Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2313-3716 / 2312-6418
Published by: Pak Publishing Group (10.18488)
Total articles ≅ 86
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, M Kamruzzaman, Jamal Uddin
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.2900

Abstract:
The study attempts to analyze suitable markets, market opportunities, and the estimation of the profitability of the selected seasonal fruits for the market intermediaries in Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh. The study was conducted at the CHT region such as; Bandarban and Rangamati district and some parts of the Chattagram region to document the socio-economic profile of the market actors of selected fruits and identify the suitable market opportunities and profitability of those fruits in the market. The chosen samples included 86 market actors. In the study area combined, 90% of Aratdar took formal education among all the market actors. In the case of education, 35% of market actors were found who have the level of education from primary to SSC, and 30% had primary education, 29% intermediaries were found to have finished their SSC level. The frequent and common variety sent to various markets was the Rangui variety of mango as the productions of other types were not more to supply. It was also observed that other fruits like jackfruit and litchi were sold more in the local market than supplying it to the distant market. When estimating growers' share, the study found the dominant channel for mango, jackfruit, and litchi to be the same (farmer- Faria-consumer), 64%, 38%, and 57%, respectively. The efficient marketing channel for mango (2.17) was (farmer-Bepari-Aratdar-retailer-consumer). For jackfruit, (farmer-Bepari-Aratdar-consumer) was found to have an efficient channel (1.27), and for litchi, (farmer-Faria-consumer) had the highest marketing efficiency (2.00).
Obidiebube E A, Okolie H, Obasi C C, Ochuenwike K L
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 13-21; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.2915

Abstract:
A 2 by 4 experiment laid out in RCBD was conducted at Crop science and Horticulture agricultural farm, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. The experiments were conducted from June to September 2020 to study the effects of different rates (0.0, 0.1,0.2,0.3 t/ha) of wood ash on the growth and yields of carrot varieties in Awka South Eastern Nigeria, the experiment was carried out on pots and beds. It was observed that treatment 0.3 t/ha performed significantly better in most of the assessed parameters both on growth and yields such as: plant height, marketable yield, root diameter, whole plant biomass, root length, total yield and harvest index. While 0t/ha performed lowest in the growth and yield of carrot varieties for the bed experiment. On pot experiment, 0.2t/ha of wood ash gave highest result both on growth and yield parameters (harvest index, leaf fresh weight, marketable yield, root diameter, root fresh weight, root length, whole plant biomass, and total yield in the pot experiment). Then with 0.3t/ha of wood ash and carrotte touchon variety was the best combination for carrot yield on bed experiment. Generally, carrote touchon performed better than tonchon France carrot variety both in the pot and field. Field experiment was also the best experiment than pot experiment.
Cengiz Koc
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 22-30; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.2933

Abstract:
Classical water use efficiency concepts are appropriate tools for irrigation design and irrigation management, however, it is not sufficiently suitable for water allocation and transfer policies. In order to overcome the limitations of classical water use efficiency, a new concept called efficient water use efficiency in decision making for water resources is proposed. Effective water use efficiency takes into account the quantity and quality of water distributed in a basin and returning to the water source when the inflow for each usage cycle is estimated. In this study, the efficiencies of irrigation water used during the 2019 irrigation season at Nazilli, Akçay, Aydın and Söke irrigation schemes in the Büyük Menderes basin were calculated, and compared to the classical project, the developed classical, and effective water use efficiency methods. In the analyzed irrigation schemes, classical efficiency was between 43-61%, developed classical efficiency 47-67% and effective efficiency 67-86%.
Sushanta Kumar Tarafder, Mrityunjoy Biswas, Abdul Alim, Asit Baran Mondal, Mahfujul Alam
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 44-58; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.3020

Abstract:
The study was conducted at Jashore Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh during 2019-20 and 2020-21 to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on yield, quality and shelf life of broccoli through Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and ten treatments which were: T1 = Soil test based 100% NPK, T2 = Vermicompost 4 t ha-1 + soil test based 50% NPK, T3 = Vermicompost 2 t ha-1 + 100% NPK, T4 =Tricho-compost 2 t ha-1 + 100% NPK, T5=FYM 6 t ha-1 + 100% NPK, T6 = Tricho-compost 4 t ha-1 + 50% NPK, T7 =FYM 12 t ha-1 + 50% NPK, T8= Vermicompost 1 t ha-1 + 125% NPK, T9= Tricho-compost 1 t ha-1 + 125% NPK, T10= FYM 3 t ha-1+125% NPK. Completely Randomized Design was designed to determine the shelf life of broccoli with three replications considering three factors; (i) Organic and inorganic nutrient sources; (ii) storage materials at room temperature (iii) storage materials at cold storage. Findings revealed that treatment T3 produced significantly maximum marketable curd yield 30.57 and 30.23 t ha-1 and the highest Benefit Cost Ratio (3.70 and 3.66) in the respective years. The treatment T2 effectively increased post-harvest quality attributes and also recorded the highest shelf life 8.36 and 8.55 days at room temperature (14-240 C with RH 60-65%), 26.33 and 27.25 days at cold storage (4° C with RH 90-95%) condition using High -Density Polyethylene (HDP; 15 micron) vacuum pack during the years of 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively.
Nduka Ba, Agele So, Adewale Bd
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 31-43; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.2964

Abstract:
Field experiment was conducted at Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria sub-station Ochaja, to evaluate the impact of manure and intercrops on cashew tree growth, canopy development and yield. Treatments consisted of Bambara and Sesame intercrops and manuring using Cocoa pod husk (CPH) and NPK fertilizer applied at the rate of 0, 1,713kg and 400kg/ha respectively. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design with three replications and monitored within the two years of study. Data collected includes: Plant height, Stem girth and canopy North-South/East-West direction. These was used to calculate: crown diameter, canopy spread, canopy volume, canopy ground cover and canopy ground cover percentage. The results showed that the growth characters of Cashew were positively influenced by alley crops of Sesame and Bambara nut and manuring. Manuring with CPH exerted differences in the responses of cashew to alley crops, in particular, canopy development. Intercropping with a combination of bambara-sesame and the application of NPK fertilizer proved to have the highest Cashew growth development but showed no significant differences on the yield and yield attribute. The GGE biplot results identified the best intercrop system for each of the three-fertilizer type treatment. Within the two years of the experiment, Cashew development was not hampered by the introduction of the different intercropping systems.
John Bosco Lamoris Okullo, Francis Omujal, Thomas Enuru, Celestin Bigirimana, , Jacob Godfrey Agea, Elias Bizuru, Joseph Obua
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 9, pp 59-83; https://doi.org/10.18488/cras.v9i1.3048

Abstract:
The escalating extreme weather conditions has forced rural farmers in Africa to rely disproportionately on Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) to sustain their household food/nutrition security, employment and income generation. This paper analysed farmers’ use of IFTs to cope with climate variability in selected Lake Victoria Basin Districts of Uganda. Data were collected from farmers using questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. From 13 most preferred IFTs, focus was on the most popular and highly ranked five: Garcinia buchananii, Vangueria apiculata, Canarium schweinfurthii, Tamarindus indica and Saba comorensis. Preferences for these IFTs were influenced by their uses for food, medicine, timber, compound shade provision and marketability. Age, sex, education, occupation, family size, land size, non-farming activities, period of stay on the same piece of land, and income level significantly (P≤0.05) influenced choice of the preferred IFTs. Majority of the respondents had IFTs planted on-farms, along the roads to provide various goods/services and in marginal lands unsuitable for farming to diversify agriculture as a strategy to cope with climate variability. Given that the uses of IFTs in the five LVB districts are associated with farmers’ efforts to cope with climate variability, the goal of any climate-adaptive farmer-based project should support sustainable use of IFTs, in the short-term and foster innovations such as on-farm planting of IFTs and other fast-growing tree species to meet household demands.
Hammed Adeniyi Salami, , Sulaiman Akorede Fasasi, Musa Opeyemi Ahmed, Ismail Adebayo Adigun, Akeem Adelabu Adeleke, Segun Michael Fashina, Oluwashina Olowosokedile
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 8, pp 110-127; https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.110.127

Abstract:
In the quest towards achieving the Zero hunger agenda of the sustainable development goals by 2030, the utilization of organic fertilizers, for soil amendment purposes, has been posited as a feasible alternative for overcoming the negative impacts of inorganic fertilizers. Despite its manifold benefits, the use of untreated and improperly treated organic materials in agricultural production is however capable of introducing toxic metals in the soil-plant systems causing health and agro-environmental impacts. In this study, available organic fertilizers use by Nigerian farmers were selected and analyzed for nutrient values and most importantly, heavy metal contamination. The degree of contamination in each sample was modeled using fuzzy comprehensive assessment. The manure samples possessed optimum nutritional values; the nitrogen, phosphate, and potash contents ranged from 0.91 – 7.44, 0.06 – 1.61, 0.14 – 0.58% respectively. The fuzzy algorithm results categorized all the organic fertilizers as pristine, with a membership degree ranging from 35 to 99%. However, an excessive level of toxic contamination, with a membership function between 3 to 33% was observed. The major contaminants were identified as Zn, Cr, and Cd with an individual contribution of 16, 29, and 33% respectively. Adequate remediation techniques and good management practices that reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the organic fertilizers especially that of Zn, Cr, and Cd, should therefore be promoted among the producers and users of these soil improvers in Nigeria.
, Santosh Shrestha, Prashanta Raut, ,
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 8, pp 80-89; https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.80.89

Abstract:
Soil chemical properties plays a crucial role in crop yield. In this study, we evaluated the chemical properties of soils under three different cropping systems practiced for more than five years in Changunarayan municipality of Bhaktapur district of Nepal. The cropping systems includes- (i) cultivation inside polyhouse (Treatment A: polyhouse), (ii) paddy-wheat rotation (Treatment B: P-W), and (iii) paddy-wheat-vegetable rotation (Treatment C: P-W-V). Thirty-nine composite samples (13 replicates from each site) were taken from the area based on variation in landforms. Soil pH, organic matter (%), total nitrogen (%), available phosphorus (mgkg-1), and available potassium (mgkg-1) were evaluated for each sample. The study revealed that the soil pH was acidic and ranges between 4.71 and 5.39, organic matter (1.6-2.39%), total nitrogen (0.091-0.13%), phosphorus (4.48-29.24mg kg-1) and potassium (88.04-109.52 mg kg-1). A significant lower mean pH (4.71), and higher mean organic matter (2.39%), total nitrogen (0.13%) and available phosphorus (29.24 mgkg-1) were observed in cultivation under polyhouse. Incorporation of vegetable in paddy-wheat system gave significant (p<0.05) higher accumulation of soil phosphorus and consistently raised other nutrient status. Moreover, cultivation under polyhouse raised C:N ratio (10.55) significantly than other system. This finding can be relevant to wide range of readers that focus on soil chemical properties and can be used in developing future research strategy and sustainable soil management system in the area.
Ruvani Subhathma Wickramarathna Godage, Bandara Gajanayake,
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 8, pp 97-109; https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.97.109

Abstract:
Climate change and food security are critical topics in sustainable agricultural development. Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic and social impacts on Sri Lanka. Coconut growers’ knowledge, perception level and adoption for climate change adaptation measures have influenced productivity of the coconut cultivation. The study investigated the coconut growers’ knowledge gap, knowledge and perception levels regarding impacts of climate change in Gampaha and Puttalam districts. Further, this study investigated their adoption of different adaptation measures. A stratified random sampling technique was applied for selecting 240 respondents from two different districts. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to elicit information from the respondents and data was analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Adoption rate of the climate change adaptation measures is significantly influenced by coconut growers’ knowledge and perception level at varying degrees. The study revealed that most of the growers in two study areas have better knowledge (> 70%) and perceptions (>60%) regarding the gradual changes in the climate and its impact on their coconut cultivation. However, their adaptation behavior is fairly poor (< 50%) in both districts. Hence government policies should more focused on to coconut growers to have access to affordable credit to increase their ability and flexibility to change adaptation strategies in response to the changing climatic conditions. Increasing growers’ access to agricultural extension services and access to information on weather forecasting are very important. In addition, government should improve and promote off-farm income-earning opportunities during dry seasons.
Laaraib Tayyiba, Hooria Zafar, Aqarab Husnain Gondal, Qammar Farooq, Muhammad Muzammil Mukhtar, Rizwan Hussain, Nauman Aslam, Amna Muzaffar, Ismat Sattar
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, Volume 8, pp 128-134; https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.68.2021.82.128.134

Abstract:
Optimal crop nutrition is a significant factor in increasing agricultural vintage and quality of products. Zinc (Zn) is an immobile important micronutrient, which is taken up by plants in Zn2+ form to complete their life cycle efficiently. It plays a critical metabolic role in plants and is an important constituent of proteins and other large-molecules, and serves as structural and functional unit, or controlling cofactor for a wide range of enzymes. The Zn is needed in small and in appropriate amounts for plants main physiological processes to work normally. These processes play critical roles in photosynthetic activity of plants and forming carbohydrates, synthesis of protein, reproduction and seed development, growth, and disease protection. After Zn deficiency in plants, these physical functions are decreased, and plant health and productivity suffer greatly, subsequent in reduced production or even failure of crops and often bad quality of crop products. Plant Zn deficiencies occur on variety of soils and are severe due to a combination of symptoms like chlorosis, resetting, dieback and suppressed or irregular vegetative development. In addition, various crops require varying amount of Zn. So the knowledge regarding this is not up to date. The present review discusses the Zn importance in plants, its deficiency in soil and required level of Zn for crops.
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