EUREKA: Life Sciences
ISSN / EISSN : 2504-5687 / 2504-5695
Published by: OU Scientific Route (10.21303)
Total articles ≅ 278
Latest articles in this journal
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001978
The aim of this work was to isolate endophytic bacteria from wheat grains and to evaluate their plant growth promoting traits (PGPT) as well as an inhibitory effect on P. syringae pv. atrofaciens (McCulloch) growth. Endophytic bacteria were isolated by a culture-dependent protocol from the grains of winter wheat variety of Ukrainian selection Podolyanka with high resistance to syringae. Totally 2.7±0.09 CFU/1 g of dry wheat grain were isolated, ten cultivable bacterial isolates were obtained. Spore-forming bacilli predominated in the wheat grain endophytic community. Gram-negative fermenting and non-fermenting rod-shaped bacteria and Gram-positive cocci were also present. Seven out of ten isolates possessed numerous plant growth promoting traits including phosphate solubilization, oligonitrotrophy, and indolic compound producing. Two isolates possessed antagoniscic activity against syringae in vitro along with plant growth promoting features. According to biochemical profiling and mass-spectrophotometric identification, these two isolates were assigned to Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus genera. These endophytic bacteria can be considered as promising objects for agrobiotechnology. However, more research is needed to confirm their biotechnological potential in planta experiments
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001985
The studies, which may reveal some elements of regulation between the metabolic processes of proteins (at the level of translation and changes in the amino acid spectrum) as well as catabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates under conditions of pathological deviations of the functioning of the animal organism, are promising, and the search for protective substances of a different nature is necessary. The aim is to study and analyze a bio protectors’ effect on the composition of some amino acids under alcohol-induced oxidative stress. During the experimental period, changes in the body weight of rats confirm the depressant effect of alcohol on the dynamics of weight gain of animals during their growth and development, and the positive protective effect of betaine and additives (protein+minerals). The increased activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase in the blood serum of rats in experimental groups of animals with the absence of protectors’ substances in the diet indicates a deviation in the functional capacity of the liver. The determined indices of the content of creatinine and urea were increased significantly that points out on possible pathological deviation of the kidney. Under alcohol substances, changes of such biochemical indexes value as lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and the content of malonic dialdehyde indicate oxidative stress. In the case of bio protectors’ presence, values of biochemical parameters become to ones in the animals of control groups. It was observed, that betaine has a higher potential for the correction of the above pathological abnormalities than protein-containing additives with minerals in the form of chelate, but the last is perspective for further study and their use as a raw material for the development of more complex bio protectors
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 58-65; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001925
Staphylococci have a wide range of pathogenic properties, among which stands increased resistance to antibiotics and the ability to form a biofilm. Being divided into coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative, they have different and, at the same time, common biological properties and may be a source of genetic material for each other. The aim of the study was to examine the properties of staphylococci, isolated from various objects (milk, pigs, companion animals, humans), their resistance to antibiotics, the ability to form a biofilm and the presence of genes, responsible for resistance to methicillin and biofilm formation. In this study we used 89 Staphylococci strains. 18 (20.2 %) strains were coagulase-positive, where 2 (2.2 %) strains, isolated from different animals and humans, had a complete set of phenotypic (plasma coagulation, biofilm formation, resistance to oxacillin and benzylpenicillin) and genotypic (mec A, fem B, ica A, ica D) signs of pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, isolated from various animals and humans, had resistance to oxacillin, benzylpenicillin and the ability to form biofilms, and also had the corresponding genes in their structure (mec A, ica AB, ica D) in 3.3 % of cases. Staphylococci, isolated from different animals and humans, were able to form a biofilm and had the appropriate set of genes (ica D, ica AB) in 5.6 % of cases.
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 43-49; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001982
This article presents the relevance of the issue of inhibition of microbiological processes at different stages of processing of sugar-containing raw materials, in particular ensuring the microbiological purity of juices and syrups in the production of sugar substances. Information on the composition of microbiota contaminating raw materials in the production of beet sugar, raw cane sugar, food syrups from sugar sorghum is analyzed. Experimental data on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a number of antimicrobial preparations in terms of growth retardation of pure cultures of microorganisms and the effect of disinfection during the introduction of preparations are presented. The greatest danger in production is caused by the development of spore-forming and mucus-forming bacteria, which led to the choice of research objects. Thus, the effect of antimicrobial preparations on microorganisms: mesophilic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, B. megatherium, thermophilic bacteria B. stearothermophilus, mucus-forming bacteria of the genus Leuconostos, was investigated. In addition, the effect of antimicrobials on mycelial fungi of the genus Aspergillus was studied. Based on the conducted experimental studies, the range of costs of the studied antimicrobial preparation for the suppression of contaminating microflora in the production of sugar and food syrups from vegetable raw materials was determined
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001873
Fusarium species infect cereal spikes during anthesis and cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), a destructive disease of cereal crops with worldwide economic relevance. The necessity for these phytopathogenic fungi effective control becomes increasingly important for the production of both cultivated plants and those plants seeds. Fungicide application is a key methodology for controlling the disease development and mycotoxin contamination in cereals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the most commonly admitted DNA-based technology for specific, rapid and precise Fusarium detection. We have developed and patented the method for detection and quantitative determination of phytopathogenic fungi F. avenaceum and F. graminearum in plant seeds using Real-Time PCR with a pair of primers, designed to amplify sequences of the internal transcribed spacer at the ribosomal RNA gene cluster of those phytopathogenic fungi. This study was aimed to perform a comparative assessment of the efficacy of different spray nozzles for antifungal treatment to control F. avenaceum and F. graminearum infection of barley grains using a developed qPCR diagnostic system. A single application of a fungicide (active ingredient's content: 250 g/l propiconazole, 80 g/l cyproconazole) at BBCH 65 (middle of flowering) was carried out. For this purpose, four spray nozzles with different technical characteristics were used: Flat Fan 030, Amistar 030, Defy 3D 030 and Vegetable 060 (Pentair, USA). DNA-based fungi detection and identification was performed using conventional PCR and developed qPCR. The level of mycotoxins in barley grain was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Grain count in the ear of barley and thousand seed weight (TSW) were also examined. A single application of the fungicide inhibited the development of FHB and is accompanied by the slight increase of TSW values in treated plants. It was found, that the most effective fungicide was against F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. The inhibitory effect depended on sprayer type. According to qPCR results, the best performance was achieved when using Amistar 030 and Flat Fan (FF) 030 sprayers. The average concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in all barley grain samples were up to 4 times higher than the permissible level. Overall, because of the high contamination levels, found in tested samples, it is possible to state that a single application of the fungicide at the flowering phase was not able to effectively reduce DON contamination in barley samples. The developed test-system for qPCR provides new important information in the study of the effectiveness of fungicides and development of strategies to control FHB in cereals, not achievable with conventional PCR.
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001977
The work is devoted to the development of meat-containing breads with a combination of turkey MCPM (mechanically crumbed poultry meat) and hemp flour with further study of functional-technological and sensory characteristics and the study of nutritional and energy value of finished products. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the use of hemp seed flour in the technology of baked meat products. It was proved, that the combination of turkey MCPM and hemp flour in meat-containing breads allows to produce products with high nutritional characteristics. It was found, that the introduction of turkey in the recipe of MCPM in combination with hemp seed flour allows to obtain bread with a mass fraction of protein 18.03–19.53 g/100 g of the product. The protein concentration in the experimental samples exceeded the analogue by 3.21–11.79 %. The fraction of fat in meat-containing breads increased by an average of 37 % due to the inclusion of turkey in the recipe of MCPM. The inclusion of turkey MCPM in the recipe up to 47 % increases the concentration of macro- and micronutrients in bread to 2.06 ± 0.05 g / 100 g. The inclusion of hemp flour in the recipe of baked products with a high content of turkey MCPM improves the functional, technological and organoleptic properties of the products. The increase in protein content by 3.21–11.80 %, fat – by 47.84–56.83 %, energy value – by 26.52–30.23 % was determined. The high efficiency of combining turkey MCPM with hemp seed flour was confirmed in the study of functional and technological properties (FTP) of model minced meat. The ratio of MCMP: hemp seed flour 41: 8, 44:10, 47:12 improves WBC (water-binding capacity) by 13.46–22.15 %, WRC (water-retaining capacity) - by 10.34–21.43 %, FRC (fat-retaining capacity) – by 17.2–26.9 %. It was established, that the best indicators of FTP of minced meat and finished products were obtained by including 44 % of turkey MCPM and 10 % of hemp flour in the recipe of meat-containing bread. The results of the organoleptic analysis of the developed breads confirmed their high consumer value
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001968
The results of researches of influence of protein-mineral supplements on quality indicators of butter cookies are presented. It is described, that the supplements are used as a multifunctional ingredient, which on the one hand enriches the finished product with digestible calcium compounds, on the other - performs a number of technological tasks and improves the consumer characteristics of butter cookies. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of protein-mineral supplements on a number of physicochemical, consumer characteristics and safety indicators of butter cookies. The study of the following physicochemical parameters of the quality of butter cookies was conducted: mass fraction of moisture, wettability, alkalinity, calcium content, including total and protein-bound. It is established, that with the content of supplements up to 5.0% of the flour weight, all the above indicators meet the established requirements. With the content of suppements at the level of 6.0… 7.0%, there are limit values of such an indicator as wettability, which is undesirable to ensure the appropriate porous structure of the product. Based on the obtained data, it can be stated, that 5.0% of the use of supplements is the limit rational content in the composition of butter cookies. The organoleptic analysis proved the high characteristics of the developed products in comparison with traditional ones. In products with supplements, there was an improvement in the structure of the product in the cut and its color. This is ensured by the stabilization of the emulsion by the supplement during the manufacture of products and by peculiarities of its chemical composition. Studies of safety indicators allowed to establish less intensive dynamics of accumulation of primary oxidation products (peroxides) in samples of flour and butter products with supplements in comparison with control. The best microbiological stability of products with supplements is also proved. Due to the bacteriostatic effect of the supplements, less intensive accumulation of microflora during storage was achieved. On the basis of the conducted researches the expediency of using up to 5.0% of protein-mineral supplements in the composition of flour and butter products for enrichment of finished products with digestible calcium compounds, improvement of organoleptic characteristics and safety indicators have been established.
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 3-8; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001954
The aim of the research was to conduct an economic assessment of the use of industrial crossbreeding in the pig industry. The study was carried out in LLC "Mayak-Agro" (Ukraine) and in the laboratories of the Cherkasy National University named after Bohdan Khmelnitsky and the Cherkasy Experimental Station of Bioresources of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Ukrainian breeds of pigs were used: (Ukrainian BigWhite-1 (UBW-1), Red White-Belt (RWB) and Duroc of the Ukrainian selection "Steppe" (DUSS)). Breeds of English origin: (Big White (EBW), Landrace (L), Pietrain (P)). Crossbreeds, obtained by crossing the breeds, mentioned above. A comprehensive assessment of the reproductive capacity of a sow was carried out taking into account multiple births, the number of piglets at one month of age and the average daily gain during this period. Growth and development were monitored in terms of changes in live weight by individual weighing at birth and every month to a live weight of 100 and 120 kg. Regardless of maternal form, in the groups where boars of the breeds Red White-Belt and Pietrain were used, higher indicators of comprehensive assessment of reproductive capacity were obtained. The best fattening qualities characterized piglets, obtained from a combination of sows (1/2UBW-1+1/2L) with boars of the Pietrain breed (P). In comparison with other variants of crosses, in this group the animals reached a live weight of 100 kg 7.6 days earlier. Their feed costs per 1 kg of live weight gain were 3.33 feed units, which corresponds to the expected figure of 3.34 feed units when fattening up to 100 kg in 170 days. In terms of industrial pork production, breeding of animals of the group (1/4UBW-1+1/4L+1/2P) was more profitable, in which the highest level of profitability was obtained - 22.3 % for fattening up to 100 kg and 12.5 % for fattening up to 120 kg. Cultivation of three-breed hybrids to a live weight of over 100 kg led to a decrease in profitability among all research groups. The use of the genotype 1/4UBW-1+1/4L+1/2P in industrial production makes it possible to obtain animals of various weight conditions without significant additional costs and profitability level reduction. In the course of the research, it was found, that the best option for three-breed crossing is the use of boars of the Pietrain and Red White-Belt breeds. The use of boars of these breeds is ideal for producers looking for bacon pork. The use of boars of the Duroc breed of the Ukrainian selection "Steppe" (DUSS) makes it possible to obtain fatty pork with the possibility of fattening to different weight categories.
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001974
In order to manage quality and safety in the development of technology for new types of bakery products of increased nutritional value, the HACCP system was used. Marketing research has shown that consumers would like to see more nutritious breads with natural additives on store shelves. Juniper (Juniperucommunis L) is one of the traditional crops growing in Kazakhstan and characterized by a high content of biologically active substances. In this regard, 3 % of crushed juniper fruits were added to the bread recipe. In the course of research, a HACCP plan was developed for a new type of bread with increased nutritional value with the inclusion of juniper. As a result of the analysis of the bread production process, hazardous factors were identified and safety management measures were determined. Three critical control points were identified – during preparation (cleaning and grinding) of juniper fruits, during dough fermentation, and during storage of finished products. Once risk factors were identified, critical limits were identified, a monitoring procedure was established, and corrective actions were developed. The developed HACCP plan was tested at an enterprise for the production of bakery products, which led to an increase in the safety of products, and, accordingly, to an increase in its competitiveness in the consumer market of Kazakhstan.
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001883
The aim of the research is to improve the technological scheme of treatment of iron-containing wastewater from etching operations by creating combined systems, including reagent wastewater treatment, their mutual neutralization, regeneration of etching solutions, deep post-treatment using a magnetic device. The main volume of wastewater is treated in centralized systems with partial return of water to the production process. Spent solutions from etching operations are subject to regeneration with return to the production process and partial dosing into the main wastewater stream from flushing operations. The consumption of commercial HCl is reduced by 50%. The use of hydrogen peroxide can increase the effect of extracting iron from etching solutions by 30% (total purification effect of 70%). Given that deep purification from iron-containing impurities is provided using a magnetic device, the possibilities of practical implementation of reverse osmosis to obtain "pure" water in centralized systems, which can be used for preparation of process solutions and in a mixture with technical water - for flushing operations, increase. In experimental and industrial conditions the expenses of reagents, their concentrations, dosing time are established