Clay Minerals

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ISSN / EISSN : 0009-8558 / 1471-8030
Published by: Mineralogical Society (10.1180)
Total articles ≅ 3,049
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D. Küster, , Emanetoullah Limam, Omar Jatlaoui, Oumar Ba, Abdellahi Maham Zein Mohamed, M. Pohlmann-Lortz, M. Ranneberg, K. Ufer
Published: 11 August 2021
Clay Minerals pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.26

Abstract:
Non-metallic raw materials are largely unexplored in many African countries. In an attempt to reduce this knowledge gap, kaolin occurrences in three promising regions of southern Mauritania were examined. The aim of the paper is to describe the occurrences and characterize the material in terms of mineralogy and potential technical use in the ceramics industry. The kaolins are geologically associated with various sedimentary rock units in either the Coastal Basin (Kaédi), the Mauritanide Belt (Hassi Abyad) or the Taoudeni Basin (Néma). Geochemical data show Al2O3 contents of between 9% and 38% (corresponding to 23–96% kaolinite). Samples from the Hassi Abyad and Kaédi regions have greater kaolinite contents on average and were further investigated mineralogically. The kaolin from the Néma region contained less kaolinite (<50 mass%). The region is also less accessible and hence is not considered further in this study. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the geochemically calculated kaolinite contents of the kaolins and identified quartz, anatase and goethite as the remaining major mineral constituents. The degree of structural disorder of the kaolinites (determined by infrared spectroscopy) is generally greater in the Kaédi occurrences than at Hassi Abyad. Ceramic tests proved that all of these kaolin raw materials might be used for the production of ceramics, and some may even be used for fine ceramics. From an economic point of view, the Hassi Abyad deposit is interesting in terms of its quality and reserves, aspects that will be addressed in detail in a follow-up study.
Bo Wu, Weijuan Zhao
Published: 13 July 2021
Clay Minerals pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.24

Abstract:
The Qingliang Temple kiln located in Baofeng County, Henan Province, China, is the discovery site of Ru Kuan porcelain, which is one of the five famous porcelain types of the Song dynasty in China. The ‘Ru-type ware’ and unglazed firing bodies were unearthed from the Qingliang Temple kiln in 2014, and the excavation site was very close to the central firing area of Ru Kuan porcelain. In this paper, the chemical composition, firing temperature and phase structure of the Ru-type ware and unglazed firing bodies from the Qingliang Temple kiln were analysed systematically using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, high-temperature thermal expansion and X-ray diffraction. The raw-material sources of the Ru-type ware bodies with various glaze colours are consistent but differ significantly from those of the unglazed firing bodies. The firing temperatures of the Ru-type ware and unglazed firing bodies are 1150–1200°C and 950°C, respectively, which are considered underfired. Mullite, α-quartz, β-cristobalite and α-Fe2O3 are the main constituents of the Ru-type ware bodies, whereas α-quartz and anatase were identified in the unglazed firing bodies. The Ru-type ware is related to the Ru Kuan ware in terms of firing techniques and official use.
Fengli Dai, Junhui Guo, , Pengfei Song,
Published: 5 July 2021
Clay Minerals pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.23

Abstract:
Montmorillonite (Mnt), a clay mineral with a nanolayered structure, was combined with an Fe-based metal–organic framework (MOF; MIL-53(Fe)) using an in situ growth technique that yielded a novel eco-friendly clay-based adsorbent (MIL-53(Fe)@Mnt). The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N2 gas adsorption. The MIL-53(Fe) particles grew on the surface of the nanolayered Mnt and the MIL-53(Fe) particle size became smaller. The adsorption performance of MIL-53(Fe)@Mnt was investigated by removing methylene blue (MB), and optimization experiments were carried out to study the effects of contact time, pH, initial dye concentration and adsorbent mass on the adsorption processes. The MIL-53(Fe)@Mnt exhibited excellent adsorption capacity for MB, namely 313.7 mg g−1, which was 3.02 times and 3.54 times greater than that of pure Mnt and MIL-53(Fe), respectively. Adsorption was fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model and followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The MIL-53(Fe)@Mnt obtained is a low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbing material and might be a candidate for removing dyes during water treatment.
Chunguang Xiao, Feng Lang, Yu Xiang, Yi Lin,
Published: 2 July 2021
Clay Minerals pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.22

Abstract:
Modified sericite mica was prepared by combining the intercalation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) through ion exchange and surface modification of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) with the following steps: high-temperature activation of sericite mica, acid activation, sodium modification, LiNO3 treatment, the ion-exchange intercalation of the cetyltrimethylammonium cation (CTA+) and surface modification of KH550. High-temperature activation was the most critical step for the modified sericite mica, and the number of hydroxyl groups of mica under high temperature directly affected the surface modification of KH550. The effects of various activation temperatures on the surface modification of sericite mica were investigated. The structure of activated sericite mica was intact when activation temperature was 600°C or 700°C, and the surface modification of sericite mica was not affected. The structure of activated sericite mica was partially destroyed at 800°C. The optimal temperature for activating sericite mica was 700°C. The structure and morphology of modified sericite mica were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis and loose bulk volume. The KH550 could not only chemically graft onto the surface of sericite mica, but also enter into the interlayer through electrostatic attraction after its end amino group was protonated. The interlayer spacing of modified sericite mica increased to 3.22 nm, indicating that it might be an excellent layered silicate for preparing clay–polymer nanocomposites.
, Luiz Carlos Bertolino, Francisco José da Silva, Julio Cezar Mendes, Reiner Neumann
Published: 8 March 2021
Clay Minerals, Volume 56, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.8

Abstract:
Halloysite is a 1:1 dioctahedral clay mineral that has been studied widely for applications in nanotechnology and as a mineral exploration guide for recognizing regolith-hosted heavy rare earth element (HREE) deposits. In Brazil, pegmatites from the state of Rio de Janeiro have been catalogued, but their potential to host halloysite deposits has never been studied. After a mineral exploration programme, one pegmatite with considerable halloysite contents and economic potential was discovered. This study reports the mineralogical and chemical characterization of the halloysite of this pegmatite and evaluates the possibility of clay-adsorbed HREE deposits, like that in the Zudong (China) regolith-hosted HREE deposit. Seven samples were collected in horizontal channels. Bulk samples and clay fractions (<2 μm) were analysed by quantitative mineral analysis (X-ray diffraction/Rietveld method), chemical analysis (major elements by X-ray fluorescence and Y, U, Th and rare earth elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, particle-size analysis, nitrogen physisorption and cation-exchange capacity. Mixed polygonal/cylindrical halloysite-7Å in concentrations between 6.3 and 35.4 wt.% in bulk samples and between 58.0 and 89.8 wt.% in the clay fractions were identified in the pegmatite. The clay fractions presented an average chemical composition of 45.46 wt.% SiO2, 36.10 wt.% Al2O3, 14.62 wt.% loss on ignition and 1.04 wt.% Fe2O3, as well as technological properties close to those observed in world-class halloysite deposits such as Dragon Mine (USA) and Matauri Bay (New Zealand). The clay minerals did not present significant HREE contents.
Joseph W. Stucki, Jana Madejová
Published: 1 March 2021
Clay Minerals, Volume 56, pp 85-86; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.11

, Bin Mu, Shue Li, Xiaowen Wang, Li Zong, Aiqin Wang
Published: 1 March 2021
Clay Minerals, Volume 56, pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.1180/clm.2021.12

Abstract:
A hybrid fluorescent pigment composed of fluorescent yellow X-10GFF (FY-10G) and palygorskite (PLG) was prepared by semi-dry grinding. The effects of the physically adsorbed water content and grinding time on the environmental stability of FY-10G/PLG hybrid fluorescent pigments in terms of acid, ethanol and ultraviolet irradiation are discussed in detail. The incorporated FY-10 G molecules are mainly trapped on the external surface and the groove of PLG. Due to the host–guest interaction between PAL and FY-10G, the emission spectrum of the FY-10G/PLG hybrids shifts to a greater wavelength compared with that of FY-10G, but the physically adsorbed water content and grinding time have no effect on the position of the emission spectrum except for its intensity. A larger, physically adsorbed water content and appropriate grinding time may effectively prevent the aggregation and breakage of the bundles of PLG and facilitate FY-10 G molecules to enter into the groove of PAL. This increases the environmental stability of the as-prepared hybrid pigments.
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