#### Cyborg and Bionic Systems

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EISSN : 2692-7632
Total articles ≅ 22
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#### Latest articles in this journal

Published: 19 October 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9807520

Abstract:
DNA nanotechnology takes DNA molecule out of its biological context to build nanostructures that have entered the realm of robots and thus added a dimension to cyborg and bionic systems. Spurred by spring-like properties of DNA molecule, the assembled nanorobots can be tuned to enable restricted, mechanical motion by deliberate design. DNA nanorobots can be programmed with a combination of several unique features, such as tissue penetration, site-targeting, stimuli responsiveness, and cargo-loading, which makes them ideal candidates as biomedical robots for precision medicine. Even though DNA nanorobots are capable of detecting target molecule and determining cell fate via a variety of DNA-based interactions both in vitro and in vivo, major obstacles remain on the path to real-world applications of DNA nanorobots. Control over nanorobot’s stability, cargo loading and release, analyte binding, and dynamic switching both independently and simultaneously represents the most eminent challenge that biomedical DNA nanorobots currently face. Meanwhile, scaling up DNA nanorobots with low-cost under CMC and GMP standards represents other pertinent challenges regarding the clinical translation. Nevertheless, DNA nanorobots will undoubtedly be a powerful toolbox to improve human health once those remained challenges are addressed by using a scalable and cost-efficient method.
B. Fong
Published: 15 September 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9861513

Abstract:
As observed in the outbreaks of SARS and swine flu, as well as many other infectious diseases, the huge volume of human traffic across numerous enclosed public venues has posed immense challenges to preventing the spread of communicable diseases. There is an urgent need for effective disease surveillance management in public areas under pandemic outbreaks. The physicochemical properties associated with ionic liquids make them particularly suited for molecular communications in sensing networks where low throughput is quite adequate for pathogen detection. This paper presents a self-cognizant system for rapid diagnosis of infectious disease using a bionic sensor such that testing can be supported without collecting a fluid sample from a subject through any invasive methods. The system is implemented for testing the performance of the proposed bionic liquid sensing network.
Hao Wang, Jiacheng Kan, Xin Zhang, Chenyi Gu,
Published: 6 August 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9876064

Abstract:
Swimming micro-nanorobots have attracted researchers’ interest in potential medical applications on target therapy, biosensor, drug carrier, and others. At present, the experimental setting of the swimming micro-nanorobots was mainly studied in pure water or H2O2 solution. This paper presents a micro-nanorobot that applied glucose in human body fluid as driving fuel. Based on the catalytic properties of the anode and cathode materials of the glucose fuel cell, platinum (Pt) and carbon nanotube (CNT) were selected as the anode and cathode materials, respectively, for the micro-nanorobot. The innovative design adopted the method of template electrochemical and chemical vapor deposition to manufacture the Pt/CNT micro-nanorobot structure. Both the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to observe the morphology of the sample, and its elements were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Through a large number of experiments in a glucose solution and according to Stoker’s law of viscous force and Newton’s second law, we calculated the driving force of the fabricated micro-nanorobot. It was concluded that the structure of the Pt/CNT micro-nanorobot satisfied the required characteristics of both biocompatibility and motion.
Luyao Wang, Lihua Ma, Jiajia Yang, Jinglong Wu
Published: 2 July 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9843259

Abstract:
In the past few years, we have gained a better understanding of the information processing mechanism in the human brain, which has led to advances in artificial intelligence and humanoid robots. However, among the various sensory systems, studying the somatosensory system presents the greatest challenge. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the human somatosensory system and its corresponding applications in artificial systems. Due to the uniqueness of the human hand in integrating receptor and actuator functions, we focused on the role of the somatosensory system in object recognition and action guidance. First, the low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human skin and somatotopic organization principles along the ascending pathway, which are fundamental to artificial skin, were summarized. Second, we discuss high-level brain areas, which interacted with each other in the haptic object recognition. Based on this close-loop route, we used prosthetic upper limbs as an example to highlight the importance of somatosensory information. Finally, we present prospective research directions for human haptic perception, which could guide the development of artificial somatosensory systems.
Published: 25 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9841342

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine whether interactive video game (IVG) training is an effective way to improve postural control outcomes and decrease the risk of falls. A convenience sample of 12 prefrail older adults were recruited and divided into two groups: intervention group performed IVG training for 40 minutes, twice per week, for a total of 16 sessions. The control group received no intervention and continued their usual activity. Outcome measures were centre of pressure (COP), mean velocity, sway area, and sway path. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC). Assessment was conducted with preintervention (week zero) and postintervention (week eight). The intervention group showed significant improvement in mean velocity, sway area, Berg Balance Scale, and TUG ($p<0.01$) compared to the control group. However, no significant improvement was observed for sway path ($p=0.35$), FES-I ($p=0.383$), and ABC ($p=0.283$). This study showed that IVG training led to significant improvements in postural control but not for risk of falls.
Yiwei Wang, Wenyang Li, Shunta Togo, Hiroshi Yokoi,
Published: 15 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9817487

Abstract:
Humanoid robotic upper limbs including the robotic hand and robotic arm are widely studied as the important parts of a humanoid robot. A robotic upper limb with light weight and high output can perform more tasks. The drive system is one of the main factors affecting the weight and output of the robotic upper limb, and therefore, the main purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the effects of the different drive methods on the overall structure. In this paper, we first introduce the advantages and disadvantages of the main drive methods such as tendon, gear, link, fluid (hydraulic and pneumatic), belt, chain, and screw drives. The design of the drive system is an essential factor to allow the humanoid robotic upper limb to exhibit the structural features and functions of the human upper limb. Therefore, the specific applications of each drive method on the humanoid robotic limbs are illustrated and briefly analyzed. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in the weight and payload (or grasping force) of the robotic hands and robotic arms with different drive methods. The results showed that the tendon drive system is easier to achieve light weight due to its simple structure, while the gear drive system can achieve a larger torque ratio, which results in a larger output torque. Further, the weight of the actuator accounts for a larger proportion of the total weight, and a reasonable external placement of the actuator is also beneficial to achieve light weight.
Dongfang Xu,
Published: 4 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9863761

Abstract:
The lower-limb robotic prostheses can provide assistance for amputees’ daily activities by restoring the biomechanical functions of missing limb(s). To set proper control strategies and develop the corresponding controller for robotic prosthesis, a prosthesis user’s intent must be acquired in time, which is still a major challenge and has attracted intensive attentions. This work focuses on the robotic prosthesis user’s locomotion intent recognition based on the noninvasive sensing methods from the recognition task perspective (locomotion mode recognition, gait event detection, and continuous gait phase estimation) and reviews the state-of-the-art intent recognition techniques in a lower-limb prosthesis scope. The current research status, including recognition approach, progress, challenges, and future prospects in the human’s intent recognition, has been reviewed. In particular for the recognition approach, the paper analyzes the recent studies and discusses the role of each element in locomotion intent recognition. This work summarizes the existing research results and problems and contributes a general framework for the intent recognition based on lower-limb prosthesis.
, Shuichi Yokosawa
Published: 30 May 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9851834

Abstract:
Origami, a traditional Japanese art, is an example of superior handwork produced by human hands. Achieving such extreme dexterity is one of the goals of robotic technology. In the work described in this paper, we developed a new general-purpose robot system with sufficient capabilities for performing Origami. We decomposed the complex folding motions into simple primitives and generated the overall motion as a combination of these primitives. Also, to measure the paper deformation in real-time, we built an estimator using a physical simulator and a depth camera. As a result, our experimental system achieved consecutive valley folds and a squash fold.
Zoe A. Bamber, Wei Sun, Rhea S. Menon, , Ian D. Swain,
Published: 13 May 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9801097

Abstract:
Balance improvement could contribute to ankle stability for the prevention of ankle sprains. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an effective way of augmenting muscle activity and improving balance. This study investigated the effect of FES of peroneal muscles on single-and double-leg balance. Fifteen healthy females ($age=23.1±1.6 years$, $height=1.63±0.07 m$, and $weight=63.7±9.9 kg$) performed single- and double-leg standing balance tests with eyes open and closed before and after 15-minute FES intervention during treadmill running at a comfortable, self-selected pace. FES of peroneal muscles was provided bilaterally, using an Odstock Dropped Foot Stimulator. The total excursion of the centre of pressure (COP) was calculated to assess the standing balance control ability. The total excursion of COP in single- and double-leg stance with eyes open reduced significantly after FES intervention by 14.7% ($p<0.001$) and 5.9% ($p=0.031$), respectively. The eyes-closed condition exhibited a 12.7% ($p=0.002$) reduction in single-leg stance but did not significantly change in double-leg stance ($p>0.05$). Limb preference did not account for balance postintervention. No significant difference in total excursion of COP was found between preferred and less preferred limbs with both visual conditions ($p>0.05$). FES of peroneal muscles improved standing balance control with eyes open in double-leg and single-leg stance and with eyes closed in double-leg stance. The improvements in balance control with FES treatment did not vary concerning limb preference.
Yufei Zhu, Chunguang Li, Hedian Jin, Lining Sun
Published: 22 April 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9821787

Abstract:
In some patients who have suffered an amputation or spinal cord injury, walking ability may be degraded or deteriorated. Helping these patients walk independently on their own initiative is of great significance. This paper proposes a method to identify subjects’ motion intention under different levels of step length and synchronous walking speed by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy technology. Thirty-one healthy subjects were recruited to walk under six given sets of gait parameters (small step with low/midspeed, midstep with low/mid/high speed, and large step with midspeed). The channels were subdivided into more regions. More frequency bands (6 subbands on average in the range of 0-0.18 Hz) were decomposed by applying the wavelet packet method. Further, a genetic algorithm and a library for support vector machine algorithm were applied for selecting typical feature vectors, which were represented by important regions with partial important channels mentioned above. The walking speed recognition rate was 71.21% in different step length states, and the step length recognition rate was 71.21% in different walking speed states. This study explores the method of identifying motion intention in two-dimensional multivariate states. It lays the foundation for controlling walking-assistance equipment adaptively based on cerebral hemoglobin information.