EUREKA: Life Sciences
ISSN / EISSN : 2504-5687 / 2504-5695
Published by: OU Scientific Route (10.21303)
Total articles ≅ 311
Latest articles in this journal
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002608
The modern species composition of woody plants of the centuries-old oak grove of the State Dendrological Park "Olexandria" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was studied. The work was carried out as part of the study of the dynamics of stands of oak phytocenoses under conditions of anthropogenic load, technogenic pollution and weather fluctuations. It has been established that the oak grove of the arboretum with an area of 446 hectares out of 2000 oaks is a complex multi-species planting. The floristic core of the oak forest consists of the main forest-forming species characteristic of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine: Quercus robur, Acer platanoides L. and Acer campestre L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Tilia cordata Mill., Carpinus betulus L., Ulmus scabra Mill. The role of the dominant species and edificator was retained by Quercus robur. In the worst growing conditions, monodominant stands are formed. In more favorable ecotopes in the upper tree layer, the participation of Quercus robur is 70–100 %, and its codominant satellites (Acer platanoides, Tilia cordata, Fraxinus excelsior) are 10 % each. All oak forest phytocenoses have a well-developed multi-species second tree layer: Acer platanoides (15–80 % in various phytocenoses), Acer campestre (10–30 %), Tilia cordata (10–60 %), in some phytocenoses Fraxinus excelsior (10–20 %), Ulmus scabra (10–20 %), Carpinus betulus (30 %). The group of asectators is diverse and is represented by small species, local and adventive species, introducers, including invasive species. A characteristic feature of the oak forest is its exorbitant crushing, which, along with the massive introduction of introduced species, caused a powerful ecotonization of the oak forest and formed the cells of the greatest mortality of Quercus robur. The conducted studies establish the modern species composition of the oak forest and are the basis for the study of succession processes in oak forest phytocenoses.
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002585
The article is devoted to the study of the medical and biological safety of consumption of multicomponent meat-rich semi-finished products and semi-smoked sausage. When creating functional products, the approach of multi-ingredient modeling of the future product is applied according to the principle of adding nutritional and biological value. The multi-component nature of the constituent ingredients with different chemical composition makes it possible to obtain products with specified characteristics. There is a problem of ensuring the food safety of the developed product during production, storage and consumption of finished products. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of the developed meat-containing polycomponent semi-finished products and semi-smoked sausage on the growth dynamics and the level of metabolic processes of experimental rats when they are introduced into the standard diets of animals in the amount of 30 %. The work was performed on 36 white non-linear rats weighing 160–200 g. Medical and biological studies of multicomponent meat-containing products have shown their absence of a negative effect on the growth and development of animals, the level of metabolic processes during the growth period. It has been established, that feeding rats with meat-rich polycomponent products in the amount of 30 % of the standard diet increases the live weight of rats by 33–38 % within 3 weeks. Anatomopathological changes in the internal organs of the experimental rats were not detected. The inclusion of meat-rich multicomponent products in the diet of rats promotes the strengthening of hematological processes in the body, increases the concentration of erythrocytes in the blood to 8.01±0.11·1012/l, which is 12.7 % higher, compared to the control animals, increases the hemoglobin content in erythrocytes by 45.83–58.33 % higher, compared to the control animals. It has been proven, that the consumption of meat-containing multicomponent products by rats leads to an increase in the concentration of total protein by 4.79 %, hemoglobin by 42.12 %, and creatinine by 19.68 %. Enhanced protein synthesis due to intensification of catabolism leads to an increase in bilirubin concentration by 19.12–21.97 % compared to the control rats
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 3-8; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002605
The aim of the work is to study the medical and biological properties of eggplant powders. Eggplant food powder is a raw material, an important characteristic of which is its chemical composition, in particular dietary fibers (pectin and fiber). Eggplant powders obtained by infrared drying of raw materials with subsequent grinding to 0.41/0.43 mm were used for the research. The low degree of esterification gives the powders increased sorption and detoxification properties for a number of heavy metal cations. It has been established that the ability of eggplant powder to bind heavy metals reaches 40‒50 %, a detoxification effect occurs, exogenous and endogenous poisons are adsorbed, and the putrefactive intestinal microflora decreases. It was established that the binding effect is influenced by the amount of protopectin and the pH of the medium, which is determined by the content of organic acids in eggplant powders. The obtained results confirm the complex-forming ability of the powders. Adding eggplant powder to the diet of rats reduces cholesterol by an average of 12 %. 10 % content of eggplant powder in the diet reduces the content of lipoproteins in the blood (up to 3.2 %), cholesterol (up to 1.9 %). Medical and biological studies establish the positive effect of raw materials on the animal body and determine the expediency of using a functional ingredient. In general, eggplant powder can be used as an effective supplement to reduce cholesterol and lipoproteins, which does not affect the main physiological systems of the body. The prospect of further research is an in-depth study of the chemical composition of raw materials, the development of recipes for dishes using eggplant powders.
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002584
The prospects for the use of a plant raw material – stevia as a natural sweetener for obtaining sweet extracts have been substantiated. Literary research has been conducted on the expediency of carrying out preparatory operations of stevia-raw material in order to intensify mass exchange processes during extraction; their necessity has been theoretically justified. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim of intensifying the process of extracting the dry mass of stevia leaves. Preliminary preparation of stevia was carried out – crushing (using a laboratory crusher – A1-DM2R) and subsequent sieving to the average size of the leaf fraction – 3.9±0.1 mm. It is proposed to use whey from the production of sour milk cheese to obtain sweet extracts of stevia for their further use in the food industry. It has been established, that the highest efficiency of the extraction process of the prepared dry stevia leaf mass is achieved with a hydromodule – 1:15. Carrying out the process under these conditions allows to achieve the highest degree of extraction of extractive substances – 29.9. The results of the experimental studies, obtained and presented in the article, can be used to carry out further physicochemical analyzes of the quality of the obtained stevia extracts and the possibility of combining them with a milk base to obtain a dietary range of food products
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002583
The development of interest in anthocyanins in recent years is associated with an increase in the range of applications of these natural glycosides, contained in plants and berries, the color changes from red to blue with increasing pH. In addition to coloring properties (clay, fabric, hair), the use of anthocyanins – components of red and blue berries (including blueberries) – helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and more.Most practical studies concern the interaction of anthocyanins with surfaces (clay, tissue, gastrointestinal mucosa, etc.) that have many hydroxyl groups. Therefore, the question of determining the approximate pH range is relevant, in which such an interaction is most likely. The aim of the work was to determine the priority form of the dye (according to the pH of the medium), which can be better fixed on the surface of kaolinSimulation of the interaction of cyanidin with the surface of white clay was performed by the Hartree-Fock-Rutaan method, using the GAMESS software package.The paper presents the results of modeling the interaction of different forms of the anthocyanin model – cyanidin (the content of cyanidin in plants is 50 % of the mass of all types of anthocyanins) in solutions with pH<3 (red – forms of cyanidin), 3<pH7 (blue) with a hydroxylated surface of white clay – kaolin, having different types of hydroxyl groups. The aglycone part of the cyanidin molecule artificially was approached at a distance of approximately 2.5 Å to the surface of kaolin. It was shown, that the quinoid form of cyanidin (violet) was the most active of the three forms, mainly in interaction with the silanol groups of the kaolin surface. The form of cyanidin at pH<3 (red) have the lowest energies of interaction with the surface of kaolin
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002609
The defeat of feed by microscopic fungi is a fairly common phenomenon at this stage of the management of the agricultural sector. This is due to weather conditions (high rainfall) and errors in harvesting and storage of grain. Feeding affected feed leads to irreversible processes in the body of cows, reducing their productivity. The aim of the study was to establish marker indicators for the rapid diagnosis of mycotoxicoses in cows. So, when exposed simultaneously to T-2 toxin and toxins of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, destructive changes in the skin and mucous membranes were diagnosed, and pathology of the limbs was diagnosed, which was characterized by lameness. The laboratory revealed an increase in the level of leukocytes up to 37.1 g/l and a decrease in the content of hemoglobin in the blood of sick animals. Also, a characteristic feature was the latch of the contents of the rumen at pH 8.0, which in turn leads to a decrease in the number of ciliates. Also a sign of poisoning are changes in the fecal matter: liquid, musty odors and with an increased pH of up to 7.5. At the autopsy of the dead animals, a characteristic sign was: necrosis of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, protein degeneration in the liver and kidneys, and serous pulmonary edema. Infertility is 67.35 %, which leads to multiple unsuccessful insemination, which is due to destructive changes in the organs of the reproductive system. So, in sick animals, ovarian hypotrophy was diagnosed at the level of 54.09 %, ovarian cysts v in 8.18 %, yellow persistent bodies in the postpartum period – 7.54 %. The prospect of further research will be the development of preventive methods for treating cows and increasing their reproductive function of mycotoxicoses.
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002606
The aim of the study is to identify and substantiate the breed of sheep and goats for collecting milk for the purpose of producing yogurt. The milk of 14 breeds of sheep and 10 breeds of goats was considered for the production of yogurt. A statistical analysis is given and the choice of breed of goats and sheep for the selection of milk for the production of live yogurt is substantiated. Live yogurt is a product with live microorganisms for 14 days, in this case, the viability of bacteria is 28 days when stored in refrigerated conditions, in plastic cups sealed with a foil lid, using special equipment. Probiotics stimulate the production of immunomodulatory substances by beneficial intestinal microflora, as well as normalize cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood, bind and remove some toxic substances from the body. Research in this direction will open up many hidden potentials of fermented milk products based on sheep and goat milk and live microorganisms. There are prerequisites for the creation of new original recipes for functional dairy products and these studies are of the greatest scientific interest. The laboratories of the Kazakh Research Institute of Processing and Food Industry also used their own living microorganisms – probiotics for the preparation of consortiums based on lactic acid and bifidobacteria. Milk was collected from 10 ewes and goats from each breed from June to August 2021. Milk sampling was carried out in the morning milking. Milk indicators were studied using standard methods in the laboratory "Biotechnology, quality and safety of food products" of the "Kazakh Research Institute of Processing and Food Industry" LLP.
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 3-8; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002412
Aim. Study the effect of sodium chloride on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat and maize genotypes, to identify varieties tolerant to salinity. To create new salt-tolerant varieties of wheat and maize, a comparative analysis of the physiological and biochemical parameters of the parental and hybrid plants was carried out. Methods. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll content, relative water content, and PSII activity have been studied in parental forms and hybrids. Results. Based on the physiological indices determined during the grain filling stage, the highest tolerance was manifested by the parental forms, Garabagh, Gobustan, and the hybrids, ♀Garabagh×♂Gobustan, ♀Garabagh×♂Mirbashir, ♀Garabagh×♂Sharg. The varieties Gurur and Zagatala-68 and hybrid “Gurur×Zagatala-68” were resistant to 200 mmol salt concentration.The varietiesofmaize Gurur and Zagatala-68 were resistant to 200 mmol salt concentration
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002404
The research is aimed at studying the species composition, dynamics of the number and harmfulness of dominant pests, which is extremely important for the development and improvement of elements of the onion protection system. After all, the analysis of literature sources showed insufficient information about the distribution and harmfulness of the main phytophages under modern conditions of growing onions in the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. We conducted the monitoring of the phytosanitary condition of onion crops during 2017–2020 and determined the species composition of dominant phytophages. We studied the complex of soil pests: larvae of Melolontha sp., the population density of which over the years of research was 0.8–2.5 specimens/m2, larvae of Elateridae sp., or click beetles (wireworms) – 0.9–2.2 specimens/m2 and Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L. – 2.5 specimens/m2. Dominant species of phytophages in onion crops included onion fly (Delia Antigua Mg.), onion thrips (Trips tabaci Lind.), and Ceuthorrhynchus jakovlevi Schultze. The four most vulnerable phases of growth and development of onions before colonization and damage by major phytophages were identified: 1) phase of leaf development (a primary shoot) (ВВСН 1–19); 2) phase of the beginning of thickening of leaf base – bulb formation (ВВСН 41–43); 3) phase of bulb formation – beginning of leaf splitting (ВВСН 45–47); 4) phase of the completion of growth and development (state of physiological rest) (ВВСН 48–49)
Eureka: Life Sciences pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2022.002415
According to world publications, mutations in the SERPINA1 gene may be a genetic risk factor for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, consequently, rapid progression of respiratory dysfunction. This disease leads to a decrease in the level of alpha-1-antitrypsin protein. It is inherited by autosomal recessive type, but there are registered cases of codominance. In the absence of treatment, diseases of the respiratory system become chronic and lead to disability in adulthood. Early diagnosis of AAT deficiency is important to prevent complications and reduce mortality among people with this pathology. Due to these factors, genetic testing of SERPINA1 gene mutations in children with chronic lung diseases is appropriate to detect and prevent severe complications, associated with AATD. The aim of this work is to improve the effectiveness of early diagnosis of AAT deficiency in children with bronchial asthma and recurrent obstructive bronchitis by identifying different genotypes and phenotypes of A1AT deficiency, studying their relationship with the clinical course of respiratory diseases in children