American Journal of Physics

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ISSN / EISSN : 0002-9505 / 1943-2909
Total articles ≅ 25,368
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Joseph Amato, Tyler Engstrom, John Essick, Harvey Gould, Claire A. Marrache-Kikuchi, Raina Olsen, , Jan Tobochnik
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 905-906; https://doi.org/10.1119/5.0066646

Edward W. Walbridge
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 930-934; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005035

Abstract:
It is anticipated that future skies over urban areas will be busy with drones flying back and forth delivering packages. Taking New York City as an extreme example, it is estimated that by 2026, 2600 delivery drones could simultaneously populate the city's airspace. The drone–drone collision rate of “dumb” drones can be calculated by treating them as a gas of large, randomly moving, spherical molecules, using the kinetic theory of gases. Collisions can be avoided by making each drone “smart,” i.e., by giving each a “sense and avoid” capability for detecting and avoiding a potential collision. For smart drones over New York City, the rate of potential collisions, or encounter rate, extends over a surprisingly large range: from 1 to 170,000 encounters/day, depending on input assumptions. This places stringent constraints on the probability that a smart drone encounter will result in a collision, constraints that must be met by the drone operator. Policy implications are discussed.
Jesús González-Laprea, L. J. Borrero-González, Kabir Sulca, Santiago Díaz-Echeverría, Carlos Alberto Durante Rincón
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 969-974; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005016

Abstract:
This work outlines a new instructional laboratory experiment focused on the photoelectric effect and the determination of Planck's constant. The described laboratory system employs contemporary experimental techniques, including real-time data acquisition based on the use of Arduino boards. The basis of this experiment is to measure the associated turn-on voltages of a small neon bulb as it is illuminated with several different optical wavelengths. Six different LED and laser illumination sources were used with wavelengths ranging from UV (383 nm) to red (659 nm). A plot of the bulb's turn-on voltage as a function of the inverse of the excitation wavelength showed a linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient. Planck's constant was determined from this plot, yielding a value of h=7.4±1.1×10−34 J·s. Additionally, the system allows for experimental verification of the independence between excitation light intensity and the energy needed to ionize the gas inside the bulb.
Tom A. Kuusela
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 963-968; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005269

Abstract:
In many optics applications, it is important to use well-polarized light. However, there are situations in which randomly polarized light has distinct advantages. We demonstrate two approaches by which a polarized light beam can be totally depolarized, each using a simple setup and inexpensive components. The first method, designed for narrow spectrum light, works by combining the horizontal polarization component of the beam with the delayed vertical component. The second method, which is most suitable for broad spectrum light, uses birefringent quartz plates. In both approaches, the polarization state is characterized by Stokes parameters measured using a rotating quarter-wave plate and fixed polarizer. We measure the coherence function of the electric fields and determine the minimum delay or quartz plate thickness required for decoherence. Coherences are modelled by Gaussian or Lorentzian functions and compared with the spectral properties of the light sources.
Tiare Guerrero, Danielle McDermott
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 975-981; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005037

Abstract:
Synchronization plays an important role in many physical processes. We discuss synchronization in a molecular dynamics simulation of a single particle moving through a viscous liquid while being driven across a washboard potential energy landscape. Our results show many dynamical patterns as the landscape and driving force are altered. For certain conditions, the particle's velocity and location are synchronized or phase-locked and form closed orbits in phase space. Quasi-periodic motion is common, for which the dynamical center of motion shifts the phase space orbit. By isolating synchronized motion in simulations and table-top experiments, we can study complex natural behaviors important to many physical processes.
Jean-Pierre Eckmann
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 955-962; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005154

Abstract:
Mitchell Feigenbaum discovered an intriguing property of viewing images through cylindrical mirrors or looking into water. Because the eye is a lens with an opening of about 5 mm, many different rays of reflected images reach the eye and need to be interpreted by the visual system. This has the surprising effect that what one perceives depends on the orientation of the head, whether it is tilted or not. I explain and illustrate this phenomenon on the example of a human eye looking at a ruler immersed in water.
W. Dean Pesnell, Kyle Ingram-Johnson, Kevin Addison
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 943-954; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0005403

Abstract:
How many ways can we explore the Sun? We have images in many wavelengths and squiggly lines of many parameters that we can use to characterize the Sun. We know that while the Sun is blindingly bright to the naked eye, it also has regions that are dark in some wavelengths of light. All of those classifications are based on vision. Hearing is another sense that can be used to explore solar data. Some data, such as the sunspot number or the extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance, can be readily sonified by converting the data values to musical pitches. Images are more difficult. Using a raster scan algorithm to convert a full-disk image of the Sun to a stream of pixel values creates variations that are dominated by the pattern of moving on and off the limb of the Sun. A sonification of such a raster scan will contain discontinuities at the limbs that mask the information contained in the image. As an alternative, Hilbert curves are continuous space-filling curves that map a linear variable onto the two-dimensional coordinates of an image. We have investigated using Hilbert curves as a way to sample and analyze solar images. Reading the image along a Hilbert curve keeps most neighborhoods close together as the resolution (i.e., the order of the Hilbert curve) increases. It also removes most of the detector size periodicities and may reveal larger-scale features. We present several examples of sonified solar data, including sunspot number, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances, an EUV image, and a sequence of EUV images during a filament eruption.
B. Cameron Reed
American Journal of Physics, Volume 89, pp 927-929; https://doi.org/10.1119/10.0004982

Abstract:
A novel graphical depiction of the relativistic barn and pole paradox is constructed in such a way that the space-time plot axes are dimensionless for both observers. Times of events over the entire range of pole-to-barn length ratio and relative speeds can be displayed in one plot for each observer. That for the barn frame clearly depicts the range of pole-to-barn length ratio over which the paradox appears, while that for the pole frame shows that the pole vaulter will only see the pole within the barn if the proper length of the pole is smaller than the contracted length of the barn.
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