Endoscopy International Open

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ISSN / EISSN : 2364-3722 / 2196-9736
Current Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag KG (10.1055)
Total articles ≅ 1,488
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Francesco Cocomazzi, Marco Gentile, Francesco Perri, Antonio Merla, Fabrizio Bossa, Mariano Piazzolla, Antonio Ippolito, Fulvia Terracciano, Arcangela Patrizia Giuliani, Rossella Cubisino, et al.
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1352-3437

Abstract:
Background and study aims The Paris classification of superficial colonic lesions has been widely adopted, but a simplified description that subgroups the shape into pedunculated, sessile/flat and depressed lesions has been proposed recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and inter-rater agreement among 13 Western endoscopists for the two classification systems. Methods Seventy video clips of superficial colonic lesions were classified according to the two classifications, and their size estimated. The interobserver agreement for each classification was assessed using both Cohen k and AC1 statistics. Accuracy was taken as the concordance between the standard morphology definition and that made by participants. Sensitivity analyses investigated agreement between trainees (T) and staff members (SM), simple or mixed lesions, distinct lesion phenotypes, and for laterally spreading tumors (LSTs). Results Overall, the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification was substantial (κ = 0.61; AC1 = 0.66), with 79.3 % accuracy. Between SM and T, the values were superimposable. For size estimation, the agreement was 0.48 by the κ-value, and 0.50 by AC1. For single or mixed lesions, κ-values were 0.60 and 0.43, respectively; corresponding AC1 values were 0.68 and 0.57. Evaluating the several different polyp subtypes separately, agreement differed significantly when analyzed by the k-statistics (0.08–0.12) or the AC1 statistics (0.59–0.71). Analyses of LSTs provided a κ-value of 0.50 and an AC1 score of 0.62, with 77.6 % accuracy. The simplified classification outperformed the Paris classification: κ = 0.68, AC1 = 0.82, accuracy = 91.6 %. Conclusions Agreement is often measured with Cohen’s κ, but we documented higher levels of agreement when analyzed with the AC1 statistic. The level of agreement was substantial for the Paris classification, and almost perfect for the simplified system.
Livia Archibugi, Alberto Mariani, Biagio Ciambriello, Maria Chiara Petrone, Gemma Rossi, Sabrina Gloria Giulia Testoni, Michele Carlucci, Luca Aldrighetti, Massimo Falconi, Gianpaolo Balzano, et al.
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1322-2638

Abstract:
Background and study aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plays a major role in biliary strictures, with brushing being a cheap and fast method to acquire a cytological specimen, despite a sensitivity around 45 %. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) is widely used for endoscopic ultrasound-acquired cytological specimen adequacy, improving its sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, no study has evaluated its role for ERCP-guided brushing. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic yield of ERCP-guided brushing of biliary strictures when supported by ROSE. Patients and methods This was a retrospective single-center study that included patients undergoing ERCP-guided brush cytology supported by ROSE for biliary strictures. Recorded data included patient clinical-radiological and ERCP features. Final diagnosis was determined after surgery, intraductal biopsy or adequate follow-up. The diagnostic yield was calculated and a subgroup analysis for factors associated with false-negative or true-positive results was performed. Results Two hundred six patients were included, 57.3 % males, median age 72 years, 77.2 % having extrahepatic biliary strictures. Of the patients, 99 % had an adequate sample at ROSE after a mean of 2.6 passages. The diagnostic yield was accuracy 83 %, sensitivity 74.6 %, and specificity 98 %, positive and negative predictive values 98 % and 71 % respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.86. A diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma was significantly more frequent among true-positive cases (68 % vs 46.8 %; P = 0.04). Conclusions This is the first study evaluating the use of ROSE as support for ERCP-guided brushing of biliary strictures, with a sensitivity far higher than those reported for brushing alone and at least comparable to those of more expensive and invasive techniques.
Nicholas M. McDonald, Mohammad Bilal, Sunil Amin
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1339-1230

Abstract:
We congratulate Kastelijn et al. on their manuscript entitled, “Patency of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy in the treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction” [1]. This is an international multicenter study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a novel, minimally invasive endoscopic procedure, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE). Although the authors report both high rates of technical success and stent patency, they also note a relatively high number of adverse events (AEs) compared to prior reports [2]. Our comments address this high AE rate and attempt to clarify the role of EUS-GE in management of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). Publication Date:19 February 2021 (online) © 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commecial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) Georg Thieme Verlag KGRüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
Pauline M.C. Stassen, David M. de Jong, Jan-Werner Poley, Marco J. Bruno, Pieter J.F. de Jonge
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1337-2321

Abstract:
Background and study aims The safety of transpapillary biliary drainage by stent placement through endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) may be compromised by the occurrence of stent migration-induced perforation of the duodenal wall (SMDP). We aimed to assess the prevalence rate, risk factors and clinical course of SMDP. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent an ERC with biliary plastic stent placement, between January 2014 and December 2018. Patients with an SMDP were identified from our endoscopy complication registry. Results 1227 patients underwent an ERC, of whom 629 patients (51 %) with biliary plastic stent placement; in 304 patients (25 %) stents were placed for perihilar strictures. Thirteen patients with SMDP were identified. The prevalence was 2.1 % for patients with biliary plastic stent placement and 4.3 % for patients stented for a perihilar stricture. All SMDPs occurred in patients with a perihilar stricture and with stents ≥ 12 cm (range 12–20 cm). Another potential risk factor was stent insertion into the left liver lobe, which was present in 10 of 13 patients. In 10 of 13 patients, SMDP was clinically suspected. Three of 13 patients were asymptomatic and diagnosed at elective stent retrieval. Eight patients could be endoscopically treated with an over-the-scope clip. Four patients died due to abdominal sepsis despite repeated interventions. Conclusion SMDP is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of ERC after transpapillary drainage for perihilar biliary strictures. Stents ≥ 12 cm and stent insertion into the left liver lobe may be associated risk factors.
Benedetto Mangiavillano, Silvia Carrara, Leonardo H. Eusebi, Franceasco Auriemma, Mario Bianchetti, Alessandro Repici
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1339-0690

Abstract:
One of the main challenges encountered by endosonographers is performing diagnostic and interventional pancreato-biliary endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures in the presence of surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy. We describe the water-filled technique (WFT) for EUS examination and treatment of the pancreato-biliary region in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy. Using the WFT, the scope is advanced up to the gastro-jejunal anastomosis and, after placing the tip of the scope 2 cm beyond it, enlargement of the jejunal lumen is obtained by water instillation of the jejunal loop. An enlargement of more than 1.5 cm allows advancement of the tip of the scope under EUSguidance up to the duodenum, in a retrograde way. The WFT is useful for reaching the ampullary area and performing diagnostic and therapeutic EUS in patients with surgically altered anatomy. The technique is also reproducible and can be easily used by endoscopists who regularly perform EUS.
Benedetto Mangiavillano, Rastislav Kunda, Carlos Robles-Medranda, Roberto Oleas, Andrea Anderloni, Adrien Sportes, Carlo Fabbri, Cecilia Binda, Francesco Auriemma, Leonardo H. Eusebi, et al.
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 9; doi:10.1055/a-1333-1053

Abstract:
Background and study aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the gold standard procedure for malignant jaundice palliation; however, it can be challenging when a duodenal self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is already in place. Patients and methods The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of the placement of a lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS) through the mesh (TTM) of duodenal stents. The secondary aims were to evaluate clinical outcomes and adverse events (AEs) related to the procedures. Results Data from 23 patients (11 F and 12 M; mean age: 69.5 ± 11 years old) were collected. In 17 patients (73.9 %) TTM LAMS placement was performed as first intention, while in six patients (26.1 %) it was performed after a failed ERCP. Thirteen patients (56.5 %) underwent the procedure due to advanced pancreatic head neoplasia. One technical failure was experienced (4.3 %). The TTM LAMS placement led to a significant decrease in the serum levels of bilirubin, ALP, GGT, WBC and CRP. No cases of duodenal SEMS occlusion occurred and no other AEs were observed during the follow-up. Conclusions Concomitant malignant duodenal and biliary obstruction is a challenging condition. Palliation of jaundice using TTM LAMS in patients already treated with duodenal stent is associated to promising technical and clinical outcomes.
Madeline Friedman, Kyle Rand, Tobias Patel, Francis Colizzo, Peter Carolan, Peter Kelsey, Daniel C. Chung
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 9; doi:10.1055/a-1339-0724

Abstract:
Background and study aims Conscious sedation is routinely administered for colonoscopy but is associated with risks and inconveniences. We sought to determine whether virtual reality (VR) may be a feasible alternative. Patients and methods Twenty-seven individuals scheduled for screening/surveillance colonoscopy participated. The VR device was activated throughout the colonoscopy, but subjects could opt out and request standard medications. Questionnaires were administered, and variables were assessed on a scale of 1 to 10. Results Cecal intubation was achieved in all cases without adverse events (AEs). Study colonoscopies were completed without pharmacological rescue in 26 of 27 patients (96.3 %) and procedure times were comparable to baseline. Subjects reported minimal pain, high satisfaction, and willingness to use VR for future colonoscopies to avoid narcotics and resume normal activities including driving. Conclusion Replacing pharmacological sedation with VR did not impact colonoscopy completion rates, procedure time, or AEs. Satisfaction was high and only one subject (3.7 %) chose to suspend VR. VR can be an effective alternative for patients undergoing colonoscopy who prefer to avoid narcotics.
Zhuan Liao, Shuixiang He, Weihong Sha, Zhijie Feng, Xiaomei Sun, Jun Wan, Jun Pan, Shasha Wang, Enqiang Linghu, Zhaoshen Li, et al.
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 9; doi:10.1055/a-1333-6635

Abstract:
The Capsule Endoscopy Group of the Chinese Society of Digestive Endoscopy has issued recommendations for capsule endoscopy (CE) practice during the COVID-19 pandemic to standardize workflow, preventive strategies, and management of a CE unit and in so doing, ensure the safety of both medical staff and patients.
Thomas K.L. Lui, Vivien W.M. Tsui, Wai K. Leung
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 9; doi:10.1055/a-1333-1337

Abstract:
Background and study aims The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a major disruption in the healthcare system. This study determined the impact of the first wave of COVID-19 on the number and outcome of patients hospitalized for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in Hong Kong. Patients and methods Records of all patients hospitalized for UGIB in Hong Kong public hospitals between October 2018 and June 2020 were retrieved. The number and characteristics of patients hospitalized for UGIB after COVID-19 was compared by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model prediction and historical cohort. Results Since the first local case of COVID-19, there was an initial drop in UGIB hospitalizations (observed 29.8 vs predicted 35.5 per week; P = 0.05) followed by a rebound (39.8 vs 26.7 per week; P < 0.01) with a turning point at week 14 (Petitt’s test, P < 0.001). There was a negative association between the number of COVID-19 cases and the number of patients hospitalized for UGIB (Pearson correlation –0.53, P < 0.001). Patients admitted after the outbreak of COVID-19 had lower hemoglobin (7.5 vs baseline 8.3 g/dL; P < 0.01) and a greater need for blood transfusion (64.5 % vs baseline 50.4 %; P < 0.01), but similar rates of all-cause mortality (6.9 % vs 7.1 %; P = 0.82) and rebleeding (6.7 % vs 5.1 %; P = 0.11). There was also a higher proportion of patients with variceal bleeding (10.5 % vs baseline 5.3 %; P < 0 .01). Conclusions There was a dynamic change in the number of patients hospitalized for UGIB in Hong Kong during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, with more obvious impact during the initial phase only.
Silvia Pecere, Federico Barbaro, Lucio Petruzziello, Luigi Giovanni Papparella, Marco Napoli, Ivo Boskoski, Guido Costamagna
Endoscopy International Open, Volume 09; doi:10.1055/a-1333-1736

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Background and study aims The need for hospital beds during the COVID-19 pandemic almost overwhelmed the health care systems all over the world. Therefore, elective non-life-saving procedures were postponed. We decided to perform all colorectal endoscopic mucosal dissections (ESDs) for challenging lesions as outpatient procedures, organizing an ad hoc path to management of any delayed post-procedural complications. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of outpatient ESD for colorectal tumors. Patients and methods From March 2020 to May 2020, outpatient colorectal ESDs were performed for 15 challenging lesions. We retrospectively investigated feasibility and safety of the procedures, rates of en bloc resection, and complications rates. Results The mean age of the patients was 66.5 years and 40 % of the them were on antiplatelet/anticoagulation therapy. Median size of removed lesions was 45 mm (range 32–77) and 38 mm (range 24 to 55) Five patients (33 %) had rectal tumors extending to the dentate line and four (26.6 %) were recurrences on a scar of previous endoscopic or surgical local resections. All complications, such as bleeding or visible microperforation, were managed endoscopically and no delayed perforations occurred. One patient had fever (37.5 °C), while three patients complained of anal pain after ESD for a rectal tumor that extended to the dentate line (RTDL); all patients were managed conservatively. Conclusion Outpatient colorectal ESD is feasible and safe for challenging lesions. It reduces costs of hospitalization but direct access to the endoscopy service to manage potential post-ESD complications should always be guaranteed.
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