrument that can easily be integrated in online surveys and allows for the collection of both continuous valence and arousal ratings and categorical emotion perception data in a quick and flexible way. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this tool, a cross-cultural emotion perception study based on the 2DAFS is reported. The results indicate the cross-cultural variation in valence and arousal perception, suggesting that the minimal universality hypothesis might need to be more nuanced.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.710294
Most interventions for men who have acted violently toward their partner have been conducted as group interventions within a criminal justice context. Therefore, few studies have examined individual psychotherapy and how such interventions may reduce partner violence. In this study, we aimed to describe changes in violence, and changes in clinical distress in men undergoing individual psychotherapy targeting their use of partner violence, at a clinic organized within a psychosocial health care context. This is a naturalistic prospective study of men voluntarily receiving individual psychotherapy for their use of violence against their female partner. Participants were 84 male clients, and data on their use of physical violence, physical controlling violence, property violence and psychological violence were collected pretreatment, posttreatment and at follow-up 1.5 years after treatment from both the men, and their partners (n = 58). The percentage of use of all types of violence during a typical month the last year decreased from pretreatment to follow-up, according to both the men, and their partners. Over the course of treatment, use of all types of self-reported violence during the last month was reduced, however, this was only partially confirmed by their partners. Number of sessions was associated with a lower risk of having used physical and physically controlling violence 1.5 years after treatment. Alcohol abuse or dependency, or qualifying for one or more psychiatric diagnoses, were not associated with levels or change in use of violence. On average, the men's clinical distress declined over the course of psychotherapy. The findings suggest that individual psychotherapy may be a promising and worthwhile intervention for intimate partner violence. Studies with more elaborate designs are needed to identify the core mechanisms of psychotherapy for violence, and to corroborate these results with higher levels of evidence.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.634863
Many psychological researchers have proven the deteriorating effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic on public mental health. In Malaysia, various Covid-19 clusters were associated with religious gatherings. From a cultural psychology perspective, how ethno-religious groups respond to this crisis originating from their unique rationality and ecological systems. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the illness perceptions of major religious groups (Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist) in Malaysia toward the Covid-19 pandemic, their stress levels, and the relationship between illness perception, stress, and forms of religious expression during the lockdown period. Through an online survey method, 608 Malaysian religious believers were included in this mixed-method empirical study, which adapted standardized instruments [Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)]. Statistical analysis showed that all three groups reported moderate levels of stress in average without any significant difference after controlling for age. Both internal and external forms of religious expression had a significant negative relationship with stress levels. Personal control, comprehension, and emotions domains of illness perception accounted for a significant variance in the stress level. Furthermore, religious expression significantly moderated the relationship between some illness perception domains and stress. Qualitative coding revealed that most participants perceived human behavior and attitudes, sociopolitical, and sociological factors as causal factors to the current pandemic. These findings confirmed the relationship between religious expression, illness belief, and stress regulation during the pandemic lockdown. Incidental findings of age as a potential protective factor for Malaysian believers warrants further study. In the conclusion, implications for public health policymakers and religious communities on pandemic prevention and well-being promotion were discussed.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.629231
Service-learning (SL) helps engineering students to be involved in community activities and to be motivated by their studies. Although several reviews and research studies have been published about SL, it is not widespread in sciences and engineering at the university level. The purpose of this research is to analyze the different community services or projects where SL is implemented by engineering students and faculty and to identify the procedures that were usually implemented to assess SL-based courses and activities. Assessment could be considered as the evaluation of a specific module and the engineering competencies, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the SL program, the assessment of the participation of the student in those programs, and the assessment of whether students have achieved certain outcomes or gained specific skills. We conducted a systematic review with a search in three scientific databases: Scopus, Science Direct, and ERIC educational database to analyze the assessment methods and what that assessment covers. From 14,107 publications related to SL, 120 documents were analyzed to inform the conclusions of this study. We found that SL is widely used in several universities as experiential education, and it is considered an academic activity. The most widely used assessment technique is a survey to evaluate the engagement and attitudes of students and, to a lesser extent, teamwork presentations.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720559
Editorial on the Research Topic Semantic Algorithms in the Assessment of Attitudes and Personality The methodological tools available for psychological and organizational assessment are rapidly advancing through natural language processing (NLP). Computerized analyses of texts are increasingly available as extensions of traditional psychometric approaches. The present Research Topic is recognizing the contributions but also the challenges in publishing such inter-disciplinary research. We therefore sought to provide an open-access avenue for cutting-edge research to introduce and illustrate the various applications of semantics in the assessment of attitudes and personality. The result is a collection of empirical contributions spanning from assessment of psychological states through methodological biases to construct identity detection. To understand previous research leading up to this issue, one important starting point was the application of machine learning to the assessment of attitudes measured by Larsen et al. (2008). Observing how the output from semantic algorithms could identify high correlations among items, Larsen et al. (2008, p. 3) introduced a mechanism to check for language-driven survey results: “Manifest validity is expected to support researchers during the data analysis stage in that researchers can compare measures of manifest validity (evaluating the extent of semantic difference between different scales) to item correlations computed from actual responses. In cases where there is little difference between distances proposed by correlation coefficients, the respondents are more likely to have employed shallow processing during questionnaire analysis.” Since then, researchers have expanded the use of semantic similarity of scale items to explore survey responses in a number of ways. Studies have shown that semantics may predict survey responses in organizational behavior (Arnulf et al., 2014, 2018c), leadership (Arnulf and Larsen, 2015, Arnulf et al., 2018b,d), employee engagement (Nimon et al., 2016), technology acceptance (Gefen and Larsen, 2017), and intrinsic motivation (Arnulf et al., 2018a). In a parallel line of previous research, semantic analysis has been used to complement and extend data from traditional rating scales (e.g., Nicodemus et al., 2014; Bååth et al., 2019; Garcia et al., 2020, Kjell et al., 2019). Since semantic analysis can detect overlap among items and rating scales, they can be used to map relationships and overlap between existing or new scales (e.g., Rosenbusch et al., 2020) and even to detect construct identities and ameliorate the jingle/jangle problem in theory building (e.g., Larsen and Bong, 2016). While the salient points of several of the articles presented in this Research Topic were semantically similar to prior literature, several others were more diverse (see Figure 1). Figure 1. 3D-Plot of Research Topic and prior literature abstracts semantic similarity. Prior encompasses the literature reviewed in the editorial not including the articles contributing to the Research Topic. Darkness of lines represents the magnitude of the cosines resulting from conducting LSA on the abstracts in the Research Topic and prior literature. Arnulf and Larsen and Arnulf et al. are arguably most similar to the body of literature previously reviewed. In both articles, LSA of survey items predicted survey responses to varying degrees. Arnulf and Larsen's research questioned the capability of traditional survey responses to detect cultural differences. Observed differences in the semantically driven patterns of survey responses from eleven different ethnic samples appeared to be caused by different translations and understanding rather than cultural dependencies. Arnulf et al. similarly found that different score levels in prevalent motivation measures among 18 job types could be explained by differences in semantic patterns between the job types. Gefen et al. conducted LSA on items sets associated with trust and distrust and found that the resulting distance matrix of the items yielded a covariance-based structural equation model that was consistent with theory. Kjell O. et al. found that open-ended, computational language assessments of well-being were distinctly related to a theoretically relevant behavioral outcome, whereas data from standard, close-ended numerical rating scales were not. In a similar manner, Kjell K. et al. found that freely generated word responses analyzed with artificial intelligence significantly correlated with individual items connected to the DSM 5 diagnostic criteria of depression and anxiety. Chen et al. manually annotated Facebook posts to assess social media affect and found that extraverted participants tended to post positive content continuously, more agreeable participants tended to avoid posting negative content, and participants with stronger depression symptoms posted more non-original content. Garcia et al. applied LSA to Reuter news and Facebook status updates. In the case of the Reuter corpus, the past was devaluated relative to both the present and the future and in the case of the Facebook corpus, the past and present were devaluated against the future. Based on those findings, the authors concluded that people strive to communicate the promotion of a bright future and the prevention of a dark future. Fredén and Sikstrom applied LSA to voter descriptions of leaders and parties and found that descriptions of leaders predicted vote choice to a similar extent as descriptions of parties. Nimon provided a dataset of documents from Taking the Measure of Work and demonstrated how it could be used to build a LSA space. As the NLP field continues to develop and mature and the opportunity to automatically transform open-ended data to quantifiable measures, one wonders to what degree the use of rating scales will be warranted in the future. Taken together, the applications...