International Journal of Biology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9671 / 1916-968X
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 532
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Latest articles in this journal

A. P. Tchogou, M. Sènou, F. Agbogba, J. E. Lokonon, S. E. Medoatinsa, C. P. Agbangnan Dossa, F. Loko, A. Agbonon, A. Sèzan
International Journal of Biology, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijb.v13n1p8

Cocos nucifera was a coastal plant whose roots were used in pharmacopoeia to treat anemia in Benin. The aqueous extract from its roots stimulated the synthesis of hemoglobin. The aim of this work was to test in vivo the efficacy of the butanolic fraction of the extract in the treatment of anemia. Methods: Wistar rats were anemic with phenylhydrazine for two days. From D2 to D15, some were treated by gavage with the butanolic fraction of the aqueous extract of Cocos nucifera roots at the dose of 40 mg or 60 mg/kg of body weight/day, others were treated with vitafer (an anti-anemic drug) or with distilled water. The rats blood were collected on days D0, D2, D7, D10 and D15 for the complete blood count and the osmotic resistance of the red blood cells. Results: On D2, phenylhydrazine significantly lowered the hemoglobin level and the number of red blood cells, which were respectively corrected on D10 and D15 by the fraction of extract with release of hypochromic macrocytes. However, the effect was slower than that of the crude extract, was not specific to erythropoiesis because it also stimulated thrombopoiesis and was not dose-dependent. Conclusion: The butanolic fraction of the aqueous extract of Cocos nucifera roots corrected anemia by stimulation of hematopoiesis. The observed biological activity would probably be linked to anthocyanins which are mainly isolated by butanol. These results contribute to a better knowledge of bioactive compounds of our antianemic plants.
Mahipal Singh, Pushpa Yadav, Anand K. Yadav
International Journal of Biology, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ijb.v13n1p1

The 5S ribosomal RNA gene(s) and their associated intergenic spacer regions were amplified from Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia by polymerase chain reaction. Both Carica species exhibited differently sized amplification products. Sequence analysis of these PCR products revealed that the 5S rRNA genes are arranged as tandem repeats in these regions. Sequence data revealed that the 5S rRNA gene from Carica quercifolia was 119 bp in length. Sequence variation was observed in various 5S rRNA gene copies cloned from Carica quercifolia. Only truncated 5S rRNA gene but with its full spacer region was recovered from Carica papaya. Interestingly, intergenic spacer sequence cloned from Carica papaya contained two specific domains, a 30bp “CT” rich domain exhibiting 95-100% homology to several human chromosomes and a domain matching with mitrocomin precursor, a photo-protein from Mitrocoma cellularia. The role of 5S rRNA gene and their spacer regions in discerning the germplasm and in adaptation of the species is discussed.
Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n4p1

It has been previously shown that workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti can add up numbers of elements when seeing the result of the operation during training, can acquire multiple numerical symbolisms and can make additions using learned numeric symbols. They have also been shown to acquire the notion of zero through experiences. Here, we examined if these ants can associate a symbol with zero and can use this symbol to add. Working on four colonies, we found that the ants acquired a numerical symbolism for zero, and that they used this acquisition for making the additions 1 + 0, 2 + 0, 3 + 0, 4 + 0. This ability simply resulted from operative conditioning and from the ants’ capability in adding up two amounts sighted side by side. The latter imperative condition shows that ants’ numerical cognitive faculties are at a lower level than that observed in honeybees, in some birds and monkeys.
Jing Ji, Jie Cao, Jianming Cheng
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p40

Stachyuri medulla helwingiae medulla is a wild used genus in clinic, especially in promoting lactation. Most study confirmed it’s evidently rich in polysaccharide. In this study, a HPLC method for the quantification of Coniferyl alcohol (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl alcohol) was validated. The results showed that the HPLC method was linear (0.01-0.16mg/ml) with good accuracy, precision and robustness. The content of Coniferyl alcohol in different formula granule ranged from 0.091-0.163mg/g. Thus, the method might be used for the standardization of the extracts based on the Coniferyl alcohol marker.
Liam Bai
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p48

Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2020
Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p18

The workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti were previously shown to be able to associate a given amount to its corresponding symbol, one symbol at a time. It was here examined if they can simultaneously learn to associate the amount 1 with a corresponding symbol, the amount 2 with another symbol, the amount 3 with a third symbol, and the amount 4 with a fourth symbol, the cue to avoid being the amount 5. Thanks to operant conditioning during 156 hours and twelve successive testing experiments, it was shown that the ants can effectively memorize, in the course of a same time period, the association between the amounts 1, 2, 3, and 4 and their respective symbols. A distance effect was observed for the learning of the amounts 1 to 4 versus 5, but not for the learning of their four corresponding symbols.
Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p27

The workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti have been shown to be able to add numbers of elements after having seen them simultaneously, side by side, during training, and to be able to acquire single as well as multiple symbolism. It was here examined if these ants could make additions using learned symbols. In fact, after having learned the required symbols during a first conditioning, the ants could, thanks to a second conditioning, carry out operations 1 + 1, 1 + 2, 2 + 2 and 3 + 1 by using the quantities of elements presented as well as their corresponding symbols. This ability results from the ants’ learning of the correspondence between symbols and numbers of elements by an operative conditioning, and from their ability to add up two quantities viewed simultaneously. A comparison of the ants’ score when adding elements and when adding their corresponding symbols suggests that the use of symbolism may represent some facility for the execution of simple arithmetic operations, as is the case in higher animal species.
Buriev Sulaymon Burievich, Yuldoshov Laziz Tolibovich
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p14

The article provides information on the growth, development, reproduction and degree of purification of wastewater from organo-mineral substances of the high water plant pistia (Pistia stratiotes L) oil refining plant wastewater.
Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n3p1

On the basis of the known numerosity abilities of the ant Myrmica sabuleti, it was checked if workers of this species could associate a symbol with a number of elements through conditioning, an ability rarely encountered in invertebrates and never mentioned in ants. Working each time on two colonies, we observed that these ants could associate a particular shape used as a symbol with 1, 2, 3 or 4 displayed dots. This acquired association was only slightly affected by a change in shape, color or size of the sighed elements. This elementary association of a symbol with a number by an ant has also been observed in bees, while vertebrates such as birds and monkeys can bring this ability at a more complex level.
V. L. Stass
International Journal of Biology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/ijb.v12n2p65

The aim of this study is to model and analyse a dynamic of feed conversion coefficient in pigs' ontogeny. Feed conversion is a process that couples feed intake, and growth. While there has been much research into the problem, a quantitative relation between the traits has not been revealed. The study considers feed as nutrient weight rather than its energy or a separate feedstuff. A main task of the research is to find out an analytical function between the traits. It is expected that the study will provide a new insight into the problem. Animals are open systems; they need feed to sustain life, to grow and develop. It is plausible to suppose that growth of animal is a function of feed conversion and body weight. To find out and analyse this function a deterministic model of growth was built. The model was built as a dynamic system that describes the growth of individual animals. Both continuum and discrete-time modelling techniques are employed. The model is based on a data set obtained in experiments and field observations. Theoretical notions about the growth have been used for the model analyses. It is shown that in ontogeny feed conversion and growth rate are functionally related traits. Between the traits, there is a nonlinear relation that concerns the growth rate, and feed conversion coefficient. In the model, the feed conversion coefficient is the variable that determines the dynamic of growth.
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