EUREKA: Life Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2504-5687 / 2504-5695
Current Publisher: OU Scientific Route (10.21303)
Total articles ≅ 261
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Inna Fedoruk, Oleg Bakhmat, Yuri Khmelianchyshyn, Olesia Gorodyska
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 16-24; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001747

Abstract:
The practical experience substantiates the need to treat soybean seeds with high-quality inoculants and VuksalKoMo 15 with the trace elements content of cobalt and molybdenum. The processes of inoculation of seeds in the form of rhizobial bacteria significantly improve the soy plants ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in the early stages of development. We begin to observe the rhizobial formation on the corinium soybean system already at the stage of BBCH 12–13. This in turn will affect the yield and productivity of Rosin soybeans. One of the important aspects of soybean cultivation is providing not only macroelements, NPK, Ca, S, but also microelements. Carrying out experiments on the effect of seed inoculation on soybean yield, we combined an inoculant, VuksalKoMo preparation and Sdandak Top insecticidal fungicide preparation with a sowing period of up to 5–7 days in a tank mixture. One of the main requirements is the use of high-quality inoculants with a high content of viable nitrogen-fixing bacteria for processing soybean seeds. This, in turn, will ensure high yields of soybeans with optimal costs and the fastest return on investment, especially in today's conditions. The research results are aimed at solving urgent problems in the technology of growing leguminous crops, namely: developing a version of the technology for growing soybeans for the selection of varieties, adapted to a given climatic zone, the use of inoculants and micronutrients in the conditions of climate change
Sunita Singh, Prachi Lad
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 41-55; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001753

Abstract:
The contamination of squash by B. cereus, an enterotoxin producer, was found to range between 7.5×104 and 1.8×104 CFU/g in orange squash (during storage), that is hazardous. Orange squash is widely produced and consumed in India, but has a low rating of 3 on the scale of 10 (on feedback), mostly due to high sugars, not preferred these days. It can be preserved for >9 months due to added sugars and preservatives. During processing squash, if juice is not quickly cooled and/or squash is kept for long at temperatures <48 °C after processing, it can be a source of food poisoning. Reason, a large number of toxins can be produced by B. cereus. B. cereus strains, isolated from squash, produce heat stable toxin. Vacuolar assay confirmed them as emetic toxins, produced in squash. The toxin behaved like an ionophore in assay using mitochondria, extracted from liver cells of chicken with potassium ions in buffer. The toxicity of toxin by assay was 3200 IU/ng (BC IV strain) and 800 IU/ng (BC X strain). By the vacuolar expansions of mitochondria in assay, toxins of B. cereus demonstrated a toxic effect, in the range of 20.93 to 60.94 % by BC IV toxin and 43.28 to 45.02 % by BC X toxin, on the 3rd day growth of B. cereus in squash and toxin extraction for assay. It was also possible to produce antibodies against the B. cereus whole cell and toxin of BC IV, as an attempt to detect B. cereus contaminations in foods, by Ouchterlony’s immune-diffusion test
Ruslana Stavetska, Yurii Dynko
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 9-15; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001696

Abstract:
This study focuses on research of economically important traits of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy cows with different types of body constitution. The aim of the study was to differentiate dairy cows into constitution types and to identify the best types in terms of growth, exterior, milk productivity and reproductive capacity. The cows were differentiated into low-, mid- and high-capacity types of body constitution. Depending on their type the features of growth, exterior, milk productivity and reproduction capacity of primiparous have been studied. It has been established, that the intensity of growth of heifers from birth to 18 months depended on the type of their body constitution. Higher live weight, absolute and average daily gains were characteristic of heifers with low-capacity body constitution. Their live weight at the age of 18 months on average was 388.5 kg, it was on 30.9 kg and 60.3 kg (Р < 0.01) more than live weight of mid- and high-capacity heifers. The advantages of low-capacity heifers in average daily gain during the growing period were 60 g and 117 g, respectively. The results of the exterior evaluation have shown that primiparous with the high-capacity type of body constitution had greater size and larger measurements primarily of the chest and barrel (Р < 0.05–0.001).The higher values of linear evaluation were also observed in cows with the high-capacity type, which were characterized by well-developed chest, wide rump, desired rear view of rear legs, firm udder attachment and strong central ligament. The power of influence of the type of body constitution on linear type traits ranged from 0.5 % (rear teat placement) to 46.2 % (chest width). Higher milk productivity was a characteristic of mid-capacity cows (an advantage of 305-d milk yield – 340–662 kg, milk fat yield – 9.0–21.0 kg, milk protein yield – 9.8–19.8 kg).The best results of reproduction capacity have been observed in cows with the high-capacity type of body constitution (calving percentage – 87.5 %)
Mykola Bakhmat, Oleksandr Chynchyk, Kateryna Nebaba
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 3-8; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001751

Abstract:
In the conditions of the western Forest-steppe, leguminous crops, including sowing peas, are the main and most important source of vegetable protein, which solve the biological and ecological problems of modern agriculture in Ukraine. The article presents the main research results on the study of the effect of mineral fertilizers and growth regulators on the formation of the sowing peas productivity in the conditions of the western Forest-steppe. The field trifactor experiment was laid in the ten-field crop rotation in Podillia Research Center of State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilya, during 2016–2018. The field experiment was laid down in the research ten-digit crop rotation. In microstages VVSN 55-65 (budding – flowering) crops were sprayed with growth regulators PlantaPeg, Еmistim С and Vympel. The studies carried out showed that the individual productivity of plants of the Chekbek variety was the best of all the varieties that were studied. It was found, that high indices of the mass of 1000 seeds were in the variants, where mineral fertilizers were used at a dose of N30P30K45 with the plant growth regulator Vympel. According to this fertilizer composition, the mass indices of 1000 seeds for peas of the Chekbek variety were 266.4 g, and for the Hotivskyi and Fargus varieties – 260.6 g and 238.4 g, respectively. The grain yield of peas is an integrated indicator of the action of all life factors on the plant organism during its growth and development. To a large extent, it depends on the biological characteristics of the variety, the supply of moisture and nutrients to the plant, technological methods of cultivation, as well as natural and climatic conditions. In our studies, the crops, fed with mineral fertilizers and growth regulators, were significantly less exposed to adverse factors, and the studied technology elements had a positive effect on the productivity of pea grain. The maximum biological yield was for the application of mineral fertilizers in doses of N30P30K45 and the plant growth regulator Vympel. For the varieties of Hotivskyi peas, these indicators were 3.79 t/ha, Chekbek 4.32 t/ha, and Fargus 3.30 t/ha
Lavdi Hasani
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 32-40; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001752

Abstract:
In this paper, one of the most specific groups of plant entomologists, that of the U/Order Coccoinea Class Insecta is taken into analysis. Below it is seen important to identify the problems of infections of a variety of ornamental plants, found in the Southern Region of Albania, precisely by this group of pests. The role of the quality of the natural environment in our health has recently taken tremendous priority in the context of the contamination of all forms in the wild nature and especially those in the air. Precisely, to increase the quality of our life, the establishment of major parks with a truly significant green space per unit of population, is one of the current main objectives of each country. In these conditions, those environments are pretty rich in a variety of plants that, in addition to the functional values of environmental creativity, also have many aesthetic values with relaxing power and positive effects on our physical and mental health This type of plants is represented not only by those that are cultivated directly in the nature, but also by those that are planted and cultivated in greenhouses, which from time to time we take them out to realize the required decorations and compositions, asked to cover the needs of the parks. The healthier these components of this environment are, the more effective is their role on our personal health. For this reason it is equally important to recognize the dangers that threaten this vegetation by disabling its main function, for which we, as citizens, are interested, due to the need of our health, to have it in the highest efficiency. On this basis arose the idea of a comprehensive study on the above group of insects, which in a form or another constitute some of its main pests. These insects, as a specific group of pests that feed on plant lymph, not only dry out the plant, but also transmit to it a series of viral diseases, leading the plant to complete degradation. Most of them spend the winter (one of the most delicate periods for their survival) as parasites on them. We show below, which of these entomophytes is found in this group of plants in the region in question. It is also shown, which of the analyzed plant species emerges as the most frequented by this group of pests. We also identify the prevalence of this pollution in both variety and percentage. On the basis of the analysis, the question is also what is the distribution of plant species encountered, at different altitudes above the sea level? The paper contains, figuratively, a series of morpho-defining characteristics of the representatives, mentioned in this paper. As will be seen in the following material, the truth is that this specific group of ornamental plants, part of the relaxing parks around the world, in our country turns out to be contaminated by a large number of these parasites. This shows that in order to carry out quality work in this direction, we must not leave without considering the role of these pests in this process. Thus, we will be able to control the quality and function of our recreational environments in the role, for which we realize them. For this reason, detailed data are given below. We have identified these parasites in about 15 (fifteen) species of these ornamental plants, taking into account that parks in our country are not valued for the size of the area, as in an inferior and small country. In this material we have identified the number and dynamics of parasites according to each plant and also according to their distribution in areas with different altitudes above the sea level. We also give a comparative report on the frequency of vulnerability of the various plants by representatives of these pests. Summarized in a table, we have given for each pest the plant variety that it frequents, noting, in which plant organ this parasite was most commonly found during our research. As it is a group with annual activity on the plants, we have data for each month that we have met them on this vegetation and for each plant organ, where they were met (in leaves, on stalks or even the fruit itself). Regarding the degree of the damage that they cause to the plants, given the many harmful valences they show, not all belong to the category of the very dangerous pests. Some enter the minor pests that are mostly caused by overlapping other diseases, some others into the normal pests and a more specific group enters the category of very powerful pests, the risk of which is maximized with other additional effects. These and other information are given in table Number 1 (one), with the required symbolism. Since this group of plants is the environmental generator, where we live and work, the work in question takes on practical importance and value
Ievgen Ivanov, Valentyn Kozheshkurt, , , Victor Katrich, Vadim Sidorov, Taras Gromovoy
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 56-64; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001738

Abstract:
The protein composition in the diapason of molecular masses from 4800 to 9500 Dа has been studied in colostrum, taken from different cows, and manifested the expressed biological activity. For this aim, an influence of low-molecular components of colostrum on some physiological parameters (change of body mass and temperature) at intoxication of animals (Wistar rats) by blue stone has been studied. An influence of colostrum low-molecular components on parameters of the organism redox-system (content of hyperperoxides of lipids and activity of glutathione peroxidase) in the blood serum of animals has been studied. For determining integral characteristics of colostrum components, electric conductivity of skim colostrum and one of colostrum with low-molecular proteins (less than 10 000 Dа), taken from different cows, were used. The aim of this work is to study interconnections of an influence of colostrum low-molecular proteins on models of organism intoxication by cooper ions. It is demonstrated, that the colostrum composition includes 25–35 different proteins with a molecular mass from 4800 to 9500 Dа. The number and ratio between protein fractions depend on individual physiological-biochemical characteristics of producers. It has been revealed, that there is no direct dependence between the protein content in a measuring cell (2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml) with skim colostrum and electric conductivity change, and this dependence is different for skim colostrum, taken from different cows. Individual differences are manifested both at electric conductivity change and by the content of colostrum low-molecular proteins in a measuring cell. It is demonstrated, that colostrum low-molecular components can eliminate the toxic effect of blue stone on the organism, which mechanisms are connected with a balance shift in the system “prooxidants↔antioxidants” towards antioxidants. The electric conductivity of colostrum components may be used as an express-method for evaluating biologically active substances of colostrum
Ludmila Pusik, Vlаdimir Pusik, Veronika Bondarenko, Ludmila Gaevaya, Nina Lyubymova, Galyna Sukhova, Nataliya Didukh, Galina Slobodianyk
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 65-72; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001756

Abstract:
Kitchen beetroots have a series of high-value parameters: good taste properties, healing-prophylactic importance, ability to long-term storage. There are many sorts of kitchen beetroot, different by root form. Most widespread are ones of the round and cylindrical forms. At the same time plants of kitchen beetroot at growing form roots of different masses. The aim of the study was to investigate the storage life of kitchen beetroot depending on form and root sizes. The conducted studies give a possibility to substantiate scientifically an influence of kitchen beetroots’ form and sizes on their storage life for determining its term. It has been established, that roots of the round form of the Kharkiv Bordo sort lost moisture more intensively at the expanse of breath and evaporation – 4.4–5.4 %. In the Vital sort with roots of the cylindrical form, mass natural losses were 4.1–5.1 %. At that more natural mass losses were in small roots with mass 150–300 g. Small roots were more inclined to sprouting at storage. Among sprouted roots, 1.6–1.8 % were small ones with mass 150–300 g. More percent of sprouted roots was for ones with mass 500–700 g as 2.3–2.5 %. At that less percent of sprouted roots was in the Vital sort of the cylindrical form. Small roots with mass 150–300 g were more damaged by rots at storage – 10.4–12.3 %. Among roots of middle sizes, 6.0–6.8 % were damaged by rots, among big ones – 4.5–4.7 %. It must be also noted, that cylindrical roots of the Vital sort were less damaged by rots at storage than round ones of the Kharkiv Bordo sort
Roman Petrov, Oleksiy Pidlubniy
Published: 1 April 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 25-31; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001754

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate a possibility to decrease a toxic influence of aflatoxin on the fish organism and veterinary-sanitary evaluation of fish, fed by a pure fodder, aflatoxin and ketoconazole+aflatoxin. Fish aflatoxicoses cause essential losses at fish growing using industrial production technologies. It is characterized by decreasing weight gains and increasing kill of commodity fish, worsening fodder conversion. Farmers often use fodders of own production, without conducting laboratory studies, and don’t know about aflatoxins. At the same time because of different reasons, first of all economic ones, they don’t use adsorbents for decreasing the negative influence of aflatoxins on the fish organism. Their use doesn’t guarantee 100 % fish resistance to micotoxicoses and correspondingly product safety for a consumer. Fish, received aflatoxins with food, is dangerous as a food product for humans and animals. Aflatoxins are very stable in the environment, so even thermal processing doesn’t exceed risk of aflatoxin contamination. The article presents a possibility of effective treatment of fish at aflatoxicosis. It is known, that aflatoxin beyond cells is not dangerous. Its activation takes place within a cell by the enzyme system cytochrome Р-450, forming an epoxide, in which result the aflatoxin inclusion complex with DNA forms in the kernel. The veterinary preparation “Ketoconazole” inhibits cytochrome enzymes Р-450, so aflatoxin activation within a cell doesn’t take place, epoxides don’t form, DNA cells are not injured, aflatoxicosis doesn’t develop in fish that has been proved experimentally. The veterinary-sanitary mark of fish, treated for aflatoxicosis, is satisfactory. The importance of this study is in fact that for today there is no developed effective method of fish aflatoxicosis treatment. An influence of aflatoxin on the crucian organism has not been studied experimentally
, Vlаdimir Pusik, Veronika Bondarenko, Ludmila Gaevaya, Natalja Kyruchina, Нalyna Slobodyanyk, Serhii Shchetyna, Maryna Shchetyna, Lidiіa Kononenko
Published: 3 February 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 17-24; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2020.001588

Abstract:
A food value of carrot roots is determined by a content of such chemical composition components as dry substance, ascorbic acid, carotene and other. The carrot value is also determined by its ability to be stored for a long time. The research aim was to study a food value change of different carrot sorts at storage open in boxes. The research gives an ability to search a carrot sort, suitable for long storage, and also to search arrangements for better preservation of carrot nutritiousness at storage. It has been established, that the dynamics and intensity of losses of the roots’ food value depends on sort peculiarities. Thus, during 7.5 months of storage sorts Daryna, Shantane KL and Nant Kharkiv lost from 0.92 to 4.12 % of dry substance. The content of total sugar decreased by 0.16 and 0.77 % of its initial content in sorts Daryna and Nant Kharkiv, whereas Shantane demonstrated the content increase at the end of storage by 0.29 %. The same tendency was observed also by changes of the content of monosaccharides and saccharose. The content of ascorbic acid and carotene during storage varied from increase to decrease. At the end of storage losses of ascorbic acid and carotene were 1.43–1.93 and 3.42–4.26 mg/100 g respectively. The content of nitrates at the end of storage in Daryna roots remained at the initial level – 202 mg/kg of the humid mass, in Shantane and Nant Kharkiv it decreased by 18 and 26 % respectively. At that it must be noted, that the processes of nutritiousness changes were more intensive in Daryna and Nant Kharkiv roots. In Shantane the carrot roots content changes of chemical composition components were slower.
Oleksander Cherevko, Valerii Mykhaylov, Andrii Zahorulko, , Iryna Gordienko
Published: 3 February 2021
EUREKA: Life Sciences pp 25-30; doi:10.21303/2504-5695.2021.001630

Abstract:
One of progress directions of the modern food industry is the development and introduction of innovative technologies and assortment of functional food products, allowing to decrease risks of disease progression and favoring the population health. Such products include multicomponent fruit and berry pastes and dried powder fractions. They are natural vitamin carriers, may be used as a supplement or a base for creating a wide spectrum of food products with healthy properties. A production way for fruit and berry semi-finished product using non-traditional raw materials has been created. For creating paste or dried faction, raw materials with a high content of pectins for better structuring and with correspondent healing-prophylactic properties were selected. Apple was taken as a base of the paste with adding non-traditional raw materials – ziziphus and black aronia. The way differs by the process of dehydration by concentrating up to 44…46 % of dry substances in a rotor evaporator, then, if necessary, additional drying in a thermoradiative one-drum rolling dryer up to 5..8 % of dry substances. Structural-mechanical parameters of experimental samples of the paste after concentrating up to 45 % content of dry substances have been determined. An effective viscosity increase for all three experimental samples as 33…59 % comparing with apple paste has been established. It is explained by higher content of pectin substances in ziziphus. The most effective viscosity index is 584 Pa∙s belongs to a sample with the components content: apple – 50 %, ziziphus – 45 %, black aronia – 5 %. The developed semi-product may be used as a vitamin supplement, filler or thickener at producing functional food products in confectionary, milk, bakery industry and also for preparing dishes and drinks at restaurant economies and under home conditions
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